Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model?

Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation. Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Follow the APA guidelines to answer the following questins: 1.How would you improve Ennis’s Emergency Management Plan model? Is there any crossover with other hospital department responsibilities? 2. Provide a table of contents for your hypothetical emergency management plan. ——— reading Material: (do not miss the attachment) Reilly, M., &Markenson, D. S. (2010). Health Care Emergency Management: Principles and Practice Chapter 5: Developing the Hospital Emergency Management Plan Ennis, S.(2001). Model Emergency Management Program Hospitals and Community Emergency Response -What You Need to Know Emergency Response Safety Series, U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3152 (1997) blanchard___competencies_em_hied.doc _michael_j._reilly__david_s._marken TOP TEN COMPETENCIES FOR PROFESSIONAL [1] EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Wayne Blanchard October 7, 2005 The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to academicians who have the responsibility of designing or maintaining a collegiate emergency management program (such as a degree, certificate, or concentration). The design of individual college courses and an emergency management curriculum should be informed by an appreciation of the functions of emergency management and skill sets needed to perform those functions. A previous and different version of this document was developed in the Spring of 2003, in preparation for a presentation at the 28 th Annual Workshop on Hazards Research and Applications in Boulder Colorado. [2] Since that time there have been two FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Project Conferences which included breakout sessions to discuss emergency management competencies and curriculum as well as a workshop in Denver Colorado in the Fall of 2004 on The Hazards Manager of the 21 st Century. [3] In addition, the recent failure of governments to quickly and adequately respond to Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf and subsequent levee breaks in New Orleans, has caused me to re-evaluate and re-write the earlier document. Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? The format will first be a simple listing, to be followed by amplifying notes. Comprehensive Emergency Management Framework or Philosophy Leadership and Team-Building Management Networking and Coordination Integrated Emergency Management Emergency Management Functions Political, Bureaucratic, Social Contexts Technical Systems and Standards Social Vulnerability Reduction Approach Experience Adopts “ Comprehensive Emergency Management ” framework or philosophy. Comprehensive emergency management can best be summarized as “all hazards, all phases, [4] all actors.” This is in contrast with a homeland security (terrorism) response primary orientation. It should be obvious by now that an imbalanced focus on uniformed first responders and their response to a terrorism event has harmed the development and maintenance of broader capabilities for a broader audience and broader range of hazards. The best response capability in the world does little or northing to address future disaster losses. Only mitigation, reduction, prevention and readiness activities address the ever increasing vulnerability of the United States to disasters and ever increasing disaster losses. [5] Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Leadership and Team-Building The necessity of good leadership is another obvious lesson to be tragically relearned yet once again in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Especially, but not just, in the immediate pre-impact and early response phases, leadership is needed – not just an ability to provide a command presence, but the demonstration of vision, compassion, flexibility, imagination, resolve and courage. [6] Without leadership, bureaucratic organizations and their personnel will tend to stay within more or less business as usual bureaucratic systems and methods of operation. It takes a leader to break down theses barriers to expeditiously move people and resources to where they are needed. Leadership is also needed in the hard-to-sell mitigation, reduction, prevention arena of emergency management – to seek to create an culture of disaster prevention and preparedness. Leadership means fighting for resources so that not only good risk assessments can be made, plans developed, people trained and systems exercised, but equipment, facilities, supplies can be procured which allow plans to be implemented. Without resources, even the best laid plans are but fairy dust. Management Leaders need also to be able to manage, or have managers under them – people who have the ability to implement, to make happen. This was singularly lacking in pre-impact and initial Hurricane Katrina response wherein very detailed plans existed at local, state, federal levels and in the private sector, many hundreds of people had been trained and exercised against those plans, and yet the plans were not adequately implemented. This disconnect between good planning, training and exercising on the one hand and implementation on the other demonstrates, among