Research and answer the following questions:What are the different forms (i.e., monomers, polymers) of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?What macromolecules do each of the biochemical tests check for?What would an abundance or deficiency of one of the macromolecules cause to the human body?This assignment should be 23 double-spaced pages in APA (7th ed.) format and have at least one outside resource. Be sure to cite your resources.Due
There is a lot of chemistry going on all around you. If you start to observe a bit more intentionally, you will notice many new discoveries, articles, news stories, and breakthrough research happening everyday. And science can only be useful and keep moving forward if it is shared.For this discussion, you get to explore one specific element and share the historical context and modern day application of that element with the class. Your initial post should address the following questions about the element you chose:1. How did the element you chose get its name and who discovered it?2. What are the properties this element possesses that places it where it is in the periodic table?3. Write a sufficient summary of the element in common language that could be understood by the general public.4. Describe the implications for society, benefits, drawbacks, practicality, and reactivity of the element.5. What are some applications and hazards of this element and how is it commonly encountered?6. Discuss your personal thoughts regarding the element.7. Questions to your classmates that invite discussion and further the dialogue.8. An embedded picture that is relevant to the discussion.9. Give a citation of an external peer reviewed resource that you would like to discuss, including a direct link to it that we can visit.
a. Describe the initial discovery of your molecule. Who discovered the molecule, when, how, etc? Some compounds are part of a larger substance/plant. If this is the case, describe the isolation of your specific compound. The isolation refers to the initial time your molecule/substance was discovered from its raw materials, or isolated from its natural resources.Usage and Benefit or Harm to SocietyWhere has your molecule/substance been used. Is it used regularly or is has it only been used on occasion? If your compound is one we ingest when eating, include information on foods it’s commonly found in.Write about the Benefit or Harm to Society Caused by your molecule/substance. Many compounds can be used as bioweapons or have both positive and negative impacts. Other compounds have had benefits as medicines or have caused harm as illicit narcotics. All of these are good ideas to start out thinking about, so I’d like you to discuss these impacts on society, the future, and in any way you can think they may be beneficial or harmful. Please see here for some hints on drug development.
c) Consider two reaction vessels, one containing A and the other containing B, with equal concentrations at t = 0. If both substances decompose by first-order kinetics, where the rate constants are kA = 4.5 x 10-4 s -1 and kB = 3.70 x 10-3 s -1 , how much time must pass to reach a condition such that [A] = 4.00[B]?
Research and answer the following questions:How do acids and bases form salts through chemical reactions?.What roles do acids and bases play in the environment around us (i.e. chemical industry, foods, household products, nature, etc.)?.How do acidic or alkaline foods affect the pH of our blood? Give an example of the effects of acid/base imbalance..This assignment should be 23 double-spaced pages in APA (7th ed.) format and have at least one outside resource. Be sure to cite your resources.
In chapter 2, you learned how to describe and use some properties of motion. You learned that d=v/t. In this virtual interactive lab www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=304463 you will find the relationship between distance, average speed, and time. Click on the lab titled “Motion d=v/t”. Follow procedural instructions given in the lab. Complete the 7 journal questions and the table and upload and submit the lab assignment (both the journal questions and the table) via Microsoft Word. Lab 1 will be due on October 18, 2020 by 11:59 P.M.If you are unable to go directly to the lab by clicking on the link, copy and paste the link in a new window.Journal Questions:1) Which Challenge question are you answering?2)Which three cars did you select?3) Which one of your three cars do you predict will answer the challenge question?4) Which car actually answered the challenge questions? How does this result compare to your prediction?5) Does the fastest car always travel the farthest? Why or why not?6) Does the car traveling the longest time always travel the greatest distance?7) What real-world applications depend on the relationship between distance, average speed, and time?
