Research Studies

[Solved] Task Definition and Information Seeking Strategies

The goal of this assignment is to choose a topic and create a research plan that will contribute to the Week 7 Field of Study Project.  Description:  We have read about two steps of the BIG6 model: task definition and information-seeking strategies (CO1 & 2). As you consider the Week 7 Field of Study Project, you will complete a project plan to help you focus your energies and generate ideas to help you be successful academically. To complete the Week 2 Assignment: Project Plan, you have to complete Parts I and II.  Part I: Click on the Assignment tab to review the instructions for the Week 7 Field of Study Project. After you understand what is required in Week 7, write one or two sentences per bullet point (there are additional questions and points to help you flesh out your ideas):  Topic: Choose a topic that is realistic and one that you want to learn more about. The topic might be a career field you want to go into or something else that deeply interests you. Scope and value: What is the scope of the topic and your research? What value does it bring to your life? To your professional life?  Communication medium: How are you going to communicate your project? How will you make your presentation different and unique?  Critical thinking questions: Pose different questions that will help you with your research and investigate your topic in more depth.  Post critical questions that will push you to improve.  Subtopics (optional). Brainstorming (optional).  Part II: Part II is a reflective paragraph that represents your critical thinking process when thinking about possible sources and your research. You are NOT looking for specific sources now. Consider the best possible sources as presented in the Week 2 Lesson. What type of sources will work best for your research? How can you support your project plan with credible, current, reliable, accurate, and relevant information? Once you complete Parts I and II, please submit as a WORD document.  Consider the following:  – Keep in mind that a robust project plan will help you with the Week 4 and Week 7 assignments. Colors to use Online How to Create Useful Videos for Online College Courses How to use Speaker Notes Images on Presentations Present Better

Dec 5th, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Information Search

Description: 1. Decide on a type of product that you would like to buy in the future.  2. Pick 3 alternatives (brands, styles, etc.) for instance if you decided upon sneakers, what 3 brands/styles/colors would you consider? Nike, Adidas, and New Balance 3. Go online and search for information about your choices (Amazon, Yelp, eBay, Facebook, etc..) This could be from the brand or from other consumers  4. Read reviews and ratings. You can also ask your friends, family, experts, and salespeople, reviews, and ratings. 5. Make a decision based on your findings. Now write a paper answering the following questions (3-4 paragraphs):  What were the 3 products you chose to research? What websites and/or social media did you use to complete your research? Give some examples of ratings or reviews. Did you speak with anyone directly about the product? If so, what did you find out (family, friends, others)? What did you learn from the research? What was your decision (product to buy)? Why did you make this decision?   What was the external vs. internal search process in your decision making?

Dec 5th, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Investigating Learning Processes

