What are the strengths and weaknesses of leaving the primary responsibility for police protection to local governments versus the federal or state government?part 2What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?What is the benefit of doing a neighborhood canvass after a crime is committed?Name the five crime scene search patterns.What are the benefits of documenting interrogations?part 3Chapter 2 OER1. What are the two primary classification of evidence used in criminal cases? Define them, andgive an example of each type of evidence.2. What two tools can parties use to meet the burden of proof? Define both of the tools. Provide an example of each tool.3. What is meant by diversity of State Laws?A. Name an example of diversity of state law provided in the book?B. Pick an example of diversity of state lawfrom the book. Do you agree with the states position? Why or why not?Chapter 3 OER1. Brad was convicted of possession of cocaine and sentenced to 5 years in prison in 2019. In 2020, the state legislature passed a law making possession of cocaine a misdemeanor.Cliff was arrested for a misdemeanor assault when he tried to choke his wife during a domestic dispute in 2019. In 2020, the state passed a law making choking a felony. Cliff has not been tried or convicted of the assault.A. What type of law, prohibited by the Constitution, is relevant for consideration for Brad and Cliff?B. What is the definition of this law?C. Can Brad have his sentence reduced to a misdemeanor and be released from prison? Why or why not? Explain your answer in detail.D. Can the prosecutor charge Cliff with a felony? Why or why not. Explain your answer in detail.part 4Chapter 7 – State v. EllisList all the actions taken by the resident assistants and the Central State Police Department officersthat invaded Ellis’s Fourth Amendment right of privacy in his dorm room.Explain why the court’s interrogation of resident assistants’ actions was consistent with reasonable Fourth Amendment searches but the police officers’ actions were unreasonable. Do you agree? Defend your answer.Interrogate Ellis’s Fourth Amendment privacy ideal from his standpoint. Back up your answer.As they relate to the special needs/privacy ideal, should it matter whether the resident assistants, campus police, or city police conducted the search? Defend your answer.Chapter 8 – Miranda v. ArizonaAccording to SCOTUS, what do the words “custody” and “interrogation” mean?Why is custodial interrogation “inherently coercive,” according to the majority?Identify and explain the criteria for waiving the right against self-incrimination in custodial interrogation.On what grounds do the dissenters disagree with the majority’s decision? What interests are in conflict,according to the Court?How do the majority and the dissent explain the balance of interests established by the Constitution?Which is more consistent with the relevant criminal procedures ideals regarding the law of police interrogation, the majority’s bright-line rule, requiring warnings, or the dissent’s due process test, weighing the totality of circumstances on a case-by-case basis? Defend your answer.
There are many theories about the formation of the universe, with the Big Bang theory as the most popular. You will research 2 or more of these theories.For your 1-2-page paper with cites references:· Explain the background of your selected theories (at least two).· What available evidence supports and disproves each of the theories?· What are at least two similarities and two differences?· Which theory do you believe best supports the development of the universe?Examples of the Common Theories include: Big Bang Theory, Cosmic Inflation Theory, Oscillating Universe Theory, Big Crunch Theory Steady State Theory, Cycle Universe Theory, String Theory, etc.Helpful and reputablewebsites:https://www.thoughtco.com/https://www.space.com/https://www.nasa.gov/https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/
You are a city police officer. You respond to a call where the neighbors are complaining about yelling and screaming from the next apartment. When you go to the apartment with the yelling and screaming, a woman answers the door with bloody face. You can see a man behind her with bloody hands. You ask the woman if she is ok and she says she is fine.Assignment: Write a 2-4 page paper that explains what you will do next (as a police officer)
Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you research and identify past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of institutional and community based human services.Identify and explain current and future issues facing correctional and court administrators in addressing and managing potential human service needs. At minimum, your paper should identify issues of age, gender, and mental health.
List at least three (3) advantages of having an evidence-collection unit process a crime scene instead of a patrol officer or detective. Further discuss the pros and cons of the same.Book name: Crime Victims an Introduction to Victimology Eighth EditionAndrew KarmenJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeCity University of New York
Do officers with body cameras have reduced use-of-force incidents compared to officers without body cameras?1. What is your DEPENDENT variable (that’s the one you’re trying to explain or predict). 2. How do you plan to measure it (be specific)3. What type of measurement will it will be (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)4. How else could you have measured your dependent variable?What was unusual about the petition that Gideon filed with the Supreme Court?
