Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper

Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper please help me with the sociology research paper, the requirement and peer viewed journal attached, need 1 more surce! Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper thanks! p_2.pdf p1.pdf THE SCIENCE OF RESEARCH ON RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION AND HEALTH The State of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in The Receipt of Health Care Vickie L. Shavers, PhD, MS, Pebbles Fagan, PhD MPH, Dionne Jones, PhD, MSW, William M. P. Klein, PhD, Josephine Boyington, PhD, Carmen Moten PhD, MPH, and Edward Rorie, MSLS Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:953–966. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012. 300773) Racial/ethnic minorities suffer disproportionate morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. US racial/ethnic health disparities are a consequence of several factors including the disproportionate prevalence of less healthy lifestyles, low socioeconomic status, resourcepoor neighborhood environments, and poorer access to care. Another factor is the poorer care received by minority patients after they enter the health care system. Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper The 2005 National Healthcare Disparities Report indicated that White patients receive better quality of care than 53% of Hispanic, 43% of African American, 38% of American Indian/Alaska Native, and 22% of Asian and Paci?c Islander patients.1 An updated report in 2010 showed no changes in disparities in 30 of 41 quality core measures for Hispanics, 40 of 47 measures for African Americans, 13 of 19 measures for Asians, and 15 of 22 measures for American Indian or Alaska Natives compared with NonHispanic Whites.2 Efforts to eliminate these disparities are hampered by the lack of a full understanding of all proximal causes including any role that racial/ethnic discrimination within the health care system might play. Racial discrimination is de?ned as “(1) differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group and, (2) treatment on the basis of inadequately justi?ed factors that disadvantage a racial group,”3(p39) and has been linked to racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Not all discrimination occurs at the individual level or is intended. Seemingly benign policies, practices, structures, and regulations also have the potential to be discriminatory and are collectively referred to as institutional racism. Individual level discrimination and institutional racism may compound the negative effects of other health determinants,4 thereby placing racial/ethnic minorities in double jeopardy. Results of a recent nationwide poll of the United States showed that 74% of African Americans, 69% of other non-Whites, and 30% of Whites report personally experiencing general race-based discrimination.5 Research studies have shown that general experiences with racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes May 2012, Vol 102, No. 5 | American Journal of Public Health including higher mortality6; lower use of cancer screening7; elevated blood pressure8,9; higher levels of C-reactive protein10; substance use11,12; mental and physical health13,14 including mood, anxiety, and psychiatric disorders12; increased depressive symptoms15; weight gain16; high body mass index17; and smoking.18 Not all studies, however, have found a signi?cant association between general race/ethnicity-based discrimination and health.19,20 Although racial/ethnic discrimination within health care settings and health systems has also been implicated in health disparities,21 little is known about the empirical evidence supporting its prevalence or the association with poor health outcomes. We provide a review of the scienti?c literature on the prevalence, perception of and effect of racial/ethnic discrimination and institutional racism within health care settings. Our speci?c objectives were to examine the extent to which recent literature addressed the following research questions: 1. What research methods are currently being used to measure receipt of discriminatory health care? 2. What is the current prevalence of racial/ ethnic discrimination in health care settings?Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper 3. Has the perception of or receipt of discriminatory health care changed over time? 4. How does racial/ethnic discrimination in?uence health in health care settings? 5. How do system level factors, such as institutional practices, policies and regulations contribute to discriminatory health care services? This review summarizes results of recent research, identi?es currently used instrumentation and methodology, and identi?es areas where additional research is needed and is a resource for researchers with interest in working in this topic area. Shavers et al. | Peer Reviewed | Framing Health Matters | 953 THE SCIENCE OF RESEARCH ON RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION AND HEALTH METHODS We searched the PsychInfo,22 PubMed,23 and SciVerse Scopus (Scopus) databases24 for articles that focused on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. The beginning of the timeframe (2008) was chosen because of the 2009 publication by Williams and Mohammed25 that reviewed the literature on discrimination and health from 2005 to 2007 from a methodological perspective. Kressin et al.26 reviewed the psychometric properties of instruments used to examine discrimination. Our review differs from these in that we speci?cally examined current literature with a focus on racial/ethnic discrimination by health professionals or that occur within health care settings as opposed to discrimination occurring in the general community. Our cutoff date of November 1, 2011 re?ects the publication date of the most current literature available at the time of our review. Combinations of the following terms were used to search the 3 databases: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice, and bias combined with health or health care in the text, title, or abstract (e.g., racial discrimination and health, racial discrimination and health care, racism and health and racism and health care; see Appendix A [available as a supplement to the online version of this article at] for all search terms). A search of all 3 databases was also conducted with the names of commonly used instruments used to assess discrimination (e.g., Everyday Discrimination, Experiences of Discrimination, Perceptions of Racism Scale, Schedule of Racist Events, Implicit Association Test, Racism in Health Care Index, Perceived Prejudice in Health Care, Multiple Discrimination Scale, and General Experiences of Ethnic Discrimination) as search terms. These instruments were identi?ed through a PubMed search with the search terms “measurement and racial discrimination” and through personal knowledge of the lead author. Other than time of publication, there were no other limits applied for the search. The last date the search was performed was November 18, 2011 for PubMed, November 23, 2011 for PsychNet, and December 13, 2011 for Scopus; however, only articles published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011 were used in the review. Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper To be eligible for inclusion in this review articles had to be published in English; focused on US health care providers, patients, or US health care settings; and original research articles that reported quantitative or qualitative results of racial/ethnic discrimination, patient or provider perceptions of race/ ethnicity-based discrimination within US health care settings, or discriminatory attitudes and beliefs of US patients or health care providers. We initially identi?ed 5024 articles, of which 1185 were found to be duplicates of articles found in other searches of the same database or of one of the other databases. After these were deleted, 3839 unique articles remained from the combined searches of the 3 databases using the search terms in Appendix A (available as a supplement to the online version of this article at http://www. Titles of the remaining articles were ?rst examined to determine their general relevance to the current review. Abstracts of articles that appeared to focus on racial/ethnic discrimination were then reviewed for inclusion (n = 686). Abstracts from dissertations; commentaries, letters to editors, editorials or that did not report original research; did not report results of research on US populations, or that did not provide information on the health care setting were deleted (n = 509). One hundred seventy-seven abstracts were further reviewed for inclusion, of which 94 were later found not to meet the inclusion criteria, leaving 83 articles of which 58 met the inclusion criteria after further review (Figure 1). These 58 articles are summarized in the current study. RESULTS The results of the literature search are presented by topic area. Each section addresses 1 of the 5 research questions. Measurement of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Health Research The accuracy of research ?ndings is only as good as the tools used to measure them. Optimal measures of racial/ethnic discrimination 954 | Framing Health Matters | Peer Reviewed | Shavers et al. in health care settings assess the actual occurrence of or potential for discriminatory events, the impact of discriminatory events among individuals who experienced them, and the effect if any, on the patients’ interactions with their health care provider.26 Three published reviews examined measures used to assess discrimination in health research.25—27 In general, measures examined in 2 of the previous reviews26,25 primarily assessed general experiences of discrimination and thus only provided limited information on measures to assess racial/ethnic-discrimination in health care settings. As a component of a review that focused on personally mediated racism, Kressin et al.26 examined 16 measures that contained at least 1 item on perceived discrimination in health care settings. The majority of the measures reviewed by Kressin focused on attitudes and behaviors of health care workers perceived to be discriminatory (e.g., poorer service, less respect, and unfair treatment), and only 2 contained items that assessed discriminatory receipt of health care.26 Table 1 lists the questions used by investigators to assess racial/ethnic discrimination in the health care setting in the articles included in the current review (for a more complete list, see Table A, available as a supplement to the online version of this article at http://www. Methodological approaches. Several basic methodological approaches can be used to obtain information about occurrences of or effects of discrimination including of?cial counts; matched, residual, observational, and laboratory studies; in-depth interviews; and surveys.Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper 28 The strengths and limitations of each are provided in Table 2. In the current review, patient survey was the most widely used approach for assessing perception of health care discrimination (Table B describes the methods and results of the reviewed studies and is available as a supplement to the online version of this article at,29—63 Survey data were used to examine the proportion of respondents who ever experienced a discriminatory event attributed to race/ethnicity in the health care setting or when getting medical care,31,32,37,40,41,43—45,50,56,58,60—65 recent discriminatory experiences (e.g., within last month—5 years),12,30,33—35,46,48,49,52—54,59 frequency of discriminatory events, 31,33 American Journal of Public Health | May 2012, Vol 102, No. 5 THE SCIENCE OF RESEARCH ON RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION AND HEALTH Articles retrieved from search of database PubMed/MEDLINE n = 2402 PsychInfo n = 1327 Scopus n = 1295 Total n = 5024 n = 3839 n = 686 Articles excluded because they were duplicates with PubMed/MEDLINE or PsychInfo searches PubMed/MEDLINE (NA) PsychInfo n = 465 Scopus n = 720 Total excluded n = 1185 Articles excluded because of nonrelevance PubMed/MEDLINE n = 2144 PsychInfo n = 502 Scopus n = 507 Total excluded n = 3153 Other exclusions Dissertation abstracts n = 201 Research not on health care setting n = 250 Not US research n = 26 Not research (commentary, editorial, review, or other nonresearch) n = 32 Total excluded n = 509 n = 177 Excluded after abstract review for nonrelevance Total excluded n = 94 n = 83 Excluded after reviewing full articles Total excluded n = 25 Articles included in literature