The assignment consists of a portfolio of written work presenting tasks that underpin a staged process of investigating and improving a learning activity. It is very important that you identify your own area of investigation which leads into your design based experiment promptly so that you can begin to construct the portfolio and then add to this in sequence as each aspect of the module is taught. Task 1 Starting point (300 words) The aim of this task is to describe a learning experience that is important to you as it is now.  What are the intended learning goals of the activity? What typically happens during this experience? Are there any critical incidents that come to mind? What do you feel about this? Why do you think it happens this way? Task 2 Mapping and critiquing relevant research (1000 words) This task asks you to find examples of research that relate to and may help to explain the learning experiences you describe in Task 1. These must be empirical studies that report data drawn from the direct observation of learning – hence opinion pieces or papers that review research in an area are not suitable. There are two subtasks involved: Use the table provided to map out the main features of each of the studies (this can be submitted as an appendix to your portfolio) Using this table as a reference, write a short critique of one study. Some of the questions below may be useful in guiding your approach. Is there a clear research question or hypothesis identified? Does it draw on any theories of learning explicitly or implicitly? What research methodology has been chosen? Are the reasons for this clear? Is the approach valid (i.e. is the method likely to answer the question)? Is the approach reliable (e.g. has the approach to data analysis transparent to you)? Are the findings clearly reported? Are they based on the data collected? Has the data been stretched too far in your opinion? Do the conclusions follow from the findings? What generalisations are made? Are practical implications identified?  Do these have any relevance to you in your professional context? Are you convinced? Have your own theories changed? Task 3 Applying theory to your experiences (500 words)  There are two subtasks involved: Represent in the diagrammatic form how different orientating frameworks apply to your own learning experiences, e.g. using a Venn diagram, mind map, the odd one out, SWOT format. Write a commentary on the diagram that explains how the theories compare and identify which is most helpful in understanding the learning processes involved.  Are there any related grand theories you can use to inform your redesign of the learning experience?   Task 4 Designing a learning activity to test (1000 words) You now need to think about a new Framework for Action that changes the way your learning experience is organized. Your write-up needs to explain the following: What new materials, tasks, and/or roles have you designed? (i.e. your proposed Framework for Action) What is the learning trajectory you envisage and the intended outcomes that you have in mind?  What is the research evidence or theoretical basis for these expectations (i.e. relate your design to the orienting framework, grand theory or any relevant more specific theories you are using)  What changes in the enacted behaviors do you expect? Why do you think your design will produce these outcomes? Task 5 Critique of research methods used in the experiment (500 words) You need to explain how and why the methods you are using (e.g. participant observation; video; interview) will help you to test your hypotheses about the newly designed learning activity.  Why are these methods well suited to investigating learning processes in ‘real’ contexts?  What problems and limitations have you considered when applying them to the trial of your learning activity? Task 6 Carrying out and reporting the design experiment (2000 words) This section consists of a report of the outcomes from a design experiment that involves a cycle of data collection and learning activity, relating your innovation (framework for action) to previous experience.   You need to:  Document the instructional starting point: present data to show how the learning experience typically occurs or how it has happened in the past (this may include recording learning in action and/or other data). Present data collected during a learning experience that employs your designed framework for action. You are free to structure the write-up in any way you see fit, although the headings used for the mapping exercise in Task 3 may prove useful here.  In any case, the report must contain the following: Pseudonyms for all places and people who are directly referred to in the report.  It should not be possible to identify participants from their given names or their reported speech. A short description of the context, including location, participants, the aims and objectives of the activity concerned. Your hypothesis about the effect of your design. A comparison of variables of interest with and without your designed framework for action. A commentary explaining what the data tell us about learning processes before and after the introduction of your design.  You will need to make reference to the theory when doing this. Review your hypothesis in the light of the data you have gathered.  How has your understanding changed?  Are there any confounding factors or problems with the conduct of the experiment that make it hard for you to draw firm conclusions?  How might these be addressed by future cycles of research? Ethical issues that were addressed before the research proceeded.  In particular, you need to refer to steps taken to secure informed consent.  Examples of information sheets and consent forms should be included in the appendices. N.B.  Recordings are not to be submitted with the portfolio. However, you may want to present extract(s) of transcribed dialogue from video or audio recordings. (The length of these will vary but ten turns is around the maximum you should aim for).   Explain how the extracts were chosen. Task 7 Next steps (500 words) Use one of the design research frameworks discussed (e.g. Middleton et al) to explain how your micro investigation could be developed into an extended study of learning processes to produce a domain-specific instructional theory.  What are the different stages that would characterize how this study evolves over time? Task 8 Critique of design research as a methodology for improving learning in your context (40 credit version only) (2000 words) This task asks you to critically appraise design-based research as a methodology for innovating on and improving learning in your context.  The following questions may help in structuring your approach: What is the predominant methodology that is used to investigate learning in your area of interest? (e.g. Randomised control trials, quasi-experiments, action research, case studies) What new perspectives does design-based research add to this field of research?  What are the potential weaknesses in this methodology that make its use problematic?

