Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay

Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay Research service learning method and write a 500-word essay describing this method. Begin with introductory paragraph about teaching methods in general, and introduce the method that you chose to research. Include a description of a teaching scenario that you can envision of at least one way in which this method could appropriately be applied to any aspect of education. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay Note: Remember…do not write papers in the first person. Also, as you are instructed to “research” the topic, you must APA cite your sources within the text, and you must therefore have an APA Reference page with this paper. Use at least 2 resources , one of which may be your Tools for Teaching textbook and one current, peer-reviewed journal article (no older than 2009) from the SPC library database. I have uploaded one article from the school library database and the pages the book needed document_1_.pdf book.docx Research Student Perception of Travel Service Learning Experience in Morocco Aditi Puri, RDH, CAGS, MS, PhD, MPH candidate; Mahmoud Kaddoura, PhD, CAGS, MED, ANP/ GNP; Christine Dominick, CDA, RDH, MEd Introduction Abstract The vision of this pilot study was to understand student perceptions of service learning experience in a foreign country. The authors endeavored to collaborate with the Volunteer Morocco Organization to incorporate an oral health component in their academic service learning program. At the benefits of participating with the Volunteer Morocco, an interdisciplinary team was already established in Morocco, with supervisors who facilitated with transportation and government’s rules and regulation besides offering scholarships. The members of the organization who speak languages of Morocco and know its culture accompanied the students throughout the trip. Purpose: This study explores the perceptions of health profession students participating in academic service learning in Morocco with respect to adapting health care practices to cultural diversity. Methods: Authors utilized semi–structured, open–ended interviews to explore the perceptions of health profession students. Nine dental hygiene and nursing students who traveled to Morocco to provide oral and general health services were interviewed. After interviews were recorded, they were transcribed verbatim to ascertain descriptive validity and to generate inductive and deductive codes that constitute the major themes of the data analysis. Thereafter, NVIVO 8© was used to rapidly determine the frequency of applied codes. The authors compared the codes and themes to establish interpretive validity. Codes and themes were initially determined independently by co–authors and applied to the data subsequently. The authors compared the applied codes to establish intra–rater reliability. Results: International service learning experiences led to perceptions of growth as a health care provider among students. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay The application of knowledge and skills learned in academic programs and service learning settings were found to help in bridging the theory– practice gap. The specific experience enabled students to gain an understanding of diverse health care and cultural practices in Morocco. The authors trained nursing and dental hygiene students at the Esther M. Wilkins Dental Hygiene Clinic at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy Conclusion: Students perceived that the experience gained in and Health Sciences–Forsyth School international service learning can heighten awareness of diverse of Dental Hygiene. The dental hycultural and health care practices to foster professional growth of giene school established a prevention health professionals. clinic to provide oral health education Keywords: service learning, culture, inter–professional healthcare, and fluoride varnish to children and health professions and access to care adults. All of the students applied this This study supports the NDHRA priority area, Health Promotion/ education and training in Morocco Disease Prevention: Investigate how diversity among populations to lead oral health clinics. They also impacts the promotion of oral health and preventive behaviors. provided care to the underserved in health clinics, hospital and orphanages. Donated oral health aids, such as brushes, floss, toothpaste and fluoride varnish from communities needing improved health care, addental companies were instrumental in addressing dressing ethical dilemmas associated with these the oral health needs of the population. A minority communities, and aiding in professional growth. of the participants had previous service learning experience, and few had served abroad. Service Learning The literature points to the benefits of travel service learning in terms of bridging a perceived theory– practice gap, taking advantage of inter–professional learning, meeting the needs of under–resourced Vol. 87 • No. 4 • August 2013 Jacoby defines service learning as “a form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities intentionally The Journal of Dental Hygiene 235 designed to promote student learning and development.”1 Yonder noted that integration of service learning in dental and dental hygiene education encourages graduates to work effectively with diverse populations and function dynamically in the arena of health policy.2 Service learning is a significant national movement at all educational levels, and is particularly important in undergraduate education. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay It is widely recognized that connecting academics with community service through structured reflection contributes to deeper learning, is longer lasting and more applicable to new situations.3 In a qualitative study, the outcomes of a special needs service–learning course for dental hygiene students were evaluated. Student/faculty reflections and community coordinator feedback were employed to determine that service learning led to a deeper understanding of the subject and provided opportunities for increased awareness of professional and social issues associated with the oral care of special needs patients.4 Lautar reviewed the literature on service learning to recommend that dental hygiene educators need to embrace the philosophy of service learning to lead its integration in the curriculum.5 Tonkin and Quiroga noted that international service learning led to cultural integration, broadened horizons and prepared students for global citizenship.6 Activities such as experiential and reflective learning in such settings have been found to enable students to acknowledge underling “differences” and to develop a sense of global citizenship.7 Interdisciplinary Collaboration The complexity of health issues experienced by patients makes it difficult for one discipline to provide comprehensive