[SOLVED] Electrical Brain Stimulation

Just include an introduction with literature and the method used from the instructions below. Include at least 4 sources relevant to the research paper that follows the topic from the instructions below.  A hypothesis should also be included! Prominent in the research in physiological psychology is the study of drives (especially hunger), learning (especially Pavlovian and operant conditioning), and emotion (especially positive reinforcement or reward).  The experiment that follows involves all three areas.  We will explore the effects of manipulating the hunger drive on operant performance for electrical brain stimulation reward.  The research we will perform for this lab is a demonstration of the effects of food deprivation on reward mechanism in a brain site that has been found to influence food intake.  The region is the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and has been shown to increase food intake when stimulated (both with mild electrical stimulation and chemical stimulation).  Classic research has shown that electrical stimulation of the LH will also serve as reinforcement for operant conditioning.  The operant response we will be exploring is lever or bar pressing in an operant chamber (or “Skinner box”).  The use of the operant chamber is a useful way to explore the important aspects of operant conditioning. Performance in the chamber is and has been shown over and over again to explain and predict operant and classical conditioning of humans and other species.   The issue that we will explore is the effects of food deprivation on pleasurable sensations in the brain.  Many researchers have used psychophysical methods to explore the reward effects of brain stimulation in various brain regions.  In our experiment, you will be given raw data of performance of albino rats trained to lever-press for brain stimulation reward (BSR), brief pulses of electricity in the LH.  A key piece of the research is that the LH appears to be a key brain area in controlling food intake. Researchers in my lab collected the data that you will be given in this experiment.  You should write the report as though you actually performed the operations in the rat experiment.   This is an opportunity to explore experimentation in the hard science aspect of psychology.  Research of this type has been of great value in understanding the physiological mechanisms that mediate behavior.  While the experiments on brain stimulation reward (BSR) were completed some time ago, the research questions, BSR methods, and operant procedures are currently used and relevant to cutting-edge experimentation in the neurosciences.   Methods Subjects [not participants].    Sprague-Dawley albino rats were maintained on ad libitum (ad Lib.) food and water except for the food deprivation condition when only water was available.  The animals were maintained under a 12:12 light-dark schedule.  Measurement occurred during the dark portion of the cycle. One group (n=8) received BSR electrodes as described below.  A second group of rats (n=8) where used for measurement of reward threshold. Stereotaxic Surgery: The rats used in the BSR research under appropriate methods were given approved anesthesia and then surgically implanted with a single bi-polar electrode aimed at the lateral hypothalamus under IACUC approved surgical, anesthetic and post-operative procedures.  Localization of the site of stimulation was verified histological post experimentation. Apparatus:   BSR stimulation was delivered using a +/_ biphasic pulses delivered by a constant current stimulator control by a computer.  Animals pressed a lever on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in operant chambers with two levers (one was active) to receive reward.  Performance was collected at the end of the session on lab computers.   Procedure:  During the dark portion of the light-dark cycle experimental subjects were  given an operant sessions in which they were shaped to lever press for stimulation.  Rats were first tested one hour into this period (baseline/pre-manipulation testing with ad libitum food and water), and then after 24 h of food deprivation (water remained ad lib.).  Brain stimulation parameters:  biphasic square wave stimulation, delivered at 100 Hz, stimulation  train was 0.2 s with each response. Current intensities varied from 10 to 100 uA (amperes) descending in intensity to determine threshold.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
[SOLVED] Electrical Brain Stimulation
Get a 15% discount on this Paper
Order Essay
Quality Guaranteed

With us, you are either satisfied 100% or you get your money back-No monkey business

Check Prices
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know that being a student these days is hard. Because of this, our prices are some of the lowest on the market.

Instead, we offer perks, discounts, and free services to enhance your experience.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Get personalized services with My Paper Support
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
We appreciate every review and are always looking for ways to grow. See what other students think about our do my paper service.
Customer 452813, July 5th, 2022
Customer 452813, June 25th, 2022
Excellent PowerPoint! Thank you!
Customer 452707, June 29th, 2022
Another great paper! Thank you!
Customer 452707, June 16th, 2022
Application Letters
Well written essay, will definitely use this service in the future.
Customer 452773, April 14th, 2022
A-1 service every single time!!!
Customer 452453, July 27th, 2021
excellent service! Not a beat missed!
Customer 452453, October 17th, 2021
Strategic Management
Thank you very much for the help, really appreciate it
Customer 452821, June 27th, 2022
Professions and Applied Sciences
Thank you!
Customer 452707, March 4th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Great Work !!!
Customer 452587, November 9th, 2021
Thank you so very much!!!
Customer 452517, May 11th, 2021
excellent job i will be coming back for any future papers if I have too.
Customer 452611, October 11th, 2021
Enjoy affordable prices and lifetime discounts
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Order Now Order in Chat

SAVE BIG FOR FINALS. Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code SPECIAL20