Dec 4th, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Civil Rights Research Paper

Your task for this project is to write a 4-6 page research paper on a topic related to the Civil Rights Movement.  You are required to cite at least 3-4 scholarly sources within your paper and record the full bibliographical information for them in a “Works Cited” section at the end of your paper.  You may use any format for your citations.  Use MLA  format for your citations.   Remember a research paper is not a report; it must deal with an analysis of a specific issue & should prove a specific thesis.  A thesis statement states the main idea of the paper and is generally found in the introductory paragraph.  The following topics provide ideas for the focus of the paper but they are not thesis statements.  Remember to be as specific as possible when writing your thesis.   Submission Guidelines The final paper must be typed and double-spaced.   http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/ The link above will take you to the section on general paper formatting, and at the bottom of the page you will find links to other helpful sections on in-text citation, works cited pages, formatting quotes, etc.   SUGGESTED TOPICS The history behind & impact of the Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case Blacks in baseball—How did it affect or mirror the removal of other barriers for African Americans in society in general? Evaluate the tactics & accomplishments of the Civil Rights movement during the 1960s. Martin Luther King v. Malcolm X—2 diametrically different approaches to the same goal. Which one accomplished more? The affirmative action program—what is it? How effective has it been in achieving integrated schools & workplaces? Blacks in the military—their contributions & attempts to overcome discrimination The urban riots of the late 1960’s versus the riots of 2020—similarities and differences Black-on-black crime—reasons for it; can it be prevented? Is white society responsible for it? The emasculation of the black male—deliberate? Can anything be done about it?  Why do black females seem to have an easier time than males? De facto v. de jure segregation—which is worse? Non-violent v. violent resistance—why the change? Analyze both forms of protest—is there a need for both?  (NOTE:  This can be part of a paper comparing MLK & Malcolm X). Black Lives Matter—a reform movement or a terrorist organization? The black power movement—devils or angels in disguise? Hip-hop—How did it evolve? Does hip-hop music have any influence on the rise of violence & other outbursts in social behavior? Police brutality in the black community—the more things change the more they remain the same (“plus ca change, plus c’est la meme chose”) Blacks & Jews—Can the broken alliance be fixed?   Remember, these are just suggested topics; you do not have to use any of them.  I do want you to think out of the box when you choose a topic.  Go into detail; don’t be afraid to take on a controversial topic or controversial opinion.  Always, however, remember to back up your opinion with facts.    I want to know the topic you chose no later than 7/14/20.  I would like to see an outline of your paper with a list of your sources no later than 7/28/20.  The paper itself is due 8/6/20. I am available to you 24/7 for guidance.   You may email me at  yafa.berger@touro.edu or  text me at 347-276-2396.  Please include your name and the class in your text. I have included some guiding information as to how to cite primary & secondary sources. Term Paper: Format of Citations and References Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material. This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes. For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001) modified with italics substituted for underlining. This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences. The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses (as above) and optionally include the page number(s) after the date. If the author’s name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3  (Links to an external site.) . Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. publications). typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses the author(s) last names, the year, and optionally page number(s) separated by commas. For one author, use the author’s last name and year separated by a comma. For example: (Walters, 1994) or (Austin, 1996). For two to five authors, use their last names separated by commas and with an ampersand “&” before the very last name in the list, then the year separated by a comma. For example: (Li & Crane, 1993) (Charniak, Riesbeck, McDermott & Meehan, 1994). For more than five authors, use the first author’s last name and “et al.” For example: (Walters, et al., 1992). For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author(s) for the same year, use letters after the year: (Walters, 1993b). If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year (Walters, 1994, pp. 31-49). If you include the author’s name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: “Austin (1996) includes valuable references to ….” or “The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses …”. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called “References”. This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author’s last name, or (if no author is listed) the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first. Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference. 4.1. Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: Author. (date). Title. [the full reference, which follows, is discussed below] The following explains these fields. Author First author’s last name, followed by the initials. If there are two authors, separate their names with “and”. For three or more authors, separate all but the last author’s name with commas, and use “and” before the last author’s name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. For example Walters, R.F. Walters, R.F. and Reed, N.E. Walters, R.F., Bharat, S. R. and Austin, A.A. Charniak, E., Riesbeck, C., McDermott, D. and Meehan, J. National Bureau of Standards. Date Enclose the date in parentheses. Use a date sufficiently specific for the item. For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical. End with a period. For example: (1995). (1992, October). (1995, August 30). Title If the title is that of an article, use the regular font; if it is the title of a book, italicize it. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns. If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter. End with a period. For example, an article’s title would look like: Computer-based systems integration. and a book’s title would look like: The ABC’s of MUMPS: An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. .4. References Found in Electronic Form Many resource materials are available through Melvyl and Harvest, which are the electronic access points for the UC Davis library. More are on CDROM, or on the Internet. These can serve as appropriate references for research reports and term papers. It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen “hard copy” (printed versions) of the file(s) you wish to cite. This section describes how you are to cite references that you have obtained from electronic repositories. The basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information: the type of medium used, and the material’s availability. In general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term “[Online]” or the term “[CDROM]” (enclosed in square brackets) before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited. If you are citing a part of a larger work, you should give the title, followed by a comma, the word “In” followed by the larger work, and then add “[Online]” or “[CDROM]” as appropriate, followed by a period. Citing the availability of an electronic document should give the reader enough information to know where to locate the file and, if necessary, the specific portion of the file cited. Electronic documents can come from several types of locations: the Internet (e.g., world wide web): give the location and file name; the URL is sufficient In each case, you should give enough information to let the reader know how to access the information electronically. Generally, giving the site (Internet-style server name) on which the information resides, the name of the file, and the complete path (list of directories) showing how to get to it is sufficient. For example:  [Online]. Available: http://escher.ucdavis.edu:1024/rtahomepage.html Samples of Complete References All of the examples given above may be summarized by citing a few references in the form we would like you to use. Here are some examples that would be cited in the text as (Crosley, 1988), (Essinger, 1991, May 28, pp. 97-99), (Armstrong & Keevil, 1991, p. 103), and so forth. 5.1. Printed Book Crosley, L.M. (1988). The architects’ guide to computer-aided-design. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons. 5.2. Magazine Article Essinger, J. (1991, May 28). Just another tool of your trade. Accountancy 108, pp. 91-125. 5.3. Journal Article Armstrong, P. and Keevil, S. (1991). Magnetic resonance imaging-2: Clinical uses. British Medical Journal 303(2), 105-109. 5.4. Interview Computer, Christopher C. (1996, January 10) Professor, Computer Science Department, University of California – Davis, 3:00 pm, Davis, California. 5.5. World Wide Web Address Austin, A. (1996) Annotated List of World Wide Web Technical Writing and Computer-Aided Composition Resources [Online]. Available: http://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/~austina/cai.html. Burke, J. (1992, January/February). Children’s research and methods: What media researchers are doing, Journal of Advertising Research, 32, RC2-RC3. [CDROM]. Available: UMI File: Business Periodicals On-disk Item: 92-11501. 5.7. FTP Blood, T. (1995, November 30). Re: Brain implants: the Chinese made it! [Online] In Newsgroup: bionet.neuroscience, Available FTP: ftp.bio.indiana.edu, Directory: /Usenet/bionet/neuroscience, File: 9512.news, Date: Thu, 30 Nov 1995 20:39:35. Watson, L, and Dallwitz, M.J. (1990, December). Grass genera of world-interactive identification and information retrieval. Flora Online: An Electronic Publication of TAXACOM (22). [Online]. Available FTP: huh.harvard.edu, Directory: pub/newsletters/flora.online/issue22, File:022gra11.txt.