other things, the criticality of managerial implementation abilities. Networking and Coordination Emergency management offices are typically short staffed or no staff at all – just someone with the responsibility but insufficient resources. This situation requires that emergency managers network and coordinate with a broad range of other organizations — up, down and laterally in government levels, private sector, voluntary associations and community based organizations. Particularly in large scale disasters, the failure of emergency management officials and their supervisors to adequately network beforehand with other levels of government, will prescribe a second governmental failure disaster. Within a jurisdiction or an organization, stakeholder organizations need to plan, train and exercise together. Indeed, one disaster researcher has suggested that successful and unsuccessful disaster response operations can be predicted beforehand based on knowledge of two variables alone – (1) the extent and variety of an emergency managers network (how many different stakeholders are communicated with and involved), and (2) the frequency of contact – once a year, twice, monthly, weekly, daily. [7] Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Integrated Emergency Management Beyond the importance of networking and coordinating with a broad range of stakeholders, is the need to integrate hazard, disaster and emergency management concerns into broad range of organizational entities. In the local government context, for example, this means integrating emergency management planning into not just all the emergency services, but such other organizations as public works, public health, human services, transportation, planning, etc.). Emergency managers are seldom thought of until a threat looms, are too few, and typically have too little in the way of resources. This requires that emergency management organizations work to get other governmental organizations within their jurisdiction to “integrate” emergency management concerns (such as risk assessment, planning, training, exercise participation) into their thinking, systems and operations. The more heads the better. Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Key Emergency Management Functions Emergency management functions are variously described and enumerated – as in lists of 10 or a dozen or 16, etc. These should be consulted. Herein will be stressed several key functions: Risk Assessment – what are the hazards facing ones jurisdiction/organization, their scope and probability, and the demographics, capabilities and resources of ones jurisdiction or organization Planning – emergency operations, mitigation, tie in to comprehensive plan Training Exercising Emergency Operations Center Operations – setting up, equipping and managing Establishing interoperable communications within jurisdiction/organization Applying lessons learned and research findings to emergency management functions on an on-going basis. Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Political, Bureaucratic, and Social Contexts Emergency management is situated and must operate within various constraining and enabling circumstances. Key among them are the political, bureaucratic (or organizational), and social contexts of a jurisdiction/organization and those of lower and higher jurisdictions. Thus there is a great need to instruct on forms of government and bureaucratic politics, but also a need to understand the social dimensions of a jurisdiction/organizations and the social dimensions of disaster (how people and organizations react to disaster). Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Technical Systems and Standards Students need to learn the tools of the trade, which today include such subjects as: National Incident Management System (NIMS) National Response Plan (NRP) NFPA 1600 (National Fire Protection Association “Standard for Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs” Certified Emergency Manager credential administered by the International Association of Emergency Managers Geospatial and geographical information systems (GPS and GIS) Communications systems Warning systems Computers and hazard and emergency management related software packages Social Vulnerability Reduction Approach The Hurricane Katrina experience provides yet again the lesson that there are groupings of people in most, if not all jurisdictions, who are more vulnerable than others and are differentially impacted when a disaster crosses a community. The make-up of highly vulnerable groups varies across communities, so there is no simple listing of poverty, race or gender, for example, that allows one to simply “fill in the blanks.” The prevailing emergency management approach in the U.S. has been variously label, but a label that can be found in the academic community is “technocratic” – getting at reliance on traditional governmental managerial approaches, technology, and engineering to solve the problems of hazards. In looking at how many emergency management organizations spend their too-limited resources, there is frequently to be found a utilitarian, or biggest-bang-for-the-buck approach. This often translates into what can be done for the largest numbers of people in a community – for the most people. Frequently, though, “the