Discussion: 5G technology literature review

Discussion: 5G technology literature review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: 5G technology literature review I’m studying and need help with a Writing question to help me learn. Discussion: 5G technology literature review I suggest you do not use my articles. LOL This LR needs 3 articles. My research paper wants to talk about 5G technology. Especially, I wanna emphasis security factor. You can find some researches that invest 5G security. Also, I already finished my survey part. You can do it and based on it. security.pdf on_the_interdependence_of_the_.pdf .pdf Journal of Network and Computer Applications 96 (2017) 39–61 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Network and Computer Applications journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jnca Review A survey on green communication and security challenges in 5G wireless communication networks Pimmy Gandotra, Rakesh Kumar Jha MARK ? Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, J & K, India A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions D2D communication Ultra dense Networks (UDNs) Massive MIMO Spectrum sharing Internet of Things (IoT) MmWave Small cell access point (SCA) Relay The 5G wireless cellular networks are evolving, to meet the drastic subscriber demands in near future. This is accompanied with a rise in the energy consumption in cellular networks. Higher energy consumption result in a rise in the carbon dioxide emissions into the environment, and exposure to greater amount of harmful radiations. To indemnify the ecological and health concerns associated with the rise in CO2 levels, an important technology is GREEN communication. This paper presents a survey on various energy-e?cient scenarios for green communication, involving device-to-device (D2D) communication, spectrum sharing, ultra-dense networks (UDNs), massive MIMO, millimeter wave networks and the Internet of Things (IoT). Discussion: 5G technology literature review For improving the battery lifetime of user terminals in a network, a three-layer architecture is proposed, which emphasizes on transmitting information through relays, between a given pair of users. The susceptibility of security attack on relays is also enumerated. As security in the networks cannot be overlooked, secure power optimization is studied, and the possible security attack on users within the small cell access point (SCA) of the 5G networks is proposed. Some of the key research challenges in association to green communication and security have been discussed, and the ongoing projects and standardization activities also stated in the paper. 1. Introduction The wireless communication networks form the largest share of the Information and Communication technology (ICT), supporting various other industries. These networks have undergone a phenomenal growth, from the ?rst generation (1G) networks, to the fourth generation (4G) networks (4G), transforming the telecom sector. An overview of this transformation is depicted in Fig. 1. The 4G networks can support data rate up to 3 Gbps (Gupta and Jha, 2015), for downlink LTE-A systems. With the dramatic rise in the number of users, more and more users are subscribing for mobile broadband. These users demand quicker access to the Internet, with unconventional multimedia capabilities. The current technologies cannot support the massive data rate demand, resulting in the investigation of 5G networks (Wang et al., 2014). This tremendous progression in technology is accompanied by a prodigious rise in energy consumption. The rise in the consumption of energy results in increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.Discussion: 5G technology literature review The global CO2 share of the ICT is 5% presently (Fehske et al., 2011), and this percentage is rising at a very fast pace, due to increasing number of subscribers. Di?erent sectors of mobile communication contribute to the rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. This has been depicted in Fig. 2, where the CO2 emissions ? are shown, during 2010, 2015 and 2020. The count of connected devices by 2020 is estimated to be 50 billion (More than 50 billion connected devices, 2011), and further 100 billion by 2030 (Strategy, Accenture, 2015) requiring 1000 times escalated data rates (The data challenge, 1000x) for serving such a huge number of devices. Intensive demand of high data rate and bandwidth demanding applications has resulted in the rise in subscriber demands (5G use cases and requirements, NOKIA whitepapers, 2014). The forecast of mobile tra?c on a global platform has been studied in (Index, 2016). To meet these demands, a conforming increase in the count of base stations has been witnessed (Green Power for Mobile, GSMA, Green Power for Mobile BiAnnual Report, 2014). The base stations (BSs) in a wireless network consume the maximum amount of energy in the networks, contributing to more than 70% of the electricity bill (Han et al., 2011a). The access networks also consume a considerable amount of energy (Auer et al., 2011). As a result, energy-e?cient communication becomes a prerequisite for the evolving cellular network