Dec 4th, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Reliability Validity and Integrity in Action

Describe reliability and validity in quantitative research studies Describe measures to ensure integrity within qualitative research studies Discussion Overview In this discussion forum, you will describe reliability and validity in quantitative research studies and measures to ensure integrity within qualitative research studies. Deliverables Your participation in the discussion forum, including the following: A response to the initial questions below Responses to at least two other students’ posts Step 1 Reflect on your research. Reflect on your proposed research question or problem of interest. Step 2 Post a response to the discussion board. Address the following questions in your response: How would you describe the concepts of reliability and validity as they pertain to quantitative research studies? What are measures the researcher can take to ensure integrity in qualitative research studies? Describe how you could maintain reliability and validity in your study.  Describe what measures you could take to ensure integrity in your study.

Dec 3rd, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] College Experience Campus Activity

One of the major goals of this course is to encourage students to explore college resources and culture. To that end, this assignment is designed to get you out and exploring college life beyond the classroom. Attend campus activities and then report back by writing two papers documenting your experiences.   INSTRUCTIONS  During the event, or shortly afterward, take some time to organize your thoughts about what you’ve observed. When you have completed your observation, write a one-page summary of your experience.  Points (325 total) will be awarded in the following manner:   80 – Description: thoroughly describe the event   80 – Analysis: why do you believe the college puts on events like this?  120 – Personal Reflection: what did you get out of attending this event?   45 – Student followed grammar, composition, and mechanics rules; approx. 400-500 words.  Your paper should be typed, double spaced, 11-point Caliber font or 12-point Times New Roman font, 1” margins, Word Document, not PDF and include your full name and the days/times this class meets. top of the paper, Use academic college-level English. You are encouraged to use the SLC to get feedback and assistance with composition, grammar, and mechanics. I attended  Exploring Majors and Careers Workshop, with Professor Suzanne Prior, Career Advisor at Palm Beach State College on Zoom 8/4/2020 at 11 am.  Notes from the Event attended. Recap the information reviewed during our workshop. I learned that I am in an Exploration Phase, undecided career choice. Better to take Electives in class major then take too many classes and then change major would affect your financial tuition and aid. Based on my assessments this is   My Holland Code:  Investigative= Thinker Realsitic=Doer Enterprising=Persuader My Value= Leadership, Creativity and Organizing My Interest-Gaming, EcoSystem, Research, Math is not my strength so need to avoid a career that has higher math levels courses.  My Skill- Biology the more experience I have in volunteering in my career choice or working will help me know my value decisions. in career choice.

Dec 3rd, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Pro and Con

Should the government give $600 per week to unemployed people until Dec. 31, 2020? Pro and Con research paper. Double spaced, 1″ margins all around. Ten references to six different sources listed on an MLA Works Cited page. MLA parenthetical documentation in body of paper as well. Body of paper should be 5 FULL pages (not including Title or Works Cited pages.)

Dec 3rd, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Evaluating Beliefs

Step 1: Write a discussion post where you answer the following questions using terms and concepts from the Module 2 readings and lecture. Describe in detail an important problem that you recently solved. How did you go about solving the problem? What strategies or approaches did you use to better understand the problem? How did you come to a decision? Analyze the thinking process that you used with the five-step problem-solving method discussed in this week’s material (p. 112). How did your actions line up with this problem-solving method? What are the similarities and differences? Chapter 3 Solving Problems Before applying a method like the one just outlined above to your problem, however, you first need to prepare yourself by accepting the problem. ACCePTIng The Problem To solve a problem, you must first be willing to accept the problem by acknowledg- ing that the problem exists, identifying the problem, and committing yourself to trying to solve it. Successful problem solvers are highly motivated and willing to persevere through the many challenges and frustrations of the problem-solving process. How do you find the motivation and commitment that prepare you to enter the problem-solving process? There are no simple answers, but a number of strategies may be useful to you: 1. List the benefits. Make a detailed list of the benefits you will derive from successfully dealing with the problem. Such a process helps you clarify why you might want to tackle the problem, motivates you to get started, and serves as a source of encouragement when you encounter difficulties or lose momentum. 2. Formalize your acceptance. When you formalize your acceptance of a problem, you are “going on record,” either by preparing a signed declaration Copyright 201? Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Problem-Solving Method (Advanced) Step 1: What is the problem? a. What do I know about the situation? b. What results am I aiming for in this situation? c. How can I define the problem? Step 2: What are the alternatives? a. What are the boundaries of the problem situation? b. What alternatives are possible within these boundaries? Step 3: What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of each alternative? a. What are the advantages of each alternative? b. What are the disadvantages of each alternative? c. What additional information do I need to evaluate each alternative? Step 4: What is the solution? a. Which alternative(s) will I pursue? b. What steps can I take to act on the alternative(s) chosen? Step 5: How well is the solution working? a. What is my evaluation? b. What adjustments are necessary? *Be sure to cite any outside sources in APA

Dec 3rd, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Evidence-Based Practice Proposal

