” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help

” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help I need an explanation for this Health & Medical question to help me study. It is a final academic paper for the subject of Fundations of Nursing in a Master of Science of Nursing program. ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help Format mu st be in APA style, 6th edition. Font: Times New Roman size 12. ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help In-text citations : exact textual quotations are not allowed since it is a Master level program.They must be all paraphrased and the paper will be checked for plagiarism on the online application Turn it in. Attached is the Grading Rubric you should use as guidance. You will find attached too the excerpt from the text book and some articles with information on the topic you could use too. Parts: Introduction (one page) Literature Review. Body (4 pages) References ( Must be at least 5 references with no more than 5 years from now. It means, from 2013 up to present.) term_paper_grading_rubric.doc from_the_textbook.docx ce___epilepsy_update__part_2___nursing_care_and.26.pdf patient_safety_issues_in_the_epilepsy_monitoring_unit.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Term Paper Grading Rubric Dimension Competent Provides a clear and concise response to the assigned/selected topic. Introduction Organization of the topic is completely and clearly outlined and implemented. Does not contain superfluous information. 25% Body Paragraphs 35% Research (literature review) 10% Conclusion 10% Writing/ Mechanics 25% All main points are well-developed; directly related to the topic. Supporting examples are concrete and detailed. There is a logical flow to the topics/arguments. 35% Research selected is highly relevant to the topic, and is properly incorporated into the body paragraphs. Relationship between research and theory is clearly articulated and accurate. The evidence comes from a wide variety of valid sources; minimum “required” sources published within the last 5 years. Miami Regional University Needs Improvement Introduction is too broad or too narrow for the assigned/selected topic. Organization of the topic is difficult to follow, and superficially implemented. Provides too much unnecessary information. 15% Most main points are present, but not consistently pertinent to the topic. Supporting examples are unclear or missing. Unacceptable Fails to present topic OR capture reader’s attention. Organization of topic is missing, vague, or not consistently maintained. 20% Research is relevant to the topic, yet incomplete, vague and/or is poorly incorporated into the body paragraphs. Unclear components. Connection between theory and research is unclear/inaccurate. Some evidence does not come from valid sources: minimum “required” sources published within the last 5 years. 0% Research selected is not relevant to the topic, and is not properly incorporated into the body paragraphs. Components are missing, inaccurate or unclear. Relationship between theory and research is unclear/inaccurate, major errors in the logic are present. The evidence seldom comes from valid sources: minimum “required” sources published within the last 5 years. 0% Conclusion is unclear. Connections to research are incorrect/unclear, or just a repetition of the findings without explanation. Underlying logic has major flaws. 0% Paper is poorly organized and difficult to read – does not flow logically from one part to another. There are consistent spelling and/or grammatical errors; technical terms may not be defined or are poorly defined. Writing does not use appropriate voice 10% Conclusion is clearly stated, and connections to the research and position are clear and relevant. The underlying logic is explicit. 5% Conclusion is unclear. Partially connected to research. Significant errors in logic. 10% Paper is coherently organized. Writing is clear and concise. Writing is fluid and free from spelling and grammatical errors. Terminology is clearly defined. Writing uses appropriate voice 5% Paper is poorly organized. Writing often contains spelling and grammatical errors. Writing inconsistently switches voices (active/passive). APA formatting appropriate. 0% Main points are poorly developed or not pertinent to the topic. Missing supporting examples. Term Paper Grading Rubric 10% References 10% (active/passive). APA formatting appropriate. 10% References are precisely listed in APA format. In-text citations are used correctly for all quotations and paraphrasing. 10% Miami Regional University (active/passive). APA formatting inappropriate. 5% References are listed in APA format with frequent errors. In-text citations are missing, or contain frequent errors. 5% 0% References are not listed in the correct APA format. In-text citations are missing. PLAGIARISM will be addressed as per MRU’s policy. 