Write a 1,400- to 2,100-word paper in which you assess criminal justice from a global perspective. In your paper be sure to analyze the following:Assess the impact of globalization on the U.S. criminal justice system.Compare and contrast international criminal justice systems (Civil Law, Common law, and Islamic Law and Socialist Law traditions).Discuss the impact that cyber crime and technology have had on worldwide justice systems.Differentiate the policing systems on a worldwide scale.Identify major crimes and criminal issues that have a global impact on justice systems and processes (e.g., Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Darfur, Congo, etc.). Include at least four peer reviewed references.Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
Prompt: In the article Stage-Based Challenges and Strategies for Support in Doctoral Education: A Practical Guide for Students, Faculty Members, and Administrators, Pifer and Baker (2016) identified three stages of doctoral education, explaining each one and suggesting strategies to overcome challenges that arise in each stage. The excerpted reading below includes the explanations and strategies aimed at doctoral students in the first two stages of doctoral education: knowledge consumption and knowledge creation. Read through these paragraphs from Pifer and Baker (2016), and then compose an essay in response to these questions:Based on the challenges and strategies discussed by Pifer and Baker (2016), what challenges do you anticipate you will face in your doctoral program?What strategies will you apply to work through these challenges in your doctoral journey?In your essay, include relevant paraphrased and cited information from this reading excerpt:Stage 1: Knowledge Consumption In the first stage of doctoral education, the admission process through the first year of coursework, students begin to cultivate their identities as doctoral-level learners. The early stage of the doctoral journey may include a rough transition into the learner role. This initial transition may bring challenges related to identity shifts from professional to student, changes in geographic locations, and generally adjusting to their new roles as nascent disciplinary members (Gardner, 2009b; Sweitzer, 2009; Vekkaila, Pyhältö, & Lonka, 2013). At this stage, students with career experience shed their prior professional identities. This may present a challenge as students do away with, or put on hold, hard-earned status and expertise and assume the identity of the novice and the new entrant into departmental, institutional, and disciplinary cultures (J. Austin et al., 2009; Gardner, 2009b; Sweitzer, 2009). In addition, the magnitude of the scholarly pursuit may come with feelings of fear, doubt, and isolation (Brill, Balcanoff, Land, Gogarty, & Turner, 2014), in addition to exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficiency (Vekkaila et al., 2013).Also at this time, students learn the sociocultural norms and expectations of their fields, as well as the requirements and structural guidelines of their programs. First-year coursework provides foundational content knowledge, and communicates faculty expectations for student engagement and performance. Students engage in the traditional approach to learning, whereby the professor imparts foundational knowledge through classroom instruction. Acquiring this knowledge is the first step towards legitimacy in their chosen fields. Curricular expectations and disciplinary knowledge norms as communicated through coursework may challenge students considerably (Gardner, 2009b).Stage 1 strategies for studentsWe suggest that students conduct a needs assessment to identify the areas for which they need support, as well as the types of relationships that can provide that support (Baker, Pifer, & Griffin, 2014; Martinsuo & Turkulainen, 2011). This process, once implemented, can be repeated as needed across the stages of students doctoral programs. This is an important stage to establish the advising, mentoring, and peer support relationships that will be instrumental throughout the doctoral journey (J. Austin et al., 2009; Baker & Pifer, 2011; Stubb, Pyhältö, & Lonka, 2014). Students and their doctoral supervisors dont always share perceptions and expectations of their own and each others roles (Holbrook et al., 2014; Wade-Benzoni, Rousseau, & Li, 2006; Woolderink, Putnik, van der Boom, & Klabbers, 2015); taking the initiative to inquire with their supervisors at this stage of the journey may help establish a shared understanding that reduces ambiguity and provides structure to that key relationship (Main, 2014). Additionally, this is a good time for students to become familiar with key disciplinary associations as they seek to become familiar with disciplinary norms and cross-institutional networks. Early participation in disciplinary meetings will also allow students to begin creating and cultivating their developmental networks, which will help combat the isolation that accompanies Stage 2 and will facilitate the research and job search tasks in Stage 3 (Adegbola, 2014; Sweitzer, 2009; Yerkes, Van de Schoot, & Sonneveld, 2012)Stage 2: Knowledge CreationStage 2 includes the completion of coursework, candidacy exams, and the dissertation proposal development and defense. Such significant tasks can bring with them equally significant fears, concerns, and self-doubt. Research has revealed the potential difficulty in transitioning to independence as students engage