architecture. Energy e?cient cellular networks are gaining importance due to the severity of the CO2 levels in air, harming the environment and global weather. The increasing energy consumption of mobile networks increases the operator costs as well. The ecological concerns, and economic issues have led to the evolution of green communication in Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (P. Gandotra), [email protected] (R.K. Jha).Discussion: 5G technology literature review http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2017.07.002 Received 16 February 2017; Received in revised form 6 June 2017; Accepted 4 July 2017 Available online 04 August 2017 1084-8045/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Journal of Network and Computer Applications 96 (2017) 39–61 P. Gandotra, R.K. Jha Fig. 1. Comparison of wireless technologies from 1 to 5 G. technologies can support green networking in 5G wireless communication network, and also prolong batteries of mobile devices. Another important aspect introduced to green communication is energy harvesting (EH). This supports powering of user terminals wirelessly (Tabassum et al., 2015). EH supports the use of solar energy, wind energy and other renewable sources of energy for charging the device batteries. This results in clean green communication. The devices must be scrutinized minutely (Lu et al., 2015) for use in energy harvesting networks. Such an approach can signi?cantly abate the CO2 emissions. The capacity limitations of the cellular networks are being overcome by the evolving 5G networks. This has led to high density topologies and high spatial reuse. Simply escalating power levels will not be an e?cient choice, which has led to the introduction of green communication. Apart from energy e?ciency, another facet of paramount importance in cellular networks is security. Two fundamental aspects of information exchange are security and secrecy. Absence of a central controlling entity in a network make the users more susceptible to security attacks. Although most of the work on 5G has been focused on power consumption and data rate demands, nowadays, security concerns have triggered research in this domain. Inclusion of appropriate security measures in cellular networks is preeminent, for 5G networks. Most of the security issues are mitigated by cryptographic solutions. Several vulnerability categories have been identi?ed by 3GPP Security Workgroup (3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP, 2007), which are open research problems in this ?eld. More the number of users, greater is the possibility of intrusion (Huang et al., 2011; Shirvanian and Saxena, 2014; Mascetti et al., 2013; Mpitziopoulos et al., 2009). Several initiatives have been taken up by many organizations towards green and secure 5G networks.Discussion: 5G technology literature review The goal of ‘Go Green’ by ITU-SG 5 (TU-Study Group 5 at a glance) is of paramount importance cellular networks. Promising research areas for green 5G networks have been addressed in (Chih-Lin et al., 2014). With the exception of the ecological and economic concerns, the prodigious CO2 levels result in escalation of the transmission power levels within the cellular networks. These cause a rise in the radiation levels, having a detrimental e?ect on human health. The radiations are absorbed by human body. These are measured through the metric, speci?c absorption rate (SAR). A lower value of SAR is desirable. The advent of 5G cellular networks is expected to increase the energy e?ciency up to 1000x (GreenTouch Green Meter Research Study: Reducing the network energy consumption in communications networks by up to 90% by, ”, 2020, 2013), with service provisioning to billions of devices. Obtaining energy e?ciency in 5G networks through power control is possible by using centralized or decentralized methods. For the same, di?erent approaches have been proposed in 5G networks and can be classi?ed as user centric techniques, like deviceto- device (D2D) communication (Boccardi et al., 2014), femto cells (Hoydis et al., 2011), and as network centric techniques, like CloudRAN. 5G networks provide the vision of a connected society, providing 1000x capacity in the cellular networks. The present network architectures cannot achieve such high capacities. As a result, 5G networks need new network design. A number of key wireless technologies form a part of the 5G networks, which e?ciently utilize the available resources, and improve the e?ciency of ever joule of energy, i.e. the energy e?ciency. Discussion: 5G technology literature review A 5G network scenario, as an aggregation of the various technologies is depicted in Fig. 3. These technologies include device-to-device (D2D) communication, spectrum sharing, millimeter wave (mmWave) communication, Internet of Things (IoT), and ultradense networks (UDNs). The state of the art for these energy e?cient technologies have been presented in the following sections. These Fig. 2. Carbon Footprint from di?erent sources of mobile communication (from 2010 to 2020). 40 Journal of Network and Computer Applications 96 (2017) 39–61 P. Gandotra, R.K. Jha Fig. 3. 