0% Seizures. Patients who have experienced some form of neurological injury or metabolic disturbance are at risk for a seizure. A seizure is hyperexcitation and disorderly discharge of neurons in the brain leading to a sudden, violent, involuntary series of muscle contractions that is paroxysmal and episodic, causing loss of consciousness, falling, tonicity (rigidity of muscles), and clonicity (jerking of muscles)” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help A generalized tonic-clonic, or grand mal, seizure lasts approximately 2 minutes (no longer than 5) and is characterized by a cry and loss of consciousness with falling, tonicity, clonicity, and incontinence. During a fall or as a result of muscle jerking, musculoskeletal injuries can occur. Before a convulsive episode a few patients report an aura, which serves as a warning or sense that a seizure is about to occur. An aura is often a bright light, smell, or taste. During a seizure the patient often experiences shallow breathing, cyanosis, and loss of bladder and bowel control. A postictal phase follows the seizure, during which the patient has amnesia or confusion and falls into a deep sleep. A person in the community needs to be taken to a medical facility immediately if he or she has repeated seizures; if a single seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes without any sign of slowing down or is unusual in some way; if the person has trouble breathing afterwards or appears to be injured or in pain; or if recovery is different from usual (Epilepsy Foundation, 2014). Instruct family members in steps to take when a patient experiences a seizure. Assess a patient’s home for environmental hazards in light of a seizure condition. Prolonged or repeated seizures indicate status epilepticus, a medical emergency that requires intensive monitoring and treatment. It is important that you observe the patient carefully before, during, and after the seizure so you are able to document the episode accurately. Seizure precautions encompass all nursing interventions to protect a patient from traumatic injury, position for adequate ventilation and drainage of oral secretions, and provide privacy and support following the seizure (Box 2714). Box 27-14 Tips for Protecting Patients During a Seiz ure 1. When seizure begins, note time, stay with patient, and call for help. Track duration of seizure. Notify health care provider immediately. 2. Position patient safely. If standing or sitting, guide patient to floor and protect head by cradling in your lap or placing a pad under head. 3. Do not lift patient from floor to bed while seizure is in progress. Clear surrounding area of furniture. If patient is in bed, remove pillows and raise side rails. 4. If possible, turn patient onto one side, head tilted slightly forward. 5. Do not restrain patient; hold limbs loosely if they are flailing. Loosen clothing. 6. Never force apart a patient’s clenched teeth. Do not place any objects into patient’s mouth such as fingers, medicine, tongue depressor, or airway when teeth are clenched. Insert a bite-block or oral airway in advance only if you recognize the possibility of a tonic-clonic seizure. 7. Stay with patient, observing sequence and timing of seizure activity. 8. As patient regains consciousness reorient and reassure. Assist patient to position of comfort in bed with side rails up (one rail down for easy exit) and bed in lowest position. 9. Conduct a head-to-toe evaluation, including an inspection of oral cavity for breaks in mucous membranes from bites or broken teeth; look for bruising of skin or injury to bones and joints. Source: Fundamentals of Nursing. 9th edition. (In another moment, I will send you also this book as another referenced source with the right APA format.) CE 2.5 HOURS Continuing Education Epilepsy Update, Part 2: Nursing Care and EvidenceBased Treatment How to promote good health and quality of life in patients. OVERVIEW: As new research has increased our understanding of epilepsy and the challenges patients with epilepsy face, the role of the nurse as an educator and advocate has grown. This article, the second in a two-part series, addresses the most important aspects of assessing and caring for patients with epilepsy— highlighting the seizure first-aid instructions that all family members of a patient with epilepsy should have; the teaching points to share with parents of young children with epilepsy; and online epilepsy resources for patients, family members, and health care professionals. The authors also discuss current medical, surgical, neurostimulatory, and dietary approaches to epilepsy treatment. Keywords: epilepsy, pharmacologically refractory epilepsy, seizure, self-management, status epilepticus, treatment N urses play a critical role in promoting the best health outcomes for people with epilepsy by imparting information about the disease, teaching self-management skills, and discussing treatment options with patients and their families. The nurse’s role, however, goes beyond that. ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help As discussed in part 1 of this series, epilepsy presents numerous psychosocial challenges—it is a highly stigmatized, frequently misunderstood condition that may limit mobility and employment, as well as social and educational opportunities. Affected patients often have accompanying psychiatric or cognitive diagnoses and report having less self-­efficacy for managing seizures and poor health-­ related quality of life. In addition to teaching patients and their family members about treatments, nurses must act as advocates, helping patients find 34 AJN ? June 2015 ? Vol. 115, No. 6 appropriate community resources, educating the public at large, and promoting positive attitudes toward people with epilepsy. In this article, the second in a two-part series on epilepsy, we review important aspects of nursing care for patients with epilepsy, including questions to ask when assessing patients, seizure first-aid advice to offer family members, and teaching points to share with parents of young children with epilepsy. We discuss medical, surgical, neurostimulatory, and dietary approaches to epilepsy treatment and provide a list of online resources to share with patients who have epilepsy and their families. NURSING CARE Although there is no definitive guideline that addresses comprehensive nursing care of patients with ajnonline.com By Gigi Smith, PhD, RN, APRN, CPNP-PC, Janelle L. Wagner, PhD, and Jonathan C. Edwards, MD epilepsy, by asking the right questions and giving the patient positive feedback about the ways in which she or he is managing epilepsy, nurses can identify and address the concerns and care needs of patients with epilepsy and their family members (for a list of self-management questions, see Table 1). Since assessment time may be limited, the first question to ask should be, “What is your biggest concern about your epilepsy?” The patient’s answer will then guide you in determining • any knowledge deficits about the disease. • the patient’s and family’s seizure treatment readiness. • any epilepsy-related social, educational, or employment limitations. • sexuality or reproductive concerns. • the sufficiency of social support. • the patient’s general mood and psychological state. Nurses play a key role in identifying the need for further evaluation of possible psychiatric or neurocognitive conditions often diagnosed in people with epilepsy and in directing patients to the appropriate local and national resources, many of which can be found online (see Resources). Particularly helpful is the Epilepsy Foundation, which provides comprehensive information for patients and their families, health care providers, schools, community agencies, and first responders. Seizure first aid. All people with epilepsy and their families should be taught the basics of first aid for seizures (see Table 2). Caregivers and family members can also benefit from being certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Remind all patients with epilepsy that they should have a written seizure treatment plan that they carry with them at all times. Treatment plans should provide the following information: • the type of seizure the patient has had • pertinent medical information, including whether the patient has a neurostimulator, is on an epilepsy diet, or has had epilepsy surgery • prescribed dosage information for all maintenance and rescue antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) • any interventions needed to address a breakthrough seizure In addition to understanding seizure first aid, families need to be aware of the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and of interventions that may be helpful in reducing the risk (see Table 31). If a patient has a seizure while an inpatient or outpatient, nurses should follow their institution’s protocol for seizure intervention. Children with epilepsy. Parents of children with epilepsy, like parents of children with any chronic disease, can find it challenging to adjust to uncertainties [email protected] in their child’s development. They benefit from receiving ongoing anticipatory guidance that promotes best health outcomes for the child and the highest quality of life for the family. Understanding that parental perceptions and concerns are often influenced by the length of time since their child’s diagnosis can help nurses develop appropriate care plans and better target patient and family education. A qualitative focus group study that examined the relationship between time since epilepsy diagnosis and prominent parental concerns sheds light on the guidance parents may require at the following stages2: • During the first year after diagnosis, parents are adjusting to new medical terms and changes in routine. They may feel anxious over the unpredictability of their child’s seizures and unprepared to make decisions or solve problems related to their child’s care. Many have questions about possible causes of epilepsy and treatment effects. ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help Providing them with a written seizure treatment plan (a template is available at www.epilepsy.com) will increase their ability to manage seizure activity and boost their confidence. It is also helpful for families to run periodic “seizure drills,” practicing what every family member should do if the child has a seizure. Parents may also experience heightened stress from relationship, health, sleep, work, education, and family management problems, so patient teaching should address these issues as well (see Teaching Points for Parents of Children with Epilepsy). • During the first five years following diagnosis, parents continue to adjust to the chronicity of their child’s epilepsy and may share worries about the child’s future needs and express doubts that things will ever improve. It’s important for them to know about available resources and support during this time. AJN ? June 2015 ? Vol. 115, No. 6 35 Table 1. Self-Management Questions and Points of Discussion in Assessing Epilepsy •• What is your biggest