Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing

Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing In APA Format, 5 pages, with title page, introduction, summary, and references. These are the following points to include in the essay: Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing Consider the examples of leadership demonstrated in this week’s media presentation and the other Learning Resources. To further your self-knowledge, you are required to complete the Kiersey Temperament as indicated in this week’s Learning Resources. Consider your leadership style, including your strengths for leading others and include your results from Kiersey Temperament Sorter to describe potential challenges related to your leadership style. Mentally survey your work environment, or one with which you are familiar, and identify a timely issue/dilemma that requires you to perform the leadership role of moral agent or advocate to improve a situation (e.g., speaking or acting on behalf of a vulnerable patient, the need for appropriate staffing, a colleague being treated unfairly). What ethical, moral, or legal skills, dispositions, and/or strategies would help you resolve this dilemma? Define the differences between ethical , moral , and legal leadership . Finally, consider the values and principles that guide the nursing profession; the organization’s mission, vision, and values; the leadership and management competencies addressed in this course; and your own values and reasons for entering the profession. What motivation do you see for taking a stand on an important issue even when it is difficult to do so? Below are the references i have attached that you can use for the essay. Please refer also to the textbook Marquis, B.L., & Huston, C.J., (2017). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application (9th ed).) on chapters 4, 5, & 6. Thank you. Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing beyond_moral_distress.pdf keirsey_temperament_sorter.pdf the_effects_of_authentic_leadership.pdf transcultural_policy_and_advocacy.pdf using_evidence_based_advocacy.pdf kiersey_bates_temperam Guest editorial Beyond moral distress: Preserving the ethical integrity of nurses Nursing Ethics 2014, Vol. 21(2) 127–128 ª The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permission: 10.1177/0969733013512741 Martin Woods Massey University, NZ Every year, I meet a new group of postgraduate nursing students who come together to study ethics at an advanced level. For some, it is the first time in their careers that they have been able to express their ethical concerns in such a forum, or in some cases, in any formal setting; for others, it is a confirmation that not all perceived failures relating to moral issues are necessarily of their or their nursing colleagues’ own making. For all, it is a bitter-sweet confirmation of the difficulties involved in dealing with those sometimes painful moral problems that they have encountered over what is often several years of practice. Indeed, it is as if through the exchange of narratives, each student feels not only marginally unburdened but free to finally state those things that really matter to them in a forum where others actually appreciate their opinions. But then at some point, we come to an examination of what is currently called nursing ‘moral distress’, and slowly but surely, a rising degree of exasperation and annoyance emerges around the room, as one by one the students all focus on the same question, namely, ‘What are we to do about moral distress?’ Moral distress is a phenomenon that is a reality in nursing however it is labelled or packaged, and whatever the experts say it is or it is not. Whenever a group of experienced nurses identify a collection of unresolved or poorly resolved ethical issues in their workplaces, it will exist in one form or another.1 It is moral distress (as opposed to other possibilities of nursing distress) when there exists a moral element or threat to a nurse’s moral integrity that causes feelings of disquiet, and yes, even distress. It is moral distress (and not an ethical dilemma) when nurses feel that they have no ethical choice to make in a given situation; when there is ample evidence that nurses often feel devalued and ignored when attempting to resolve an ethical issue; and when nurses in numerous countries all appear to be saying the same things about their difficulties and frustrations when attempting to effectively respond to ethical issues in their practices. For my own part, I discovered just how pertinent all of this was when analysing my own research results on this topic this very year when it became clear that 16% of nurses in New Zealand were presently considering leaving their positions, and 48% had at least considered leaving a given nursing position in the past because of moral distress.Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing 2 The causes of moral distress in nursing practice are clearly many and varied, although in recent times, they are largely described as being related to either ‘internal’ or ‘external’ constraints.3 Many nurses are no doubt familiar with the first kind; it is often difficult to know what the right thing to do is because there are always a number of conflicting interpretations and possibilities. Here, admittedly, the boundaries between a moral dilemma and moral distress may become blurred; such is the nature of the mental gymnastics so often associated with any significant ethical problem. But the second kind, the external constraints, is a different matter. Then, as is often argued, most nurses know what is the right thing to do, but cannot do so because of these constraints. It is not that there is even the illusion of choices in this instance because many of the constraints are related to factors outside the control of nurses. The list grows yearly, but lack of organisational Corresponding author: Martin Woods, School of Nursing, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. Email: [email protected] 128 Nursing Ethics 21(2) support across all levels, indifferent and unsupportive organisational cultures, poor leadership, lack of adequate resources, recruitment and retention issues, government interference and dubious policies are but a few of the main ones.1,4 This then is not an argument about the lack of motivation to do the right thing, or a lack of moral ability or an adequate ethics education, but about the presence or otherwise of the best ethical climate in which to do the right thing, or as best we can under the circumstances. But how should nurses respond to moral distress? First, we must recognise and encourage debates about the problem in healthcare settings at all levels. The state of affairs concerning moral distress, or whatever it may eventually be called, cannot be allowed to continue forever, or to go unchallenged. Second, we need to understand the wider implications of the problem by remembering that moral distress is not just about nurses but about nurses and everyone else involved in healthcare, that is, patients, families, other healthcare workers, managers, administrators, advisors and more. Subsequently, nurses should be involved in interdisciplinary group discussions, ethics committees, and in developing organisational policies and guidelines. Third, we must respond in an organised and appropriate manner. Worksite interventional programmes could be targeted at those employees identified most prone to experience the effects of moral distress. Nurse managers and other senior nurses should recognise the moral burden carried by those practitioners who deal regularly with major moral issues. Fourth, we must find ways to educate ourselves and others about the issue – by sharing our stories, by placing a greater emphasis on the problem at all levels of nursing education and by ensuring that the general public is fully aware of the issue. Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing Finally, we really must find ways to support each other. Certain nurses could act as ethics counsellors or mentors on the unit level to help nurses identify and control sources of moral stress, and Charge Nurses should find time to discuss morally distressing patient care situations with their nursing staff. All of the above will require a certain kind of moral courage,5 but unless a series of concerted and systematic challenges are made, nurses are likely to continue to face a wide range of ethical situations leading to the experience of moral distress, and subsequent loss of moral integrity. Mindful of this, and whatever we may call the phenomenon that is moral distress, and whatever the arguments for and against the varied conceptualisations of moral distress, what is really important is that something should be done about this serious and demoralising problem now rather than later. References 1. Royal College of Nursing. Defending dignity: challenges and opportunities for nursing. London: Royal College of Nursing, 2008. 2. Woods M, Towers AJ, Rodgers VK, et al. Moral distress – the results and recommendations of a national survey amongst New Zealand nurses. Paper presented at the International Council of Nurses 25th Quadrennial Congress, Melbourne Convention Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 18–23 May 2013, p. 35 (in book of abstracts). Available at: 3. Corley MC. Nurse moral distress: a proposed theory and research agenda. Nurs Ethics 2002; 9(6): 636–650. 4. Pauly B, Varcoe C, Storch J, et al. Registered nurses’ perceptions of moral distress and ethical climate. Nurs Ethics 2009; 16(5): 561–573. 5. Gallagher A. Moral distress and moral courage in everyday nursing practice. Online J Issues Nurs 2011; 16(2): 1–7. 128 The Keirsey Temperament Sorter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. At a party do you (a) interact with many, including strangers (b) interact with a few people you know well Are you more (a) realistic than speculative (b) speculative than realistic Is it worse to (a) be someone who likes variety and new ideas (b) be someone who likes predictable routine Are you more impressed by (a) principles (b) emotions Are you more drawn towards the (a) convincing (b) touching Do you prefer to work (a) on a schedule with a deadlines (b) whenever you are inspired to work Do you tend to chose (a) rather carefully (b) somewhat impulsively At parties do you (a) stay late, with increasing energy (b) leave early, with decreasing energy Are you more attracted to (a) practical people (b) imaginative people Are you more interested in (a) what is actual (b) what is possible In judging others are you more swayed by (a) laws than circumstances (b) circumstances than laws In approaching others is your inclination to be somewhat (a) objective (b) personal Are you more (a) punctual (b) leisurely Does it bother you having things (a) incomplete (b) completed In your social groups do you (a) keep abreast of other’s happenings (b) get behind on the news In doing ordinary things are you more likely to (a) do it the usual way (b) do it your own way Writers should (a) “say what they mean and mean what they say” (b) express things more by use of analogy . Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing Which appeals to you more (a) consistency of thought (b) harmonious human relationships Are you more comfortable in making (a) logical judgments (b) value judgments 1 20. Do you want things (a) settled and decided (b) unsettled and undecided 21. Would you say you are more (a) serious and determined (b) easy-going 22. In phoning do you (a) rarely think about what you will say (b) rehearse what you’ll say 23. Facts (a) are valuable in themselves (b) are useful because they illustrate principles 24. Are visionaries (a) somewhat annoying (b) rather fascinating 25. Are you more often (a) a cool-headed person (b) a warm-hearted person 26. Is it worse to be (a) unjust (b) without mercy for others 27. Should one usually let events occur (a) by careful selection and choice (b) randomly and by chance 28. Do you feel better about (a) having purchased something (b) having the option to buy something 29. In company do you (a) initiate the conversation (b) wait to be approached 30. Common sense is (a) rarely mistaken (b) frequently mistaken and unreliable 31. Children often do not (a) make themselves useful enough (b) exercise their fantasy enough 32. In making decision do you feel more comfortable with (a) standards (b) feelings 33. Are you more (a) firm than gentles (b) gentle than firm 34. Which is more admirable: (a) the ability to organize and be methodical (b) the ability to adapt and adjust quickly 35. Do you put more value on what is (a) definite (b) open-ended 36. Does new and non-routine interaction with others (a) stimulate and energize you (b) leave you feeling tied 37. Are you more frequently (a) a practical sort of person (b) a fanciful sort of person 38. Are you more likely to (a) see how others are useful (b) see how others see The Keirsey Temperament Sorter 39. Which is more satisfying: (a) to discuss an issue thoroughly (b) to arrive at agreement on an issue 40. Which rules your more: (a) your head (b) your heart 41. Are you more comfortable with work that is (a) contracted and agreed upon (b) done on a casual basis 42. Do you tend to look for (a) the orderly (b) whatever turns up 43. Do you prefer (a) many friends with brief contact (b) a few friends with more lengthy contact 44. Which has more value for you? (a) Accurate facts (b) Theoretical principles 45. Are you more interested in (a) production and distribution (b) design and research 46. Which is more of a compliment: (a) “That person is very logical” (b) “That person is gentle and caring” 47. Which do you value most in yourself? (a) being unwavering (b) being devoted 48. Do you more often prefer the (a) final and unalterable statement (b) tentative and preliminary statement 49. Are you more comfortable (a) after a decision (b) before a decision 50. Do you (a) speak easily and at length with strangers (b) find little to say to strangers 51. Are you more likely to trust your (a) experience (b) hunch 52. Do you feel (a) more practical than creative (b) more creative than practical 53. Which person is more to be complimented: one of (a) clear reason (b) strong feeling 54. Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing Are you inclined more to be (a) fair minded (b) sympathetic 2 55. Is it preferable mostly to (a) make sure things are arranged (b) just let things happen 56. In relationships should most things be (a) renegotiable (b) random and circumstantial 57. When the phone rings do you (a) hasten to get it first (b) hope someone else will answer 58. Do you prize more in yourself (a) a strong sense of reality (b) a vivid imagination 59. Are you drawn more to (a) fundamentals (b) overtones and nuance 60. Which seems the greatest error (a) to be too passionate (b) to be too objective 61. Do you see yourself as basically (a) hard-headed (b) soft-hearted 62. Which situation appeals to you more: (a) the structured and scheduled (b) the unstructured and unscheduled 63. Are you a person that is more (a) organized than playful (b) playful than organized 64. Are you more inclined to be (a) easy to approach (b) somewhat reserved 65. In writings do you prefer (a) the more literal (b) the more figurative 66. Is it harder for you to (a) identify with others (b) utilize others 67. Which do you wish more for yourself (a) clarity of reason (b) strength of compassion 68. Which is the greater fault: (a) being indiscriminate (b) being critical 69. Do you prefer the (a) planned event (b) unplanned event 70. Do you tend to be more (a) deliberate than spontaneous (b) spontaneous than deliberate The Keirsey Temperament Sorter 3 Answer Sheet Enter a check for each answer in the column for a or b. a b a b a b a b a b a b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 1 2 1 3 2 E 4 3 4 3 3 I S 5 5 6 4 5 4 5 N 6 T F 7 8 b 7 8 6 7 8 6 7 8 J P Directions for scoring 1. Add down so that the total number of “a” answers is written in the box at the bottom of each column (see next page for illustration). Do the same for the “b” answers you have checked. Each of the 14 boxes should have a number in it. 2. Transfer the number in box No. 1 of the answer sheet to box No. 1 below the answer sheet. Do this for box No. 2 as well. Note, however, that you must have two numbers for boxes 3 through 8. Bring down the first number for each box beneath the second, as indicated by arrows. Now add all the pairs of numbers and enter the total in the boxes below the answer sheet, so each box has only one number. 