Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse Essay

Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse Essay Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse Essay I’m studying for my Nursing class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? Please respond. iffany Jones Main Post week 1 ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Main Post week 1. Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse Essay Substance abuse has been a popular topic over the last several years because of the increase rates of death related to substance overdose. Drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death in the United States, with frequency tripling from 1999 to 2014 (Li et al., 2018). Illicit opioids contribute to the significant increase in opioid-associated deaths. Substance abuse continues to exert a substantial public health cost, as highlighted by growing rates of overdose deaths and rapidly increasing need for substance use disorder treatment (McHugh et al., 2015). In the scenario provided a 27 year with substance abuse hx was found unresponsive by his roommate. Regarding the role genetics play on his substance abuse more medical history will be needed, but studies are discovering that substance abuse can have genetic components. Per the National Institution of Drug Abuse (2020) family studies that include identical twins, fraternal twins, adoptees, and siblings suggest that as much as half of a person’s risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs depends on his or her genetic makeup. In this scenario genetics could have played a role but further investigation needs to be completed. The patient is presenting with signs and symptoms of being unresponsive because he overdosed on an opioid as evidenced by Narcan being effective regarding regaining his responsiveness. Naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan) reverses opioid intoxication symptoms such as respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression (Li et al., 2018). This patient is displaying several signs and complications related to his overdose. One sign was that he was unresponsive for an unknown amount of time. Being unresponsive for that long can cause decreased oxygen levels to vital organs; hypoxia. His vital organs like his brain, kidneys and heart are not receiving enough vital oxygen. So, organ and tissue death will be a result. NURS 6501 UMES Wk1 Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse Essay The patient was given Narcan to illicit a physiologic response of breathing and responding. The Narcan reversed the opioid overdose because the patient took too much and suppressed his central nervous system leading to respiratory suppression. I feel this response of becoming responsive was directly related to his overdosing that is why the Narcan was effective. There are numerous cells involved in this process, from epithelial skin cells, to heart muscles, to kidney and brain cells. This patient is reporting pain to L hip and forearm. And he was diagnosed with necrotic tissue covering the L hip and forearm. This condition could have been caused by IV drug use. Massive tissue necrosis and septic shock have recently been reported in a series of injection drug users (Hengge et al., 2003). So, this may explain the findings. Per his labs he is hyperkalemic, having too much or too little potassium in the blood can cause irregular heart beat and heart activity and even death. In his case his EKG showed prolonged PR interval and peaked T waves. These readings correlate with hyperkalemia and how it looks on an EKG reading. Per Levis (2013), PR interval and t waves are reflecting typical ECG findings in hyperkalemia progress from tall, “peaked” T waves and a shortened QT interval to lengthening PR interval and loss of P waves. In his case his diagnosis of hyperkalemia could have caused a cascade of events to occur including arrhythmias causing his oxygen to be compromised coupled with the drug overdose. Regarding if my response would change if gender or genetics were different would require obtaining more history. My response would still be the same if the gender or age was different I would just be mindful of the lifespan changes and how it can impact the care I provide for example, if he were elderly I would still administer the Narcan but I would know that there could be some age related comorbidities that could be exacerbated by Narcan and I would just be mindful of the dosing and how there are responding to treatment, it is also worrisome that a young person would want to end their life other than those adjustments this how I would handle this scenario. NURS 6501 UMES Wk1 Advance Pharmacology Substance Abuse EssayReferences Hengge, U. R., Beiderlinden, M., Otterbach, F., Groeben, H., Nast-Kolb, D., Mehnert, W. H., Peters, J., & Schmid, K. W. (2003). 31-year-old injection drug user with massive skin necrosis and shock. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland), 206(2), 169–171. https://doi.org/10.1159/000068458 Levis, J. T. (2013). ECG Diagnosis: Hyperkalemia . Permanente Journal, 17(1), 69. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.7812/TPP… Li, K., Armenian, P., Mason, J., & Grock, A. (2018). Narcan or Nar-can’t: Tips and Tricks to safely reversing opioid toxicity. Annals of Emergency Medicine , 72(1), 9–11. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.a… McHugh, R. K., Nielsen, S., & Weiss, R. D. (2015). Prescription drug abuse: from epidemiology to public policy. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 48(1), 1–7. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.j… NIDA. 2020, June 16. Genetics and Epigenetics of Addiction DrugFacts. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/g… on 2020, September 1 Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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