most” does not translate into “the most vulnerable” and in need of assistance – “the most” often translates into white middle class. The social vulnerability perspective teaches practitioners to focus first and foremost on those most vulnerable to disasters in their communities, instead of the largest number of people, in recognition of the fact of life that most emergency management organizations have traditionally not had, and probably will not have in the future, the resources to do both things well – to do their job adequately. There is an upper division college course on the FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education website precisely on this topic – entitled “A Social Vulnerability Approach to Disaster” – and accessible at: In my opinion, no upper division or graduate degree program in emergency management should be viewed as complete without the inclusion of this or a similar course. Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? Experience It has been stated since the beginning of the FEMA Emergency Management Higher Education Project in late 1994, that the three keys to emergency management are education, training, and experience (preferably disaster experience). Successful disaster operations, for example, work best when standard bureaucratic methods of operating can be modified to act more expeditiously or outside of normal business as usual constraints. This is easier learned through experience than taught. There are many ways administrators of collegiate emergency management programs can assist their traditional (non-emergency management practitioner) students with the gaining of experience – such as through internships, service learning, [8] exercise participation, CERT [9] Team training and membership, and registration with disaster response organizations (such as the American Red Cross or as a FEMA’s disaster reservist. The gaining of even modest experience will be of assistance to traditional college students who will need to find jobs upon graduation – and will be competing against those without the educational foundation, but with experiential credentials. OUTLINES OF COMPETENCIES TO DEVELOP SUCCESSFUL 21 st CENTURY HAZARD or DISASTER or EMERGENCY or HAZARD RISK MANAGERS By B. Wayne Blanchard, Ph.D., CEM Higher Education Project Manager Readiness Branch Emergency Management Institute National Emergency Training Center Federal Emergency Management Agency Department of Homeland Security 16825 S. Seton Avenue Emmitsburg, MD 21727 (301) 447-1262 [email protected] 2003 Draft The development of the emergency management competences outlines below began with an invitation to participate on a panel on “Hazard Managers in the 21 st Century: Needs in Higher Education,” July 15, 2003 at the 28 th Annual Workshop on Hazards Research and Applications, in Boulder Colorado, sponsored by the Hazards Research and Applications Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The description of the panel in the Workshop Program document read: “To meet the challenges of disaster reduction in the 21 st century, today’s hazard managers must possess some distinctly different characteristics from more traditional emergency managers. Hazard managers must develop a body of knowledge that goes beyond incident response to include expertise in social science and technology. Fostering interdisciplinary opportunities at colleges and universities is one way to build these capabilities. Unfortunately, there is no agreed-upon framework that currently exists to guide these programs. This session addresses the fundamentals of an educational framework for refining a hazard management core curriculum.” In that I believe that a hazard or emergency management curriculum should be informed by the expected competencies of a hazard or emergency manager, my approach to preparing for the panel was to put on paper thoughts, in an outline format, on hazard/emergency management core competencies. This is a subject that I have some familiarity with, having collected several attempts to address occupational competencies from a range of perspectives – emergency management, public entity risk management, industrial safety management, and the training and education field – having participated in one of those exercises, and having observed and participated in discussions of this topic at every Emergency Management Higher Education Conference held at the Emergency Management Institute. My own exercise started with the requirement of the Hazards Center for every panelists to submit an abstract of their remarks in no more than one-page (outline acceptable) prior to the workshop – for insertion in participant packages. To accomplish this, I sought to put on the hat of an academic who had the task of developing a curriculum to support a degree in emergency management. Having developed the required one-page document I began to solicit comments from academics, practitioners and other interested parties. The responses, acknowledged at the end of this document, tended to fall into three categories: (1) A one-page treatment is just about right – neither too hot or too cold, as Papa Bear would say – and all that was needed was tinkering here and there, and a variety of recommendations were forthcoming on that score. (2) While essentially on-the-mark, the