care to individuals. The interdisciplinary learning methodology invites learners from varied disciplines to work closely together to contribute their knowledge, skills and experiences.8 The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends that health professionals practice in inter–professional teams.9 The complexity of the medical issues experienced by patients today warrants inter–professional collaboration.10 An inter–professional health care approach can enable providers from each discipline to achieve the shared goal of augmenting a patient’s health.10 In one series of 3 articles, authors emphasized dental and medical collaboration.11–13 Cross–disciplinary training and increased collaboration between dentistry and other health professionals can better address the needs of elderly, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and other special needs.11 This gains in significance given that a decline in the number of dental providers per capita has reduced access to dental care among disadvantaged and special needs groups. One approach suggested to 236 alleviate this was to train medical providers to prevent diseases of the oral cavity.13 Partnerships with medical providers can be further strengthened, by re–emphasizing the importance of general health in dental education.12 Cross–Cultural Awareness An IOM study recommends integrating cross– cultural education into the training of practicing and future health care providers.14 Service–learning opportunities to dental students in diverse communities can enrich an awareness of varied cultural influences interwoven in treatment decisions.15 After a set of baccalaureate students enrolled in a community health nursing course with a service learning component, students perceived an increase in their cognitive, affective and practical faculties.16 Rubin found that service learning–based models and reflective journaling in non–dental public health settings led to better cultural understanding among dental students.17 The institution of cultural competence in the process of care is instrumental in providing optimal care.18 In a multicultural society, cross–cultural education strategies and peer/patient interactions within curricula promote competency in providing cross–cultural care among students.19 Dental hygiene students need to play a key role in seeking solutions to eliminate health care disparities.20 Access to Care in Morocco Significant health disparities exist within the health care system in Morocco, a country with a shortage of health care professionals. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that in Morocco the condition of dental caries affected 72% of children under 12 years, 82.5% of adolescents 15 years old, and 97.7% of adults between 35 and 44 years.21 Using a scale of 2.5, 2.5 to 5.0 and 5.0 or more per 1,000 population to identify the density of health workers as low, medium or high, respectively, WHO found health workers in Morocco was rated from 1.4 to 1.9 between 1996 to 2006.22 Clearly, Morocco was found to suffer from a chronic shortage of health care workers.22,23 While research has pointed to the potential benefits of cross–cultural training and academic service learning in dental and dental hygiene student training, student perception is currently understudied. To explore student perceptions of inter–professional– oriented, academic service learning in a region with evident and pressing needs, the authors conducted this qualitative study. This study explores the perceptions of health profession students participating in academic service learning in Morocco with respect to culturally diverse health care practices. The Journal of Dental Hygiene Vol. 87 • No. 4 • August 2013 Methods and Materials This study explores the perceptions of health profession students participating in academic service learning in Morocco with respect to adapting health care practices to cultural diversity. The authors utilized semi–structured, open–ended interviews to explore the perceptions of health profession students. Participants and Procedures Participation in this study was open to all students in the college consortium, who were invited to participate in this project. Participation was voluntary and privately funded by the participants. Nine students, 8 female and 1 male, who agreed to participate, were recruited from 2 institutions in a Northeastern state of the U.S. The participants’ age ranged between 19 and 23 years with a mean age of 21 years. Eight participants (89%) were White Caucasian and only 1 (11%) Asian. The majority of the participants are from a middle socio–economic class – they attend private college and were able to fund their trip to Morocco. The study subjects represented dental hygiene and nursing majors. Eight participants (89%) represented nursing discipline and only 1 (11%) represented dental hygiene. The subjects were recruited via email invitation, and reminders were sent to increase the response, which was 100%. All 9 participants who travelled to Morocco volunteered to participate in the study. The purposeful study sample adequately captured the heterogeneity of this group.24,25 The research employs a qualitative design to understand student perceptions of their academic service learning experience in Morocco. In January, 2011, approximately 2 weeks after student’s return from Morocco, data was collected via a semi–structured interview protocol with open–ended questions. The questions were aimed at understanding the perceptions of students regarding access to care issues in Morocco, their view of the significance of inter–professional collaboration, and their views regarding the impact of diverse cultural and health care practices on their growth. The researchers recorded the interviews verbatim for data analysis. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay Each interview was 60 minutes in length, and cumulatively generated approximately 200 pages of data (average line count of 30) that was analyzed systematically. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Data Analysis Several steps were implemented to ensure the validity of the study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim to assure descriptive validity. Deductive codes were derived from theories employed and literature sources, and inductive codes emerged from unanticipated themes and concepts after a careful readVol. 