concern about your epilepsy? •• What information on epilepsy have you read or heard about? •• How will you handle your next seizure? Do you have a seizure treatment plan? •• Do you know what to do if you have any adverse treatment effects? Are you concerned about any current adverse effects? •• During the past month, have you been feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? How often? •• During the past month, have you felt less interest or pleasure in activities you once enjoyed? How often? •• For adults: Do you have any concerns about sexuality or reproduction? •• For women: Are you experiencing any menstrual irregularities, and do you have concerns about any sexrelated health issues or pregnancy-planning questions? •• Do you have support from your family, friends, and community? •• Do you have any illness-related transportation issues? •• Do you have difficulty paying for medications or clinic visits? •• Do you have any school or employment concerns? •• What local, state, and national epilepsy resources do you find helpful? • After the first five years following diagnosis, many parents feel they can handle their child’s epilepsy care issues but remain uncertain about their child’s future. It’s important to assess the child’s functioning to better help parents with future planning. For example, should they consider guardianship? Will their child be able to attend college or obtain vocational training? Many parents also demonstrate pride in having learned so much about their child’s epilepsy care and express a desire to help other parents. PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT Once epilepsy is diagnosed and intervention deemed necessary, the first-line treatment is an AED.3 More than 20 AEDs are currently available, and numerous factors—including seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, cost, and such patient variables as age, sex, and comorbid conditions—must be considered when choosing which is most appropriate for the patient. For example, divalproex (Depakote) is widely used and has a very broad spectrum of action. While it may be an excellent choice for certain forms of epilepsy, and for patients in whom the specific seizure type has not been precisely identified, it is not considered a firstline AED for young women owing to its adverse effects, which include irregular menses, fatigue, weight gain, risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, and elevated risk of teratogenicity. Levetiracetam (Keppra), another commonly prescribed AED, is generally well tolerated, has reliable 36 AJN ” Seizure Precautions “, assignment help ? June 2015 ? Vol. 115, No. 6 pharmacokinetics and no significant drug–drug interactions, and is easy to titrate. Nevertheless, because it can cause irritability or mood disruption, it may be a poor choice for patients with preexisting behavioral problems or traumatic brain injury. Topiramate (Topamax and others) is effective in controlling both seizures and migraines, but its adverse effects can include slowed cognition or wordfinding difficulties, weight loss, and kidney stones. Thus, topiramate may be a poor choice for a patient who has cognitive difficulties, kidney stones, or anorexia. On the other hand, it may be an excellent choice for a patient with epilepsy who is also overweight or has migraines. Genetics and ethnicity, too, may play a role in AED selection. For example, the life-threatening skin disorders Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are associated with the AED carbamazepine (Tegretol and others) in patients with the human leukocyte antigen allele HLA-B*1502, especially in patients of Asian ancestry.4, 5 Financial factors—such as insurance coverage and drug availability in generic form, which often makes a drug substantially less expensive than a brand-name product—may also influence choice of AED. There is controversy about the safety of switching from a brand-name AED to a generic formulation and from one generic formulation to another. Although a generic AED may deliver the same total drug as its brand-name equivalent, peak concentration times may vary.6 Furthermore, generic formulations that are bioequivalent to a specific brand-name AED may not ajnonline.com be bioequivalent to each other.7 If a generic product is prescribed, it is important that the patient ensure that the dispensing pharmacy can obtain the same generic formulation every month (that is, made by the same manufacturer) to avoid changes in the blood level of AEDs that could reduce seizure control. The choice of first AED is commonly made in consultation with a neurologist, though some primary care providers have experience in the initial treatment of epilepsy and are up to date on available AEDs. When appropriately selected, the first AED controls seizures in approximately half of newly diagnosed patients.8, 9 If the first AED does not control seizures, then reasons for its lack of effectiveness must be explored (see Table 4). After one or two AED failures with good medication adherence, one of the following scenarios is likely. • The patient has pharmacologically refractory epilepsy. • The patient has a specific form of epilepsy that responds only to very specific AEDs. • The eve … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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