3. Now you have four pairs of numbers. Circle the letter below the larger of each pair. You have now identified your “type.” It should be one of the following: INFP ENFP INFJ ENFJ ISFP ESFP ISFJ ESFJ INTP ENTP INTJ ENTJ ISTP ESTP ISTJ ESTJ The Leadership Quarterly 25 (2014) 581–594 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect The Leadership Quarterly journal homepage: The effects of authentic leadership on followers’ ethical decision-making in the face of temptation: An experimental study Anna M. Cianci a,1,2, Sean T. Hannah a,1,3, Ross P. Roberts b,1,4, George T. Tsakumis c,?,1 a b c School of Business, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, United States Earl N. Phillips School of Business, High Point University, High Point, NC 27262, United States Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 16 March 2013 Received in revised form 20 September 2013 Accepted 6 December 2013Assignment: Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing Available online 18 January 2014 Handling Editor: Shelly Dionne Keywords: Authentic leadership Temptation Ethical decision making Guilt a b s t r a c t The present research investigates the impact of authentic leadership on followers’ morality, operationalized as ethical decision-making, in the face of temptation. This experiment finds that authentic leadership and temptation interacted to affect individuals’ ethical decision-making. Specifically, authentic leadership significantly inhibited individuals’ from making unethical decisions in the face of temptation, whereas followers of neutral or less authentic leaders were more likely to succumb to temptation. Authentic leadership did not have a significant impact on ethical decision-making when temptation was absent. Further, results showed a significant moderated-mediated effect whereby the interactive effect of authentic leadership and temptation on individuals’ guilt appraisal was mediated through the nature of the ethical decision. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Research on behavioral ethics in organizations has increased dramatically in the last two decades, with the majority of that research focused on aspects of ethical judgment/decision-making (Tenbrunsel & Smith-Crowe, 2008; Treviño, Weaver, & Reynolds, 2006). From this research, we know that moral processing is influenced not just by individual differences (good and bad apples) but the context in which individuals are embedded, such as culture, climate and other organizational phenomena (good and bad barrels) (Treviño & Youngblood, 1990; Kish-Gephart, Harrison, & Treviño, 2010). However, surprisingly little empirical research has examined how exemplary leadership (e.g., authentic and ethical leadership) – a potentially important contextual factor – relates to followers’ (un)ethical decisions and behaviors (Brown & Mitchell, 2010). Some research, while limited, has shown that leaders have effects on follower ethical processing. For example, leaders’ levels of cognitive moral development, through role modeling and social learning, can affect that of followers (Dukerich, Nichols, Elm, & Vollrath, 1990); leadership style can influence which ethical frameworks followers’ use to process ethical dilemmas (Schminke & Wells, 1999; Schminke, Wells, Peyrefitte, & Sebora, 2002); and ethical leadership is positively related to followers’ organizational citizenship behaviors (Avey, Palanski, & Walumbwa, 2011; Brown, Treviño, & Harrison, 2005; Walumbwa & Schaubroeck, 2009). Further, ethical leadership has positive influences on followers’ ethical thoughts and behaviors, both directly as well as indirectly, through the positive influences ethical leaders have on building ethical cultures across multiple levels in organizations (Schaubroeck et al., ? Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 302 831 7583; fax: +1 302 831 4676. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (A.M. Cianci), [email protected] (S.T. Hannah), [email protected] (R.P. Roberts), [email protected] (G.T. Tsakumis). 1 All authors contributed equally to this project. 2 Tel.: +1 336 758 4297; fax: +1 336 758 6133. 3 Tel.: +1 336 758 5412; fax: +1 336 758 6133. 4 Tel.: +1 336 841 4562; fax: +1 336 888 6380. 1048-9843/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 582 A.M. Cianci et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 25 (2014) 581–594 2012). Authentic leadership, in particular, has been positively related to followers’ levels of moral courage, and through that mechanism, their ethical behavior (Hannah, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2011). There is a void of experiments, however, testing the effects of leader behaviors on follower ethical decision-making. To build upon this literature, we formulate and test a model assessing the influence of authentic leadership, as a potentially important contextual factor, on followers’ ethical decision-making under varying conditions of mora … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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