Throughout this course, you have developed a formal, evidence-based practice proposal. The proposal is the plan for an evidence-based practice project designed to address a problem, issue, or concern in the professional work setting. Although several types of evidence can be used to support a proposed solution, a sufficient and compelling base of support from valid research studies is required as the major component of that evidence. Proposals must be submitted in a format suitable for obtaining formal approval in the work setting. Proposals will vary in length depending upon the problem or issue addressed (3,500 and 5,000 words). The cover sheet, abstract, references pages, and appendices are not included in the word count. Section headings for each section component are required. Evaluation of the proposal in all sections will be based upon the extent to which the depth of content reflects graduate-level critical thinking skills. This project contains seven formal sections: Section A: Organizational Culture and Readiness Assessment Section B: Proposal/Problem Statement and Literature Review Section C: Solution Description Section D: Change Model Section E: Implementation Plan Section F: Evaluation of Process Each section (A-F) will be submitted as a separate assignment in Topics 1-6 so your instructor can provide feedback (refer to applicable topics for complete descriptions of each section). The final paper submission in Topic 7 will consist of the completed project (with revisions to all sections), title page, abstract, compiled references list, and appendices. Appendices will include a conceptual model for the project, handouts, data and evaluation collection tools, a budget, a timeline, resource lists, and approval forms, as previously assigned in individual section assignments. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to Lopes Write. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Dec 2nd, 2021

