What two things is cardiac output (Q) a function of and what is a typical resting value for these variables (and hence Q)? How much can cardiac output increase during maximal exercise in an endurance trained versus an untrained person? Clearly state the Fick Equation and define what each component represents. Use the Fick Equation as the basis for your explanation as to why John (a sedentary person) has a VO2 max of 35.0 mL·kg-1·min-1 whereas Jeff (an elite endurance athlete) has a VO2 max of 80.0 mL·kg-1·min-1. Make sure to clearly state what physiologically distinguishes these two individuals and likely explains much of the difference in their VO2 max values. During the VO2 max test (performed in a lab on a treadmill) both John and Jeff had a pulse oximeter placed on their finger. Describe what the pulse oximeter is measuring, and speculate as to what you may expect to see with this measurement towards the end of the test in these two individuals. What is this phenomenon called?