one-pager struck several reviewers as potentially off-putting to emergency management students or others interested in attempting to join the profession – could be viewed as too daunting, intimidating, or even impossible of accomplishment. Or, it was just too busy or too long. Thus, could I come up with a shorter, simpler treatment. This I did by changing hats from one of a hazard or emergency management academic to that of someone responsible for hiring a future emergency manager for a political jurisdiction, and drafting the second document of ten “things” I would look for in a candidate. (3) The third type of response was that there were many subjects on the one-pager that just cried out for expansion, description, explanation, detail. Thus, would it be possible to expand on the one-pager. In that I was in agreement with such commentaries, I sought to begin the process of expansion – though with absolutely no attempt to aim at comprehensiveness. As comments came across the desk and as additional thoughts came into my own head based on whatever I happened to be reading at the moment, I have attempted to expand – in an illustrative manner. The following is the on-going result. Document One: Outline of Core Competencies to Develop Successful 21 st Century Hazard/Emergency Managers Personal, Interpersonal and Political Skills, Traits and Values Listening, Communicating (oral and written – superior level) and Presentation Skills Networking, Facilitating, Partnering, Coalition-Building, Community Consultation Negotiating, Mediation, and Conflict Resolution Skills Representational, Marketing, Salesmanship Skills – Visible, Engaged, Effective Bureaucratic, Organizational, Public Policy and Political skills Committed, Dedicated, Enthusiastic, Reliable, Imaginative, Creative Diverse Social/Cultural/Class/Special Needs/Disadvantaged Sensitivity and Activity Leadership and Motivational Skills – walks the talk, compassionate, has integrity Proactive, Progressive, Open to Change and New Ideas, Life-Long Learner Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, Decision Making Flexibility, Adaptability and Improvisational Skills Strategic (long term) thinking and planning, visionary, ability to anticipate Administrative, Management, Public Policy Knowledge, Skills and Principles Personnel Mgmt.–Recruiting, Retaining, Managing People (staff/volunteers), Teams Program Management — Developing and Managing Programs Fiscal Management — Acquiring and Managing Funding (Budgets) Resource Management – technical and physical Information Management – gather, analyze, interpret, sort, act upon Organizational Management (normal and crisis) Creating Public Value Skills – getting others to value and promote disaster reduction Subject Matter Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities – i.e., Theory, Principles, Fundamentals of Hazards, Disasters, and U.S. Hazard, Disaster, Risk, Emergency Management What Are Hazards and Disasters, including Related Terms and Definitions Hazard Taxonomies or Categorization Schemes (natural, technological, intentional) Theories of Disaster (acts of God, acts of nature, social/nature intersection, societal) Hazards Foundation, and exposure, risk, vulnerability, risk communication treatment History and Theory of Emergency Management Hazard/Risk/Emergency/ Management Scope/Approaches, Public and Private Sectors, including Traditional Technocratic, Social Vulnerability, Risk-Based approaches. Emergency Management Models, e.g. CD, Emergency Services, Public Administration Emergency Management Fundamentals, e.g. CEM, IEM and intra-governmental context, 4-Phases, Intergovernmental (local, state, federal) context Emer. Mgmt. Functions/Practice/Operations, e.g. risk assessment, planning, public ed. Roles and Responsibilities of Key Players in Emergency Management Roles of Other Disciplines (e.g. engineering, geology, sociology, psychology, met.) Sustainable Development, Community Organization, and Urban and Regional Planning Legal, Ethical, Social, Economic, Ecological, Political Dimensions and Context Emergency Management Best Practices – Identification and Application Technical Skills and Standards – i.e., Tools of the Trade Technological tools e.g. computers (software), GIS, mapping, modeling, simulations Scientific Method; Research, Analysis, Evaluation Tools and Methods Experience (practicum, internship, service learning, volunteerism, professional orgs.) Professional Standards, Procedures, Certifications, Organizations Emergency Management Systems — EOC Operations, ICS, warning, communications Document Two: April, 2003 Top Ten Things BWB Would Look For in 21 st Century Professional Emergency Manager Philosophy: Disaster Reduction through Building Disaster Resilient Communities A People-Person – Personable with people-oriented skills, traits, and values e.g. communicating, networking, representational, customer service oriented Politically Savvy – Organizational, Community, EM “System” – knows importance of partnerships, networking, inclusiveness, and flexibility A Leader — who walks the talk and demonstrates integrity and compassion. A Professional, with Executive-Level Administrative and Management Skills A Visionary — Strategic, Big-Picture Thinker, Strategic Planning Ability Motivated and Energetic – Positive attitude