Research Studies

[Solved] Quantitative Research Methods

Part I – Text: Please answer the following 7 questions according to the text below. (42 points, 6 points per question):   The calming effect of a new wearable device during the anticipation of public speech Azevedo, Bennett, Bilicki, Hooper, Markopoulou, and Tsakiris * The original text was edited   Abstract We tested whether the Doppel, a wearable device that aims to reduce anxiety, would have a calming effect on physiological arousal and subjective reports of anxiety during a stressful situation. To test the Doppel, we assigned participants to one of two groups (Doppel powered on versus Doppel powered off) and measured their responses to a stressful situation. Method Participants. A total of 52 (20 male; mean age = 26.4, sd= 5.7) people responded to social media advertisements for the study and agreed to participate. Twenty-five participants (16 female; mean age = 25.9, sd = 5.2) were randomly assigned to the active group (Doppel powered on condition) and 27 participants (16 female; mean age = 26.8, s.d. = 6.1) to the control group (Doppel powered off condition).  Measures and procedures. When participants came to the lab, they were asked to complete a baseline assessment of their subjective ratings of anxiety on a 20-item questionnaire. Their answers were given on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (always). Afterward, they were hooked up to physiological devices which measured their physiological arousal. For the purpose of this study, physiological arousal was measured as the number of spikes in the electrical activity of their skin. The more spikes in skin electricity, the higher their physiological arousal. The participants were then instructed to sit quietly for 5 minutes so the researchers could collect a baseline measure of their physiological arousal. Following the baseline measurement, the participants were fitted with a Doppel wristband. A research assistant told them that they were turning the Doppel device on and that that the Doppel device was measuring their blood pressure (in order to conceal the real purpose of the study). The participants were also told they may feel some vibrations from the device while it was on. Participants were randomly assigned in a single-blind manner to one of two conditions (doppelpowered off condition and Doppel powered on condition).  Next, participants were told they would have 5 minutes to prepare a speech about animal research, explaining both the pros and cons on the subject, and would then have to present it in front of a panel of expert judges in the next room. This task served as a stressful situation manipulation and physiological arousal was measured continuously throughout the task. After the participants prepared their speeches, they were asked to fill out their subjective ratings of anxiety again. In addition, they reported on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely) the extent to which they found the speech preparation stressful.  Once they completed this final task, the research assistant removed the physiological equipment and the Doppel device from the participant. At the end of the study, participants were debriefed and thanked for their participation. Results At the beginning of the experiment, the two groups displayed comparable levels of physiological arousal (as measured by the number of spikes in skin electricity) and comparable levels of anxiety on the “subjective ratings of state anxiety” questionnaire. However, at the end of their stressful speech preparation, participants in the Doppel powered on condition showed a significantly smaller increase in physiological arousal compared to the control group. Similarly, at the end of their stressful speech preparation participants in the Doppel powered on condition reported a significantly smaller increase in their subjective anxiety ratings compared to the control group. Finally, participants in the Doppel powered on condition found the task significantly less stressful than participants in the control condition. Overall, we found that the group with a powered-on Doppel (compared to the control group) felt more relaxed, had lower physiological arousal, and lower subjective anxiety ratings during the stressful situation. General Discussion We tested the efficacy of a new wearable device on calmness during a task that typically induces high anxiety. In the present study, we hypothesized that a slow vibration from the Doppel, as opposed to the absence of any vibration (i.e., the control group), would enable participants to be calm during a stressful scenario. To that end, we told participants that the Doppel was a blood pressure monitoring device, and only for one of the two groups, we turned on the Doppel to deliver its vibrations during the stressful scenario. The results highlight that the use of the Doppel had a clear and significant calming effect in both a physiological measure of arousal and a subjective report of anxiety during a task that is effective in inducing stress, suggesting that the Doppel enabled participants to stay calmer and less anxious, as compared with the condition where the device was worn but was not performing its intended function. The results of the study support the effectiveness of the Doppel device.   1.     Describe the variables (these answers should be at maximum a few words): a.     State the study’s IV (1 pt). Answer: b.     State the Scale of Measurement of the IV (1 pt). Answer: c.     State the theoretical definition of the study’s DV (2 pts). Answer: d.     State the operational definition of the study’s DV (2 pts). Answer:   2.      State the study design (this answer should be at maximum a few words). Answer:   3.     The authors state “The participants were told that the Doppel device was measuring their blood pressure to conceal the real purpose of the study”. Why was it important for the authors to mislead the participants? (Maximum 1 line) Answer:   4.     What is an appropriate test of reliability for the “Subjective ratings of anxiety” questionnaire in the study? (this answer should be at maximum a few words). Answer:   5.     If the scores on the “Subjective ratings of anxiety” questionnaire are positively related to scores on the valid physiological arousal assessment, what type of validity does that refer to? (this answer should be at maximum a few words). Answer:   6.      How would the study design change if the researchers had given all participants a powered on doppel and looked at how their initial anxiety scores related to their subsequent anxiety scores after the study instead of randomly assigning participants to different groups? (Maximum 1 line) Answer:   7.     What sampling method did the researchers use to collect their sample? (this answer should be at maximum a few words). Answer:   Part II – Fill in the blank: Fill in the blank for each of the following statements. these answers should be at maximum a few words. (7 questions; total of 28 points, 4 points per question)    1.     A __________ variable is a variable that explains the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. Answer:   2.      A list of individuals or clusters of individuals in a population who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample is referred to as __________. Answer:   3.     When a researcher is concerned that situational factors caused participants to score lower on a measure of IQ than they normally would have, the researcher should assess reliability via __________. Answer:   4.     A researcher was interested in people’s barbequing habits. To that end, the researcher asked participants “whether or not they enjoy hot dogs and hamburgers”. This is an example of a __________ question, and therefore the researcher should remove it from the survey. Answer:   5.     __________ is a potential solution for dealing with problems raised by order effects. Answer:   6.     A __________ serves as an alternative explanation for the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Answer:   7.     A testable answer to a research question which provides a specific prediction about the expected results of a study is known as a(n) ___________. Answer:                   Part III – Design your own study: (5 questions; a total of 30 points, 6 points per question)    Designing your own study:   In this section, you will suggest your own research design using the two variables: social media usage and depressive symptoms.   Your answers will be graded on how well you are able to implement the theories we learned in class. Additionally, your answers must be expressed in your own words and cannot be copied from one another. No answer should exceed one line.   Description of your IV What is the IV? (2pts) Answer: How would you operationalize the IV? (2pts) Answer: What scale of measurement is the IV measured on? (2pts) Answer:   Description of your DV What is the DV? (2pts) Answer: How would you operationalize the DV? (2pts) Answer: What is the appropriate test of reliability for your DV? (2pts) Answer:   Moderator What is a potential moderator for this study? (2pts) Answer:  How would you measure it? (2pts) Answer: In 1 sentence, describe the hypothetical relationship between the moderator and the IV and DV. (2pts) Answer:   Description of your design Design type you used: (2pts) Answer: Advantage of this design: (2pts) Answer: Disadvantage of this design: (2pts) Answer:   Expected results, results, and explanation What is the hypothesis of your study? (2pts) Answer: Assuming you found a significant result, state an alternative explanation. (2pts) Answer: How would you rule out this alternative explanation? (2pts) Answer:

Nov 11th, 2021

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