Agonist to Antagonist Spectrum Response

Agonist to Antagonist Spectrum Response Agonist to Antagonist Spectrum Response Please repond to Mackenzie Gray Week 2 Discussion COLLAPSE Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum An agonist is a drug that binds to and activates the receptor and yields a biological response (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Agonists allow the ion channels to be fully open, which enabling the drug to bind fully to the receptor site (Stahl, 2013). Agonists have an efficacy of one; therefore, these drugs are fully capable of producing a pharmacological response when bound to a receptor (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). An antagonist is a drug that binds to receptors and obstructs the agonist from the receptor site (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Antagonists can partially block agonists and reduce the agonist’s effects; however, antagonists may also completely block agonists if the concentration is high enough (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Antagonists have an efficacy of zero; therefore, these drugs are incapable of producing a pharmacological response (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Antagonists allow ions and receptors to be in their resting states (Stahl, 2013). Partial and inverse agonists function in ways that can interfere with psychopharmacologic treatments. A partial agonist is a drug that can bind and activate the receptor, but it is unable to produce an adequate response (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Partial agonists have an efficacy range greater than zero but less than one (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). An inverse agonist is an agonist that generates the opposite pharmacological response (Salahudeen & Nishtala, 2017). Agonist to Antagonist Spectrum Response G-Protein Coupled Receptors and Ion Gated Channels G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential proteins because cells use them to transmit extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses (Zhao et al., 2016). For example, GPCRs respond to hormones, neurotransmitters, and senses (Zhao et al., 2016). GCPR structure has seven transmembrane helices (Zhao et al., 2016). GPCRs are numerous and are the largest transmembrane receptor group in humans (Zhao et al., 2016). GCPRs bind to G proteins, which results in further signal pathways being activated (Zhao et al., 2016). GCPRs work slowly to relay messages due to the multi-step pathway to forward information (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Ligand-gated ion channels have several long amino acid strands divided into smaller subunits around an ion channel (Stahl, 2013). The amino acid strands have receptor binding sites for various items, such as neurotransmitters, ions, and drugs (Stahl, 2013). Ligand-gated ion channels are often arranged in subunits consisting of five proteins, which are further divided into four transmembrane areas (Stahl, 2013). Ions flow through the channels rapidly compared to GPCRs (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Epigenetics Epigenetics is the study of how one’s environment or behaviors may alter their gene expression without changing the genetic code (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Research suggests that an individual’s epigenetic changes may influence their response to drugs, and provider awareness of epigenetic changes may be essential for therapeutic response to drugs (Schuebel et al., 2016). For example, if a patient experiences alteration to chromatin, they should be treated with a drug that affects the structure of chromatic, such as valproic acid (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). Prescribing Considerations When prescribing medications, PMHNPs must be cognizant of a drug’s action and how individuals may metabolize the drug. For example, fluoxetine is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (Eli Lilly and Company, 2006). Individuals who are deficient in this cytochrome may experience slower metabolization of fluoxetine, resulting in higher concentrations of fluoxetine (Eli Lilly and Company, 2006). These individuals may need a lower dose of fluoxetine to experience therapeutic effects (Eli Lilly and Company, 2006). Patients may experience mania if fluoxetine concentrations are too high (Eli Lilly and Company, 2006). ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS References Camprodon, J. A., & Roffman, J. L. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1–19). Elsevier. Eli Lilly and Company. (2006). Prozac [package insert]. Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/lab… Salahudeen, M. S., & Nishtala, P. S. (2017). An overview of pharmacodynamic modelling, ligand-binding approach and its application in clinical practice. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: The Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society , 25 (2), 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2016.07.002 Schuebel, K., Gitik, M., Domschke, K., & Goldman, D. (2016). Making sense of epigenetics. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology , 19 (11), pyw058. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyw058 Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Zhao, J., Deng, Y., Jiang, Z., & Qing, H. (2016). G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in Alzheimer’s Disease: A focus on BACE1 related GPCRs. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 8 , 58. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00058 REPLY QUOTE EMAIL AUTHOR Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Agonist to Antagonist Spectrum Response
Get a 15% discount on this Paper
Order Essay
Quality Guaranteed

With us, you are either satisfied 100% or you get your money back-No monkey business

Check Prices
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know that being a student these days is hard. Because of this, our prices are some of the lowest on the market.

Instead, we offer perks, discounts, and free services to enhance your experience.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
s
Get personalized services with My Paper Support
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
We appreciate every review and are always looking for ways to grow. See what other students think about our do my paper service.
Nursing
Thank you for helping with my assignment.
Customer 452707, July 8th, 2022
Literature
Excellent
Customer 452813, July 5th, 2023
Other
AWESOME
Customer 452813, June 20th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Thanks for your assistance and promptness.
Customer 452701, November 1st, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent Work!!!!
Customer 452587, November 29th, 2021
Nursing
Thank you!
Customer 452707, June 29th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
The paper was good but they writing the paper labeling me as a Registered Nurse and I have express this several time so o had to go in make corrections
Customer 452901, April 8th, 2024
Nursing
Thank you so much for being the best website for assignment help.
Customer 452635, June 24th, 2022
Nursing
Always perfect! Thank you!!!
Customer 452453, April 15th, 2021
Psychology
Thank you so very much!!!
Customer 452517, May 11th, 2021
Other
Great job
Customer 452813, July 27th, 2023
Computer science
extremely happy with the service, again! You guys are the best.
Customer 452715, July 27th, 2022
Enjoy affordable prices and lifetime discounts
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Order Now Order in Chat

Ensure originality, uphold integrity, and achieve excellence. Get FREE Turnitin AI Reports with every order.