87 • No. 4 • August 2013 ing of the data. Theoretical validity was ascertained by comparing themes emerging from interview data with established research noted above. Interpretative validity was determined by comparison and verification of independently determined codes and themes, prior to independent application on raw data. The authors compared codes to establish intra–rater reliability, with 95% agreement. The software NVIVO 8© was used to determine the frequency of codes rapidly.26 Results The results describe major themes and subthemes found for student perceptions of the service learning experience in Morocco. Table I summarizes the results based on the interviews of 9 participants who traveled to Morocco. Internal Motivation to Serve Underserved Countries Motivation to serve emerged as a code during the analysis of the data. We define motivation as an internal aspiration to provide care to the underserved. Motivation inspired participants to pursue the academic service learning opportunity. One hundred percent of the participants were motivated to serve in underserved areas. Participant 5’s enthusiasm was typical: “I have always believed in just giving back to the community. When I was little, [with] my father, we went to India and we did a volunteer mission in India and I helped the way I could.” Similar interest was echoed by participant 2 “I went to India with my aunt’s] family and I saw a lot of the poverty, and I saw [how] my uncle used to be in a health clinic, and I kind of wanted to do that work helping people.” Overall, a personal motivation to serve the underprivileged in a foreign land encouraged participants to serve in Morocco. Bridging Theory Practice Gap A second theme that emerged during analysis focused on “bridging the theory–practice gap.” This is defined as an opportunity to serve a community by applying knowledge learned. Eighty nine percent of the participants noted that the academic service learning provided a platform to apply knowledge learned in their programs. Participant 5 said: “So we had a health clinic, we had to do blood pressure and I remember every lab, you do blood pressure and you have to listen… You have to begin an assessment for vital signs, so we were doing that in Morocco.” The experience gained in Morocco inspired 89% of the participants to apply learning to health care The Journal of Dental Hygiene 237 Table I: Themes and Sub–themes Derived from Qualitative Analysis, with Illustrative Data Major Themes Subthemes Internal motivation to serve underserved countries Bridging theory–practice gap • Applied knowledge gained at school • Apply experience from academic service learning to healthcare, academics and professional life in the US Bridging inter–cultural gaps and the urban–rural divide • • • • • Language Barrier Cultural shock Adaptation to a different culture Difference in village and city culture Difference in US and Moroccan culture and health care Inter–professional learning and collaboration Lack of access to care and ethical issues Professional growth as a health care provider practice, academics and professional life in the U.S. Participant 4 noted: “I’ll apply everything I have learned about the culture there to my healthcare. Service Learning Teaching Method Analysis Essay What I learned from the doctors, taking your time… being very comprehensive in your assessment. Which I know, I have learned here in class and everything, but that was the first time I have really seen it in action.” Participant discourse suggests that knowledge learned about the culture, religion and health care practices in Morocco was considered invaluable and inspired them to apply this knowledge in their home country. Their descriptions testify to a bi–directional learning experience by which the theory–practice gap is narrowed through the application of academic knowledge in experiential learning abroad (in this case Morocco), whose lessons in turn come back to inform both academic learning and health care practice at home (in the U.S.). Bridging Inter–Cultural Gaps and the Urban–Rural Divide A third theme emerged – participants’ noted significant differences in health care practices related to differences between U.S. and Moroccan culture. Among them, they illustrated language was as a barrier. Differences between village/city life and health care practices were also noted. Despite the evident cultural differences, participants were successful in adapting to the new culture. Fifty–six percent of the participants shared perceptions of “culture shock,” but it is important to note again that most of these students had not previously traveled abroad. Participant 1 describes being taken aback by elements of the Morrocan countryside: “When we finally started the health clinic, the one 238 into the countryside, it was shocking and a little bit hard to handle, just because of the culture shock of anywhere between, using different kind of toilet or having little kids in the clinic, run up to you and beg you for a toothbrush.” In general, significant differences were noted between city and village culture and health care practices by 67% of participants. Participant 5 lamented inequalities in resources and access to care: “The government spends more money for healthcare in the cities… There are many people in the real villages, who live three hours from the city and don’t have the car and they can’t get there. So, to go to the city, it’s a big thing. They only got to go once a year maybe. And there are lots of dispensaries to provide healthcare to the patients in the villages, but they are understaffed and under–stocked. The patient might need emergency care, but they can only get like primary care at the dispensary or very limited emergency care in the village and many women… they deliver their own babies in the villages. They don’t have an OB doctor who can come out to the village and see them. They just don’t have it and that’s what they are used to.” The participants were not well versed in Arabic or French. Participant 7 expressed a universal sentiment (100% of the participants) about the difficulties presented by a language barrier: “In terms of working with the other doctors or other professionals on like many of clinics, it was a challenge, I think at times mostly because of the language barrier, because none of us from the trip, one person spoke Arabic, but none of us were really even knew any words of Arabic or French, so that was definitely a challenge.” The Journal of Dental Hygiene Vol. 87 • No. 4 • August 2013 Seventy–eight percent of the participants noticed differences in U.S. and Moroccan health care practices. For example, participant 4 noted: “We worked with a lot of Moroccan physicians, and pharmacists and nurses and I noticed that they all work at a very slower pace, which doesn’t mean they weren’t providing good care, but here as you know, it’s very fast paced and rushed and everyone’s stressed and tensed.” Despite the evident differences in the cultural practices 100% of the participants had managed to adapt well to the Moroccan culture. Participant 4 captures this aspect quite well: “I felt like when I came back here, I kind of missed everything taking showers that weren’t showers, there were bucket bath, my first shower back was like, now I feel adapted back to American culture, which I never thought in two weeks you would become so comfortable with a different culture that you have to adapt to your own culture … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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