5G Network scenario: technologies and secure networks. battery drainage of a user is projected, of a mobile user. The proposed approach focuses on the use of relay node, so as to save the user battery, and achieve the desirable data rates. This proposed approach is susceptible to possible spoo?ng by an intruder, which is discussed from the perspective of secure power optimization. The relay, when trying to resist spoo?ng, drains its own battery energy. As a result, it is unable to support multiple relaying actions. The small cell access point (SCA) in the 5G networks is highly susceptible to intrusion, and needs to be secured. A substantial literature on securing the wireless networks, subject to power constraints has been addressed in this paper. A possibility of attack on the users in the SCA is proposed, when, due to large distance from one SCA, a user connects to a closer, neighboring SCA. This phenomenon occurs because the ?rst SCA has to transmit at a higher power than the SCA closer to the user.Discussion: 5G technology literature review During the switching between SCAs, to lower the involved transmission powers of SCAs, during the execution of session initiation protocol (SIP), intruder attacks the user. Such an intrusion needs special attention, since users are mostly mobile in a communication environment for green networking. A remarkable e?ort is being made by the ETSI (Available at) 3GPP releases (Rel 14 and Rel 15) are investigating energy saving as discussed in (Available at; Available at; Available at) A number of projects on green communication have been undertaken by 5GPP (Available at). ETSI and IETF are involved in the standardization of 5G security. These targets de?ning novel trust models for secure 5 G systems. As 5G networks are expected to play diverse roles in security, ISO, IEC, CSA are involved in its standardization. Various standardization activities and ongoing projects on green communication in 5G wireless networks, and their security aspects have been given in Appendix A and B. 1.1. Contribution A number of surveys on green communication and energy e?ciency enhancement are available (Hasan et al., 2011; Feng et al., 2013; Abrol and Jha, 2016; Buzzi et al., 2016; Bolla et al., 2011). The authors in (Hasan et al., 2011) discuss various techniques for energy saving at the base station (BS). It also evaluates techniques for power consumption reduction in a heterogeneous network. It proposes a scheme which is based on game theory and makes idle users in the network to function as relays. The state-of-the-art energy e?cient 5G approaches, have been discussed in (Abrol and Jha, 2016) and (Buzzi et al., 2016), unfolding the route to green communication.Discussion: 5G technology literature review The authors in (Feng et al., 2013) discuss about di?erent physical layer techniques, new network architectures and cross-layer optimization for energy e?cient cellular networks. Di?erent projects, and research activities for improving energy e?ciency of cellular networks have been studied in (Bolla et al., 2011). Since the wireless devices are battery powered, they get drained on usage. Along with the provision of green networking in cellular networks, the battery lifetime of devices also must be optimized. Also, assuring security in an optimal power environment remains an open area of research. The problem of battery scarcity has been addressed in this paper. A three-layer architecture has been proposed, where a scenario of rapid 1.2. Organization The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: In Section II, di?erent techniques for modelling the power allocation problem have been discussed. Also, di?erent metrics, for evaluating greenness of a cellular network have been briefed. Section III reviews di?erent 5G scenarios, which support green communication in the 5G wireless communication networks. These scenarios include di?erent technologies like device-to-device (D2D) communication, spectrum sharing, Internet of Things (IoT). For enhancing energy of mobile devices with D2D communication, a proposal has been given in this section. A detailed discussion on optimizing power levels and ensuring security is presented in Section IV. Possible security attacks in 5G networks have been proposed. The various associated research challenges have been discussed in Section V. Finally, the paper concludes in Section VI. Discussion: 5G technology literature review A list of 41 Journal of Network and Computer Applications 96 (2017) 39–61 P. Gandotra, R.K. Jha game theory. When using game theory, a cellular network is modelled as a game, with the users serving as players, which compete for resources in the network. The resources include energy, bandwidth etc. Let a game be represented as research projects in process, based on the 5G technologies for energy e?ciency improvement and for assuring secrecy is given in Appendix B. 2. Techniques for power allocation and greenness measurement G = {U , Ax , Fx} Here, U represents the set of users (players) of the game, Ax represents strategies available for user x, as U = {1, 2, ……x}, and Fx is the utility function for x. In a game, a user chooses such a strategy that maximizes its utility function, i.e. Power