review Total n = 58 Note. NA = not applicable. FIGURE 1—Quorum diagram of literature review on racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. perceptions of speci?c provider behaviors (e.g., treats me with respect and dignity, looks down on me)39,43,45,48—50,53 length of time since last discriminatory event,33 while receiving treatment of a speci?c condition,29,36,63 general beliefs regarding discrimination in health care settings,38,51,66 and methods of coping with discriminatory treatment.12 Assessing the prevalence of perceived discrimination among patients was the sole focus of 11 articles,35-37, 43,48,67-71 whereas the association of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination with speci?c health outcomes was the focus of 20 articles.12,29,30,32–34,39,40,44–46,49-54,57,59,63,72 Outcomes examined included treatment adherence,29 health care utilization,30,41,46 depression,68 cancer screening,33 health status,34,40,46,54 functional limitations,34 patient–provider communication,39,53 comfort with providing information on race/ethnicity,44 blood pressure control,45,50 quality of care,49,50,53,57 psychiatric disorders,12 quality of life,51 locus of control,54 and chronic health conditions.59 May 2012, Vol 102, No. 5 | American Journal of Public Health In-depth interviews and focus groups were the second most frequently used approach and were used to elicit information on patient perspectives of discrimination in cancer care,69 provider explanations for racial disparities in medical treatment,68 patient perceptions of discriminatory behavior by providers and its effect on compliance with treatment recommendations,67 description of health provider behaviors perceived to be discriminatory,73,74 perspectives regarding race and race-related conversations within the health care workplace,75 patient perspectives of barriers to care,71 and perception of the role of racial discrimination in health care disparities.76 The Implicit Association Test (IAT),77 a variation of the matched study approach was used in 7 articles to examine implicit racial/ ethnic biases.76,78,79,80-84 . Assignment: Sociology Racial Discrimination Research Paper Another previously popular method the case vignette, another form of the matched pair study; was used in only 2 of the reviewed studies to assess racial differences in treatment recommendations.82,84 None of the reviewed studies used other methodological approaches listed in Table 2. Because residual studies would not speci?cally focus on measurement of discrimination, articles using this approach were not included in this review. Measures of perceived discrimination. Twentysix articles measured respondent perception of health care discrimination (Table B, available as a supplement to the online version of this article at Established scales or their adaptations were used to measure perceived discrimination in 14 articles,12,30—32,38,39,43,45,48—51,53,54 and investigators developed their own measures in 8 articles.29,36,67,68,71,75,76 The original or an adapted version of the Experiences of Discrimination Scale was the most frequently used measure of perceived discrimination.12,30,31,43,48,49,79 Survey data speci?c to health care settings were obtained from a single question which assessed the occurrence of any race/ ethnicity—based discriminatory health care event12,29,30,36,42,44,48,49,52,56,57,59 with either a question on attribution35 or length of time since the experience33,35 (Table 1; see also Tables A and B, available as supplements to the online version of this article at http://www. Only 1 survey conducted longitudinal assessments (6-month intervals) of discriminatory health care experiences.29 Shavers et al. | Peer Reviewed | Framing Health Matters | 955 956 | Framing Health Matters | Peer Reviewed | Shavers et al. followed since 1985 discrimination over time. 8290 NHW, Hispanic, AA and Asks about specific interactions Asian Americans. Commonwealth Fund 2001 Health Care Quality Survey53 people, (2) Treated with less respect than other people, (3) Received poorer services than other people (4) Had a doctor or nurse act as if he or she thinks you were not smart (5) Had a doctor or nurse act as if discrimination. Also assesses the frequency of discriminatory experiences. Latino, and White working class population. you were saying.” Continued was better than you (7) Felt like a doctor or nurse was not listening to what he or she was afraid of you (6) Had a doctor or nurse act as if he or she because of your race or color (1) Treated with less courtesy than other information about health care Validated for use in Black, Specific Adaptation43 “When getting health care, how often has each experience happened to you Specifically adapted to assess Everyday Discrimination—Healthcare AA and White veterans. when seeking medical care specifically because of race or ethnic background?” Over the last 2 years, has a family member or friend been treated unfairly medical care if you had belonged to a different race or ethnic group? Do you think there was ever a time when you would have gotten better judged you unfairly or treated you with disrespect because of . . . your race or ethnic background? What happened to make you feel that you were judged unfairly or treated with disrespect? [open ended] with disrespect) street or in a public setting?” “Now thinking about all of the experiences you have had with health care visits getting housing, getting medical care from the police or in courts, on the 7 situations because of your race or color? At school, getting a job, at work, in the last 2 years, have you ever felt that the doctor or medical staff you saw NA NA extremely stressful).” “Have you ever experienced discrimination, been prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior in any of the following (i.e., judged unfairly or treated health care. Only asks 1 question on discrimination related to say. . . (Not at all stressful, A little stressful, Somewhat stressful, OR these experiences of unfair treatment usually been for you? Would you is the main reason why you were treated unfairly? (5) How stressful have specify. . . . . If yes to more than one: (4) Which of these do you think perceived to be discriminatory prevale … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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