Assignment 1: The Annotated BibliographyObjective: Assess sources for your research for your final presentation (for credibility, reliability, and relevance) and list references in proper APA formatAssignment Instructions: The Research Project/Presentation for this class is divided into three major Assignments, 1) annotated bibliography, 2) outline and 3) final presentation. The first part is the annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary and evaluation, and your annotated bibliography will include a summary and evaluation of some of the sources (or references) you will use for your presentation.To prepare for this assignment, I recommend that you do the following:Read these directions carefully.Review the sample annotated bibliography provided to you below.Message me using Classroom Support with any questions!The reason the annotated bibliography is included as part of the research project is that writing an annotated bibliography is important in that it provides excellent preparation for the final presentation. One of the issues regarding any type of research, especially in chemistry, is the credibility of the sources used, particularly those obtained from various websites. By forcing you to evaluate each of your potential sources carefully, the annotated bibliography helps you determine if in fact the source you chose is credible and helps you determine how relevant it is to your topic and understand the topic better which will help you develop your presentation.For this project, you will assess three sources to include:1) a complete citation for each source,2) a summary of each source, an3) an evaluation of each source.Three sources are required for this assignment (i.e., you are to write an annotation for each source). However, you must use five or more sources in your final presentation.
Choose the topic for your course project.Familiarize yourself with PowerPoint with Audio Narration, which you will be using for your final presentation.Upload a “mini-presentation” introducing the molecule of your choice and explaining why you chose this topic for the course project.
BIO 1121Unit 2 Written AssignmentDirectionsAccurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and adjusting the pH of solutions are routine procedures in a working laboratory environment. This assignment is designed to provide you with an overview of the general skills and knowledge you would need to perform such tasks.Before completing this assignment, you should ensure you have read your textbook particularly the section entitled pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases. Answers should be concise and well written. Make sure you correctly explain your thought process and provide all the necessary information.Question 1The pH of a solution describes its acidity or alkalinity: Describe how pH and H3O+ concentration are related and explain why diluting an acid raises the pH, but diluting a base lowers the pH.Question 2Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) is a commonly used buffer for experiments in biology because its pH and ion concentrations are similar to those in mammalian organisms. It works in a similar fashion to the blood plasma buffer mentioned in the textbook, but using dihydrogen phosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions for buffering through the following chemical reaction:H2PO4- (aq) ? H+(aq) + HPO42–(aq)The equilibrium arrows depict that the phosphate ion (H2PO4- ) is dissociating further into two component ions in solution, but at the same time H+ and HPO42- ions are combining simultaneously to form phosphate in solution. So, at any given point in time, and under the appropriate conditions, there is an equal quantity of dissolved ions and combined ions in solution. There is therefore always a hydrogen ion donor and an acceptor in solution.Based on the equation above, which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion donor (acid) and which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion acceptor (base) in PBS?Question 3The composition of PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4. Below is the protocol to make 1 litre of 10x concentrate PBS.Combine the following:· 80g NaCl· 2g KCl· 14.4g Na2HPO4 (dibasic anhydrous)· 2.4g KH2PO4 (monobasic anhydrous)· 800mL distilled H2O1. Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl2. Add H2O to 1L3. Autoclave for 20 minutes on liquid cycle. Store at room temperature.Which ions are being produced by this process, assuming that each of the chemical compounds dissociate into their constituent parts once they are dissolved in water?Question 4Preparation of the correct buffer is key to any good biological experiment and it is important that you understand how to calculate the mass of each chemical required to make that buffer and what the resulting concentration of those constituents will be in moles per litreYour text book explains that moles are just a way to express the amount of a substance, such that one mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance. These particles can be can be atoms, molecules, ions etc, so 1 mole of water is equal to 6.02 x 1023 water molecules, or 1 mole of Na+ is equal to 6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions. Since different chemicals have different molecular weights (based on the number of protons and neutrons each atom contains) 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of oxygen (O) will have a mass of 16g whereas 