Applied biostatistics assignment

Applied biostatistics assignment Applied biostatistics assignment i have articles and some question ineed answer it is 12 question only i dwonlowd it down summery.docx _article.pdf appliedbiostat_assignment.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Running head: SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY Summarizing a Previous Study Name Institution 1 SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY 2 Summarizing a Previous Study The article on Randomized Controlled Trial of an Applied Behavior Analytic Intervention for Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder was written by four authors who include Kathryn Peterson, Cathleen Piazza, Vivian Ibanez, and Wayne Fisher. For the article to be well understood, it has been divided into three different parts. Therefore, the three major parts in which the article has been divided into include the introduction, methods, as well as results and discussion. Introductory Part In the introductory part, the authors have introduced the issue under concern in an indepth manner, which catches the attention of the reader after even reading the first statement provided. Based on what is presented in the introductory part, food selectivity has been discussed as a common problem found among children who display autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is characterized by language and social relatedness impairment as well as repetitive and inflexible behavior. Food selectivity, which is commonly known as ‘picky eating’, refers to the consumption of only a given type of food based on various aspects such as temperature, color, type, taste, smell, and texture. According to the study that Bandini (2014) conducted, it was found that the children with ASD were selective o various types of food compared to the typically developing ones. The children with ASD appeared to be attracted more to foods with low nutritional levels and rich in high-calorie content compared to healthier diets with low calories. Some of the foods that the children valued most are candy and chips. The foods that the children with ASD value most are considered as one of the factors that accelerates the severity of their behavioral and learning problems. This argument is supported by several studies which indicate that the food that a child consumes is more effective in the body SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY 3 before the child attains the age of five years. This is the period in which children are supposed to consume healthier food since they assist in brain development. However, if a child consumes food with poor nutritional value at the period, his or her behavior and learning abilities are affected negatively. Method For the method part to be well understood by the readers, the authors have separated it into various parts. The information provided in each part depends on the practices that were conducted during the study. Some sections include power analysis, participants, and the general procedure. Power Analysis On power analysis, the authors performed a priori power analysis as a way of estimating the various aspects, such as the minimum impact of mixed ANOVA. The researchers set two of participants where every group had three individuals. They used a G-Power 3.0.10 program in conducting power analysis. Applied biostatistics assignment Participant The number of participants in the study was six. The participants were between the age of three and ten years. ASD diagnosis was conducted among the participants based on various factors such as the child’s history, current developmental status, psychiatrist disorders, behaviors, and mental examination status. The oral food intake for the participants was monitored for three consecutive days prior to the study as a way of determining whether the participant was nutritionally deficient. General Procedure The study was divided into various sessions where the feeder presented to the participants four different food types from any of the food groupings that were selected randomly. The SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY 4 participants were ordered to take a bite from any of the food presented, where he used the words “take a bite” and “great job for taking the bite.” The feeder made the order after every 30 seconds as the participants consumed the food that they love most. Results and Discussion The results that were obtained from the study indicated that analytic intervention that was conducted involving applied behavior was effective based on the increased level of consumption of different varieties of food provided. The researchers found that children with autism selected different types of food after the feeder gave them an order to take a bite. The children mostly preferred food with high-calorie value and low nutritional content. The results from the study appeared to be closely related to the ones that were conducted previously, even though they were not conducted in the same way. The results that were obtained were considered to be critical in providing empirical support for analytical intervention regarding applied behavior. The researchers considered the study as the first randomized controlled trial to be conducted with participants from a well-defined cohort. The researchers recommended that the future studies that will be conducted to determine the food selectivity among the children with autism need to assess how to enhance generalization as a way of promoting age-typical eating without involving any intervention. Based on the results, the researchers indicated that the food-selective problem that was displayed among the children might continue up to their old age since the more they continued to take a particular type of food, the more they would like it and hate the other. Criticizing the Study Though the study was conducted in a good procedure involving proper data collection and research designs, it appeared to have some faults. One of the faults was that the researchers did not use a control group of participants to determine whether the level of food selectivity displayed by the children with ASD will be the same or different from what the control group SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY 5 would select. Applied biostatistics assignment Therefore, the findings made that there is a difference between food selectivity between the children with ASD, and the typical children were based on assumptions. Besides, the study used a limited number of participants, and therefore the results obtained may not be reliable. The study used only six participants who were to select various types of food presented (Peterson et al., 2019). SUMMARIZING A PREVIOUS STUDY 6 Reference Peterson, K. M., Piazza, C. C., Ibañez, V. F., & Fisher, W. W. