Higher-Order Conditioning

Directions: Answer ALL of the following 10 short essay questions worth 10 points each (100 points possible). Answers can be found in chapters 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, and 14 of the Wade, Tavris, and Garry textbook (7th Edition). As a guideline, each question should be about one full page on double-spaced, typed pages with one inch margins and 12-font lettering. Use proper citations (APA Style) where appropriate. You MUST cite textbook pages in your written answers. When turned in your paper should have an APA Style title page and a Works Cited page. You may also use other sources but they must also be cited in your answers and included on the Works Cited page. You will submit this in the Assignment Submission Folder as a Word Document attachment on Blackboard.  1. Define and explain the principles of classic conditioning known as extinction, higher-order conditioning, and stimulus generalization & stimulus discrimination. Then provide an example of how classical conditioning can take place in forming preferences and avoiding fearful stimuli. Specifically, evolutionary psychologists note that humans are primed to be susceptible to certain kinds of acquired fears. Explain why this would be adaptive.  2. Although large numbers of people report that they are dieting, there have been dramatic increases in the number of overweight individuals. What are some of the environmental reasons for this epidemic of overweight and obesity? Describe the eating disorders that occur when women (and some men) become obsessed with weight and dieting in order to avoid becoming “fat.” What causes eating disorders?  3. Six aspects of the work environment have been found to increase job involvement, worker motivation, and job satisfaction. List and describe these conditions. Give examples and illustrations from personal work experiences.  4. Facial expressions do not always reveal the emotions underneath. The villain in Shakespeare’s Henry VI said, “Why, I can smile, and murder while I smile; and cry content to that which grieves my heart; and wet my cheeks with artificial tears, and frame my face to all occasions.” How did Paul Ekman and his colleagues distinguish between authentic and false facial expressions of emotion? Describe Paul Ekman’s research regarding the expression of emotion.  5. There are some tragedies that appear out of the blue and can’t be solved. But even if a problem cannot be fixed, your textbook authors describe three ways that have proven effective in helping people thrive as the result of a crisis. Name and examine each of these effective cognitive coping methods.  6. The obedience study conducted by Stanley Milgram has become world famous. Explain, in detail, the procedures that Milgram used in his study and then evaluate his results. What conclusions did Milgram reach? How have critics reacted to his research?  7. What is cognitive dissonance? Provide an example that illustrates how cognitive dissonance can lead people to change their attitudes. Make sure to explain the cause of the cognitive dissonance in your example.   8. The standard reference manual used to diagnose mental disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – 5) published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM has had an extra ordinary impact worldwide, however, because of the DSM’s powerful influence, it is important to be aware of its limitations. List and Analyze the four limitations discussed in the textbook, and give your opinion on the strengths and weaknesses of each.  9. Major depression involves emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical changes severe enough to disrupt a person’s ordinary functioning. Describe the vulnerability-stress explanation of depression. Provide examples of upsetting events that could trigger a depression. Describe the research findings that emphasize the role of genetics and brain chemistry in the development of depression.  10. Describe the four main classes of drugs used in the treatment of mental and emotional disorders, including the benefits and drawbacks of each. For which disorders would each class be prescribed? The benefits of drug therapy are proclaimed in magazines and on television commercials, but there are some disadvantages, too. Discuss, in detail, the five limitations of drug therapy

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