Case: Communicable Disease Prevention

Case: Communicable Disease Prevention
Case: Communicable Disease Prevention
Case: Communicable Disease Prevention
Week 5 discussion Disaster and Communicable Disease Preparedness Preparing for disasters, terrorist threats, or communicable disease outbreaks is an important part of public health nursing. Visit the websites http://www.ready.gov (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and http://www.ready.gov/pandemic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Review the steps for being prepared for a disaster or pandemic. Choose a natural or man-made disaster that could impact your community and discuss how a CHN can help the community to prepare or respond to this disaster. Choose a potential infectious disease outbreak and discuss how a CHN can help to prevent or respond to an outbreak. How well is your community prepared for a potential outbreak or disaster? Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2016). Ready: Prepare. Plan. Stay Informed. Retrieved from http://www.ready.gov/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2016). Pandemic. Retrieved from http://www.ready.gov/pandemic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Communicable diseases are illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria that people spread to one another through contact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, blood products, insect bites, or through the air. There are many examples of communicable diseases, some of which require reporting to appropriate health departments or government agencies in the locality of the outbreak. Some examples of the communicable disease include HIV, hepatitis A, B and C, measles, salmonella, measles and blood-borne illnesses. Most common forms of spread include fecal-oral, food, sexual intercourse, insect bites, contact with contaminated fomites, droplets, or skin contact.
Specifically, hepatitis is a form of a communicable disease that is spread through the oral-fecal route. An individual is exposed to hepatitis by coming in contact with blood products, consuming contaminated water, having sex with another infected person (oral and intercourse), or eating food that is contaminated by the virus. There are six criteria that need to be met to diagnose a hepatitis infection. These criteria include an infection agent, in this case, the hepatitis virus, a reservoir, route of infection, transmission mode, route of entry, and a susceptible subject who becomes infected with the virus.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a communicable disease that is preventable through vaccination. It affects the liver causing jaundice. It is transmitted person-to-person through consumption of food, oral sexual contact, poor hand hygiene after using the bathroom or changing diapers, and water that is contaminated. It is one of the most reported outbreaks in the United States. It is self-limited after ingestion through contaminated food sources. The virus replicates in the liver, is excreted in bile, and can reach high concentrations in the stool.
Stool concentrations are the highest 2 weeks after transmission. Patients are considered non-infectious about a week after inoculation or the onset of jaundice. Patients who are symptomatic most often present with acute onset fever, malaise, jaundice, hepatomegaly, and abdominal pain. Jaundice is often followed with marked elevated of serum aminotransferases that is greater than 1000 units/L. The test of choice is IgM anti-hepatitis A virus for diagnostic purposes. There is no specific therapy available. Presently, supportive and conservative management is the mainstay of treatments. Prevention includes personal hygiene or with active or passive immunization.

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