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of an applied behavior analytic intervention for food selectivity in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 52(4), 895-917. Boström et al. Implementation Science 2012, 7:88 http://www.implementationscience.com/content/7/1/88 Implementation Science RESEARCH Open Access Nursing home administrators’ perspectives on a study feedback report: a cross sectional survey Anne-Marie Boström1,2,3*, Lisa A Cranley3, Alison M Hutchinson4,5, Greta G Cummings3, Peter G Norton6 and Carole A Estabrooks3 Abstract Background: This project is part of the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) program of research, a multi-level and longitudinal research program being conducted in 36 nursing homes in three Canadian Prairie Provinces. The overall goal of TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. The purpose of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs) from facility administrators’ perspectives on the usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of selected data from the TREC survey. Methods: A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. The feedback reports were developed in collaboration with participating facility administrators. FARs presented results in four contextual areas: workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, and staff burnout. Six weeks after FARs were mailed to each administrator, we conducted structured telephone interviews with administrators to elicit their evaluation of the FARs. Administrators were also asked if they had taken any actions as a result of the FAR. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis for open-ended questions, were used to summarize findings. Results: Thirty-one facility administrators (representing thirty-two facilities) participated in the interviews. Six administrators had taken action and 18 were planning on taking action as a result of FARs. The majority found the four contextual areas addressed in FAR to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. They liked the comparisons made between data from years one and two and between their facility and other TREC study sites in their province. Twenty-two indicated that they would like to receive information on additional areas such as aggressive behaviours of residents and information sharing. Twenty-four administrators indicated that FARs contained enough information, while eight found FARs ‘too short’. Administrators who reported that the FAR contained enough information were more likely to take action within their facilities than administrators who reported that they needed more information. Conclusions: Although the FAR was brief, the presentation of the four contextual areas was relevant to the majority of administrators and prompted them to plan or to take action within their facility. Applied biostatistics assignment Background Increasingly in Canada, a focus on how research provides value beyond the usual research outputs (e.g., adding to the body of knowledge, publications) is an important part of research programs [1]. Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) is a program of research that examines the role of organizational context in facilitating the * Correspondence: [email protected] 1 Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden 2 Department of Geriatric Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden Full list of author information is available at the end of the article use of best practices in residential long-term care (LTC) in the Canadian Prairie Provinces [2]. The overall goal for TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. TREC accomplishes this by building an organizational monitoring system to examine associations between organizational characteristics and use of best practices (2007 to 2012). In subsequent years, we will evaluate quality improvement interventions to facilitate use of best practices and improved quality of care (2013 to 2019). Data on the nursing home’s organizational context and staff characteristics were collected © 2012 Böstrom et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Boström et al. Implementation Science 2012, 7:88 http://www.implementationscience.com/content/7/1/88 in 2008 to 2010 from healthcare aides using the TREC survey. This survey, described elsewhere [2], consists of several validated instruments and measures concepts believed to constitute organizational context as defined by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) Framework [3], including leadership, workplace culture, and evaluation (feedback processes). Additionally, it includes a number of staff health related outcomes (burnout, mental and physical health), job satisfaction, attitude toward research, aggression from residents, and assessment of best practice use [2]. Data on health and clinical outcomes for the residents in the 36 participating nursing homes were collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set version 2.0 (RAI-MDS 2.0) [4,5]. Staff surveys were completed in the 36 nursing homes in a staggered manner, with approximately one-quarter of the sites enrolled in each calendar quarter. The first set had data collection in the quarter beginning 1 June 2008. One year later, the process was repeated with the first set having a second wave of data collected in the quarter starting 1 June 2009. Providing feedback (results) to participating facilities and staff is a component of TREC that has evolved during the course of the program. In a pilot study conducted prior to the TREC research program, care managers in four participating nursing homes had been provided with a final report on survey findings from their units [6]. This fairly lengthy (30-page) report contained detailed results and was given to care managers in a meeting where research staff explained the content of the report.Applied biostatistics assignment Applied biostatistics assignment. Care managers’ feedback predictably indicated that the report was too extensive and, without more in-depth interpretation, difficult to understand. In TREC, we further developed the feedback activities and included healthcare aide staff [7] and facility administrators (reported here), in a timely and meaningful way that would add value to participants’ practice or environments. The feedback project was informed by our previous experiences and Rogers’ theory Diffusion of Innovations [8]. According to Rogers, successful diffusion of an innovation (such as a feedback report) depends on four elements—the