hard worker – can motivate others Hazards Foundation and Legal, Ethical, Social, Economic, Ecological, Political Contexts Technical Skills and Standards , e.g., computers, GIS, research, analysis, evaluation Has Experience – And Learned From It – Successful at Improvisaton Document Three: Expanded Outline of Competencies for Successful 21 st Century Hazard/Emergency Managers PERSONAL SKILLS, TRAITS, ABILITIES AND VALUES Committed , Dedicated, Reliable, Hark-Working Imaginative, Creative, flexible, can improvise Enthusiastic Proactive , Self-Starter, Displays Independent Initiative, Willing to Take Risks Progressive , Open to Change, New Ideas and Research Findings, Flexible, Adaptable Life-Long Learner Problem Solving – knowing the rational thinking processes that assist problem-solving Demonstrated Decision Making Skills, Decisive Ethical, Responsible, Tolerant, Demonstrates Integrity, Promotes Diversity, Inclusive Compassionate Can Apply Lessons Learned Ability to Respond Appropriately to Criticism , Advise, Guidance, Direction Can Function Under Stressful Conditions Intellectual Versatility – ability to recognize, explore and use a broad range of ideas and practices – thinking logically and creatively without undue influence from personal biases Demonstrates Sound Judgment and Discretion Can Obtain, Evaluate, Analyze, Synthesize, Organize Data and Information Customer Service Oriented INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND TRAITS Listening (sometimes referred to as “Active Listening”) and Observational Skills Communicating Skills (oral, written, via visual mediums – superior level) Recognizes that communication is a two-way street Open to participative communication Presentation Skills Networking, Coordinating, Facilitating, Partnering, Coalition-Building, Community Consultation, Outreach Skills and Abilities Understands Obstacles to Successful Coordination, etc., e.g., independent or egotistical individual or organizational mindsets, competition for scarce resources, personal and organizational rivalries, lack of trust, no history of, lack of upper-level support, lack of common terminologies and understanding. Knows how to address networking, coordination obstacles and challenges Tactful and Diplomatic Traits Negotiating, Mediation, and Conflict Resolution Skills Diverse Social/Cultural/Class/Special Needs/Disadvantaged Sensitivity and Activity POLITICAL SKILLS AND TRAITS Bureaucratic, Organizational, Public Policy and Political Skills Familiar with political and legal institutions and processes Familiar with economic and social institutions and processes Representational, Marketing, Salesmanship Skills – Visible, Engaged, Effective Assignment: Enniss Emergency Management Plan model? LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS AND TRAITS Visionary Strategic (long term) thinking and planning , ability to anticipate Walks the Talk , sets the example “Creating Public Value” Skills – getting others to value and promote disaster reduction Capacity to act as agent promoting needed change in organizations, communities, society ADMINISTRATIVE, MANAGEMENT, PUBLIC POLICY THEORY, PRINCIPLES, SKILLS Understands Basic Management Theory, Principles and Tools Familiarity with Organizational Management, Theory, Concepts, Environment and Behavior (Normal and Crisis) Familiarity with Public Policy Environment Understanding of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation processes Demonstrated knowledge of Administrative Roles of an Emergency Manager Personnel (Human Resource) Management–Job Analysis and Design, Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting, Placing, Training, Coaching, Retaining, Managing, Delegating, Appraising, Counseling, Rewarding People (staff/volunteers) Team Building – knowing the factors that inhibit team effectiveness and what can be done to promote teamwork Program Management — Developing and Managing Programs Proficiency in program formulation, implementation and evaluation Fiscal Management — Acquiring and Managing Funding (Budgets) Resource Management – technical and physical Information Management – gather, analyze, interpret, sort, act upon Technical Writing Skills (e.g. grants writing) Adult Learning Understanding – knowing how adults acquire and use knowledge, skills, and attitudes – understanding individual differences in learning Time Management Can identify, set, review and assess goals and objectives. SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES–THEORY, PRINCIPLES, AND FUNDAMENTALS OF HAZARDS AND DISASTERS What Are Hazards and Disasters , including Related Terms and Definitions Hazard Taxonomies or Categorization Schemes (natural, technological, intentional) Theories of Disaster (acts of God, acts of nature, social/nature intersection, societal) Hazards Foundation – causes, characteristics, consequences, terminology, categorizations (meteorological, hydrological, geological, extra-terrestrial, etc.), countermeasures, trends, stakeholders Can describe and discuss the trends in disaster losses in the US Can describe and discuss major hazard specific stakeholders – Local, State, Regional, National Familiarity with Hazards Terminology, e.g., Fujita scale Mercali scale Richter scale 100-year flood Understanding of Key Hazard-Related Concepts , e.g. Exposure, Risk, Vulnerability, Resiliency, Risk Communication Understanding of Societal Context of Hazards and Disasters Understanding of the societal variables that bear on hazards exposure, vulnerability, resiliency and risk, e.g., Population growth/decline Development, particularly inappropriate development (location, construction, materials) Interdependencies, particularly technological and infrastructure Countermeasures or lack thereof Extent to which knowledge and lessons learned are or are not applied SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND ABILITIES–THEORY, PRINCIPLES, FUNDAMENTALS OF HAZARD/DISASTER/RISK/EMERGECNY MANAGENMENT Scope of Hazard/Disaster/Risk/Emergency Management (Public and Private Sectors) Terminology and Definitions Understanding major U.S. public sector terms and concepts, e.g. Emergency management or services Disaster management or services Hazards management Hazards risk management Understanding of major U.S. private sector terms and concepts, e.g. Business contingency planning Business continuity planning Business crisis or consequence management Business disaster recovery planning Business impact analysis Business resumption planning Business risk management Understanding of major International terms and concepts, e.g. Civil defense Civil emergency preparedness Civil protection What Does the Field Cover? History of Emergency Management Legal, Ethical, Social, Economic, Ecological, Political Dimensions and Context of EM Social Dimensions and Context of Hazards and Emergency Management: Develop a critical understanding of how society and social institutions operate Acquire basic knowledge of social science research methods, advantages and limitations Understand social science theory of the disaster behavior of organizations Understand social science theory of the disaster behavior of individuals Be able to adequate address “Disaster Mythology” Be able to apply basic principles of sociology to the design of effective community warning systems Knowledge of Economic Development Strategies and Community Impact Approaches to Hazard/Risk/Emergency Management (Public and Private Sectors) Traditional Technocratic/Managerial Approach Social Vulnerability Approach Risk-Based Approaches Building Disaster Resistant and Resilient Communities Approach Business Impact Analysis, Business Contingency Planning Emergency Management Models Civil Defense Model Emergency Services Model Public Administration Model Emergency Management Fundamentals Comprehensive Emergency Management (i.e. all hazards, actors, phases) Integrated Emergency Management and intra-governmental context Understands why it is necessary to integrate hazard/disaster/emergency management and community planning. Four Phases of the Disaster Life Cycle Model Mitigation Understand mitigation legal basis, history, philosophy, strategies, methods, programs, obstacles, issues, concerns, and consequences Can discuss structural and non-structural mitigation approaches Can discuss historical and current trends in mitigation practice Can discuss major Federal mitigation programs, including strengths and weaknesses, e.g., FEMA, National Flood Insurance Program, major elements Can describe the Community Rating System FEMA pre- and post-disaster mitigation programs National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program Can summarize roles and responsibilities of the four primary NEHRP agencies/organizations Can discuss the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Can discuss major mitigation stakeholders — Local, State, Regional, National Can discuss major obstacles/challenges to implementing mitigation Can discuss the role of insurance in hazards mitigation Describe adverse selection Preparedness Response Recovery Functional Approach Intergovernmental Context (i.e., local, state, federal) Knowledge of Key Players/Stakeholders in Emer. Mgmt.–Roles and Responsibilities Public Sector Local, State, Federal Legislators Local, State, Federal Policy-Makers Local, State, Regional, Federal, International Decision-Influencers, Decision-Makers, and Stakeholders e.g., Budget and Finance Building and Inspections Departments Communications Centers Community Affairs Community Right-To Know (Hazardous Materials) Committees Convention Center Administration Councils of Government Economic Development Educational Services, such as school districts Emergency Services Personnel (Fire, Police, EMS/EMT, SAR, Public Health) Floodplain and Storm-Water Management Homeland Security Land Use, such as planning, zoning Law Enforcement Legal Affairs Military (Federal and State National Guard) Natural Resources, e.g., agricultural, timber, water, environmental, fish and wildlife Parks and Recreation, especially highly visible tourist attractions Planning Public Affairs Public Health Public Works Public Utilities Risk Management Seismic Safety Commissions Social and Human Services Transportation United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, etc.) Emergency Management Personnel Community and Faith-Based Organizations Associations, Professional and Voluntary Organizations (e.g., IAEM, State EM Associations, NEMA, NFPC, PERI, CUSEC, Western States Seismic Policy Council, Association of State Floodplain Managers,

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