in the development of their scholarly identities, professional skills, and research agendas (Baker, Pifer, & Flemion, 2013; Gardner, 2009b; Lovitts, 2005; Walker et al., 2008). This can be an isolating time, yet research suggests that academic integration is critical for persistence (Golde, 2000, 2005). There is often no precedent for the type of activity and responsibilities students encounter in Stage 2 as they move away from the structure provided by courses. No longer prompted by responsibilities such as attending class or collaborating on assignments, interactions with faculty and fellow students can become infrequent. Students relationships, both within and outside the academic program, must evolve to accommodate this transition. Work with faculty members shifts during this stage from structured dialogues in the classroom to the unstructured nature of collaboration and supervision that occurs in research projects, writing, and dissertation work. Interactions with family and friends can also become strained or less frequent if time for personal relationships is sacrificed for research and writing (Baker & Pifer, 2011; Gardner & Gopaul, 2012).Stage 2 strategies for students The pressure to develop professionally, while still completing their training in the new autonomy of Stage 2, can be overwhelming. Recognizing and understanding this stage can help students manage its challenges effectively. It is normal to feel uneasy with the rapid, ill defined, and sometimes confusing transition from coursework to independent scholarship. Stage 2 is a useful time for applying prior learning to the construction of their own scholarship, research agendas, expertise, and professional identities (Baker, Pifer, & Flemion, 2013). It is important for students to be proactive about communicating in both personal and professional relationships during Stage 2. One of the most important relationships is that with the advisor or dissertation chair (Barnes & Austin, 2009; Gardner, 2008; McAlpine & Amundsen, 2012). Students who are able to let their advisors know what they expect from those relationships, and who give their advisors the chance to express their style or expectations, may find it easier to approach difficult conversations or to address challenges that may arise. We encourage conducting a needs assessment with the advisor/supervisor as a way to establish expectations and goals for the working relationship moving forward (Baker, Pifer, & Griffin, 2014; Vaquera, 2007). As students balance teaching, research, publishing, and the other facets of doctoral training, talking about these experiences with peers and faculty members becomes important and can ease the stress associated with maintaining a careful balance between personal and professional responsibilities during the transitions of Stage 2 (Fenge, 2012; Jairam & Kahl, 2012; McDaniels, 2010; Pearson, Cumming, Evans, Macauley, & Ryland, 2011). Fellow students can provide formal support such as writing groups as well as informal support and friendship (Aitchison, 2009; Martinsuo & Turkulainen, 2011; Pilbeam, LloydJones, & Denyer, 2013).The reading above is excerpted from the following article:Pifer, M. J. & Baker, V. L. (2016). Stage-based challenges and strategies for support in doctoral education: A practical guide for students, faculty members, and program administrators. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11, 15-34. https://doi.org/10.28945/2347Stage-based Challenges and Strategies for Support in Doctoral Education: A Practical Guide for Students, Faculty Members, and Program Administrators, by Pifer, M. J. & Baker, V. L., in International Journal of Doctoral Studies, Vol. 11. Copyright 2016 by Informing Science Institute. Reprinted by permission of Informing Science Institute via the Copyright Clearance Center.Prompt: Based on the challenges and strategies discussed by Pifer and Baker (2016), what challenges do you anticipate you will face in your doctoral program? What strategies will you apply to work through these challenges in your doctoral journey?By Day 7 (Sunday) of Week 2 at 11:59 pm MST (please adjust this time to your current time zone)Write a 1-2-page, double-spaced essay in response to the prompt above. To present your strongest writing skills, submit an essay that:Provides a focused and clear central idea that responds to both questions in the assignment prompt with developed ideas;Integrates relevant and accurate paraphrased and/or quoted evidence from the provided reading in support of the argument, accompanied by appropriate analysis and some form of citation and/or attribution to signal when information is used from the reading;Organizes ideas with logical structure, clear paragraphs, and transitional words/phrases;Uses grammar and mechanics to effectively communicate meaning to readers;Maintains academic integrity by demonstrating your original work and appropriately paraphrasing and citing relevant information from the Pifer and Baker (2016) reading excerpt. Including outside sources beyond the Pifer and Baker (2016) reading excerpt provided above is not required for this essay; if you use them, however, then you must cite any information you summarize, paraphrase, or quote.For additional tips as you draft and revise your essay, visit the Doctoral Writing Assessment website and the Writing Center website. Note, however, that this assignment is not eligible for the Writing Centers paper review service.
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