innovation, the communication channels, the time, and the social system. The time element is part of the innovation-decision process, which is described in five steps: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation, by which a person proceeds from initial knowledge of an innovation to its adoption or rejection. The research team (researchers and sector partners) worked together to utilize an integrated knowledge translation (KT) approach where users of research were involved in the research process through collaboration with researchers [9]. This approach has some similarities with participatory action research methods which has been used in previous Page 2 of 9 research studies in LTC [10-12] and supports a culture of using feedback to improve performance [13]. In a recent systematic review, Jamtvedt et al. found that audit and feedback was an effective KT intervention in improving professional practice [14]. Archer defined effective feedback as ‘feedback in which information about previous performance is used to promote positive and desirable development’ [13]. Previous methodological research on longitudinal research design has shown that use of ’Keeping in Touch Exercises‘ (such as feedback reports in various formats) between data collection periods could motivate and engage respondents in longitudinal studies to participate in forthcoming data collection and ’Keeping in Touch Exercises‘ may support researchers to maintain response rates [15]. As the TREC program progressed, KT efforts were increasingly targeted to engage staff and facility administrators in knowledge exchange activities. These interactions with research end-users and decision-makers during the TREC program are in keeping with an integrated KT approach [16]. The aim of the present project was to develop and evaluate a KT intervention, namely feedback reports to facility administrators, and examine whether facility administrators used the information to prompt action in their facilities to support their overall efforts to increase quality of care for residents and quality of work life for staff. In this paper we report on the development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs) from facility administrators’ perspectives to: determine whether facility administrators’ decision to take action based on FARs varied based on their perceptions of usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of the FARs, and report length; and assess whether facility administrators’ decisions to take action based on FAR varied by facility demographics, specifically size of facility, owner-operator model, province, and geographic location (urban or rural). The following research questions guided the study: To what extent do facility administrators: use information from the FAR to take actions in their facility?; perceive the information to be useful, meaningful and understandable?; and perceive the report to contain adequate information? Methods Facility administrators (e.g., site administrators, Directors of Care) from the 36 TREC study sites in the three Canadian Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan) were invited to participate in this study. A crosssectional survey design was used in the study. Development of facility annual reports (FARs) We developed the FARs using a process that included stakeholders, investigators, and policy-makers in the TREC team and administrators in TREC study sites. We Boström et al. Implementation Science 2012, 7:88 Applied biostatistics assignment http://www.implementationscience.com/content/7/1/88 notified participating facility administrators during the first year of data collection in their settings that a FAR containing TREC survey results would be provided to each of them. This feedback report was designed to share relevant information about their facility from the TREC survey. This survey consists of approximately 200 items [17], thus, it was not possible to provide information on all scales and items; content had to be prioritized. The content and format of the FARs were determined based on feedback received earlier from facility administrators. In February 2009, we sent a brief questionnaire to administrators of the 26 TREC facilities who had thus far participated in data collection and asked them to rank order the ‘top-five’ areas from the TREC survey that would interest them. At that time, we did not have access to the RAI-MDS 2.0 data and therefore could not include resident-level data in the feedback reports. Administrators were also asked to rank order preferred formats for presentation of data, such as text, tables, bar graphs, and pie charts. Twelve facility administrators responded to the questionnaire and their top ranked areas were (in order): workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, staff burnout, leadership, and use of best practices. Preferred presentation formats were text and bar graphs. TREC investigators and policy-makers discussed these data during our regular research meetings. The final template for FARs was developed based on both facility administrator responses and recommendations from TREC investigators and policy makers. We used the same four-page booklet format for all facilities. Policy makers and a convenience sample of facility administrators counselled us during the development of the FAR by examining and commenting on various drafts of the booklet. They recommended us to limit the amount of text and the number of tables. This advice was consistent with our previous experience in the pilot study mentioned above [6]. Due to resource constraints, we decided to produce a report with standardized format and content for each facility, based on TREC survey data from unregulated care providers (healthcare aides) about four contextual areas; workplace culture, feedback processes, staff burnout, and job satisfaction [17]. The first three elements were derived scales from the TREC survey and the last was a single item. In the TREC survey, workplace culture is defined as ‘the way we do things’ in our organization and work units, and six areas of culture are assessed: recognition, support, work life balance, development opportunity, focus on service/mission, and autonomy. Feedback processes refers to group/team performance, and are assessed according to elements of the quality improvement process, namely data access, informal data review, formal data review, action planning, performance monitoring, and benchmarking. Staff Page 3 of 9 burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) [18]. The …Applied biostatistics assignment Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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