allocation problems can be broadly classi?ed as power constraint problems and rate-tuple problems (Jindal and Goldsmith, 2005). The energy e?ciency in cellular networks is measured using di?erent modelling techniques. These include equal power allocation (EPA) Lau and Yue, 2007, water-?lling algorithm (WF) (Yu, 2007), branch & Bound (BB) algorithm (Evangelinakis et al., 2010), game theory (Meshkati et al., 2007), graph theory etc. For this objective, the Nash equilibrium and pareto optimality (Fudenberg and Tirole, 1991) need to be de?ned. An appropriate choice of the techniques can be made, keeping in mind the utility function and computational complexity. For energy e?cient 5G cellular networks, algorithms for power control have been developed in (Zappone et al., 2016). Discussion: 5G technology literature review In Equal power allocation (EPA) Goudarzi and Pakravan, 2008, each user is allocated an equal amount of power, irrespective of its SINR distribution, channel conditions, distance from the base station and other factors. The requirements of di?erent users in a network largely vary, thus di?erent amounts of power may be allocated to them, as per their prerequisite. With EPA, even an inactive user will be allocated power, resulting in power wastage. Complexity associated with EPA algorithm is less, thus making it a sub-optimal choice for power allocation in wireless networks. 2.4. Energy e?ciency metrics (Greenness measurement) In order to measure greenness of a network, energy e?ciency metrics are required. The energy savings and performance of a practical system are evaluated through energy e?ciency metrics. in Telecommunication systems, energy e?ciency metrics are classi?ed as facility-level, equipment level and network-level (Bianzino et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2010). Energy consumption at component level, equipment level and system level help in evaluating the energy e?ciency (EE) in a wireless network (ETSI, 2009-08). Evaluation of a particular part of a wireless device is done by the component level metrics. Equipment level metrics evaluate the EE of a device as a whole. These metrics include ?oating point performance and energy proportionality in dex (EPI). The system level metrics include energy consumption gain (ECG) (Han et al., 2011), Energy Consumption Rating (ECR), Area Power Consumption (APC). An extension of ECR is Energy E?ciency Rating (EER). Thus, system level metrics evaluate network level performance as well as energy consumed by the device. Some very important metrics, mostly used for evaluating the network performance have been given below. 2.2. Water-?lling (WF) algorithm The water-?lling (WF) algorithm Jang et al., 2003 is used for capacity maximization in ISI channels and frequency selective channels. Discussion: 5G technology literature review It is a convex optimization scheme for optimal power allocation. If an OFDM system is considered, then for a transmitted signal, x[i], over the subchannel i, noise n, channel response h[i], the received signal is given as (1) For each subchannel, if the transmit power is Pi, then for reliable communication, the maximum rate can be denoted as N ?1 Ci = max ? i =0 ? P h [i ] 2 ? log2 ?1 + i ? ? N0 ? (2) 2.4.1. Energy e?ciency (EE) This is the most important metric for a green network. Energy e?ciency is de?ned as the ratio of total throughput (system capacity) to the total power consumed (bits/Joule). N ?1 s. t ? Pi = PT (3) i =0 where PT is the total power. Above, Eq. (2) is convex and can be solved using Lagrangian method. Kuhn-Tucker condition is used for obtaining an optimal solution. The Langrange multiplier is denoted by ? . Then, allocation of power with this method is represented as + ?1 N0 ? Pi = ? ? ? ?? h [i ] 2 ? ? i =0 ?1 N0 ? ? ? = PT ?? h [i ] 2 ? Totaldatarate (bits /sec ) Totalpower consumption (Watt ) ?EE = (8) Energy e?ciency can be enhanced by increasing the throughput, or decreasing the power consumption. The total power consumption is the overall power of the device (or the BS), including the circuit power consumption. (4) 2.4.2. Area energy e?ciency (AEE) For a dense deployment, area energy e?ciency is evaluated. It is given as the ratio of the energy e?ciency to the area of macro cell in square-kilometer. This is the optimal solution if ? satis?es the following condition. N ?1 (7) max Fx 2.1. Equal power allocation y [i ] = h [i ] x [i ] + n (6) ?+ (5) The inverse of the Langrange multiplier denotes the water level, which can normally be searched from the binary search method. Power is allocated with high e?ciency, using this method. Due to interference constraints in cellular networks, water-?lling is considered in an iterative fashion. ?AEE = Energyeffciecny (bits / Joule) macrocellarea (km2 ) (9) 2.4.3. Secrecy energy e?ciency The ratio of the transmission bits to the energy consumed is given by secrecy energy e?ciency (El-Halabi et al., 2013). It is given as 2.3. Game theory SEE = An important mathematical tool for modelling a wireless network is 42 Ntx E (10) Journal of Network and Computer Applications 96 … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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