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of sodium (Na) will have a mass of 23gIf you need more information on moles, please read Encyclopedia Britannica’s Moles website.Although you may sometimes see it written as g/litre, the concentration of solutions is more often described in term of molarity since it better defines the chemical properties of a solution because it is proportional to the number of molecules or ions in solution, irrespective of molecular mass of its constituents. However, it is not possible to measure moles on a laboratory balance, so in the first instance chemicals are measured by mass (milligrams, grams, kilograms etc) and the number of moles is calculated using the known molecular mass (often called molecular weight and abbreviated to M.W.) of the chemical. As indicated earlier, the molecular mass of a chemical is based on the number of protons and neutrons that is contained in each atom (eg NaCl is made up of one molecule of Na, M.W. = 22.99g and one molecule of Cl, M.W. = 35.45g, so the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g). These values can be found in the periodic table however the molecular mass of chemicals is generally provided by any vendors of the products and so can also be found on various suppliers websites.When the concentrations of solutions are as described as molar, this refers to number of moles per litre eg a 3-molar solution of NaCl will contain 3 moles of NaCl in 1 litre of water. As indicated above, the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g, so in 58.44g there are 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules ie 1 mole. So, for 3 moles of NaCl you would need to dissolve 175.32g in 1 litre of water (175.32/58.44 =3) whereas If you only dissolved 29.22g of NaCl in 1 litre of water this would result in a 0.5 molar solution (29.22/58.44= 0.5)1. As directed you need to check the periodic table and pick up the atomic masses for each of the component atoms in the compounds. For example, for NaCl you need to pick the atomic weight of both sodium and chlorine and then add them to two decimal places to obtain the molecular mass of NaCl. Be sure to multiply the atomic masses by the number of individual atoms of the same element present in each compound before finally adding to the masses of other component atoms of other elements to make up the total molecular masses.2. From there you can calculate the number of ‘moles’ of each compound by multiplying the provided weight of compound used in the PBS solution by their respective molar mass conversion factors (i.e. 1L divided by the molecular mass you have calculated in the first step)3. Now, the molarity in Mol per Litre (mol/l) is given by the ‘number of moles’ of each compound (calculated in step 2 above) divided by the given volume of the solution.For more information on how to calculate morality, refer to wikiHow’s 4 Ways to Calculate Molarity.Using periodic table found in your textbook, calculate (to 2 decimal places) the molecular mass for each of the compounds used to make PBS.Create the following table and fill it in with the mass of each component required to make 1 litre of 10 x PBS (the recipe for 10x PBS is below question 2) and their final molar concentration in the buffer calculated as described above.Compound formulaMolecular mass (in g/mol)Mass of compound per litre of 10x PBS (in g)Molar concentration (in mol/l)NaClKClNa2HPO4KH2PO4Question 5As previously stated, the concentration of NaCl, KCl and Phosphate in working strength 1 x PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4 How do they compare to the concentrations you calculated for 10x PBS?Watch the following videos and answer the remaining questions? “Using an Electronic Balance” from Bio-Rad tutorials? Using a pH Meter” from Bio-Rad tutorials? ” Making a PBS solution ” from Community College Consortium for Bioscience CredentialsQuestion 6What is the first thing to do after putting a weighing boat on the balance?Question 7If you have excess reagent on the weighing boat, what should you avoid doing and why?Question 8If you had the choice between a 1-litre beaker and a 1 litre graduated cylinder, which one should you use to measure volumes with maximal precision when making 1 litre of PBS? (you can perform an internet search to find this if you are not sure of the answer)Question 9What should be done before measuring an unknown pH of a solution using a pH meter?Question 10The recipe for PBS says to dissolve compounds in 800 ml of water, adjust the pH to 7.4, then add water up to 1 litre. The final pH should still be 7.4, because the pH of buffer solutions remains stable when they are diluted as long as the concentration of its constitutive acid and base is not too low.Why do you think the protocol does not say to dissolve compounds directly in 1 litre of water?Question 11The PBS protocol above says to adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl. What does this imply on the pH of 10x PBS before adjusting the pH, would it be greater or smaller than 7.4?Question 12The last step in the protocol is to autoclave the 10x PBS solution. Why do you think this step is important? Look up the definition of autoclave if you are unsure what it means.Question 13Taking into account your response to question 5, now that you have made a 10x PBS solution, describe how you would prepare 1 litre of 1x working solution PBS, including which glassware you would use. Will you need to adjust the pH again?
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