ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion

ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Home > Humanities > ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Question Description I’m studying for my Social Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? No need to site Be sure to read carefully. Where asked to describe, you must actually explain with detail. Lists or bullet points will not be accepted for full credit. Please use full sentences and support any statements or claims that you make with course materials (examples of cultures or religions). Use the text box at the bottom to number, then reply to each of the questions. Where sub-questions exists, please follow the format provided in the question (bullet point, letter, etc.). Use the grading rubric (on the top right) for further grading criteria. All work must be in your own words . Work Witchcraft beliefs in small-scale societies … (use the proper names of the oracles and be able to describe the use/function of each) 1) Describe thoroughly witchcraft accusations, the functions of these accusations, punishment for witches, and the identification of witches (the three oracles- for divination- should be known well) among the Azande. Who is most likely to be accused of witchcraft and why? How does gender factor into witchcraft accusations? What types of misfortunes are blamed on witches? In what ways do the Azande identify an individual who is a witch? In what ways are witches among the Azande “punished”? Small-scale and large-scale comparison… 2) Using the above discuss of the way in which witchcraft accusations are used, the functions of witchcraft, punishment of witchcraft, and perceptions of witches in small-scale and large-scale societies, identify the similarities and differences. Read the bullet points for each of the above questions and compare the responses, then analyze them. What might we conclude about witchcraft accusations in all cultures? Are there generalizations we can make about them? How do they differ? What about the way in which witches harm others? Is this the same in both cultures? Different? How/why? This topic assignment, if done well, will help you immensely with the exam. Put the elbow grease in now. ?? Unformatted Attachment Preview The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft This concise and accessible textbook introduces students to the anthropological study of religion. Stein and Stein examine religious expression from a cross-cultural perspective and expose students to the varying complexity of world religions. The chapters incorporate key theoretical concepts and a rich range of ethnographic material. The fourth edition of The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft offers: increased coverage of new religious movements, fundamentalism, and religion and conflict/violence; fresh case study material with examples drawn from around the globe; further resources via a comprehensive companion website. This is an essential guide for students encountering anthropology of religion for the first time. Rebecca L. Stein is Professor of Anthropology and Department Chair at Los Angeles Valley College, USA. Philip L. Stein is Professor of Anthropology (Emeritus) at Los Angeles Pierce College, USA. He is a fellow of the American Anthropological Association and a past president of the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges. The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft Fourth Edition Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein Fourth edition published 2017 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2017 Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein The right of Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. First published 2005 by Prentice Hall Third edition published 2011 by Prentice Hall British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Stein, Rebecca L., 1970- author. | Stein, Philip L., author. Title: The anthropology of religion, magic, and witchcraft / Rebecca L. Stein, Philip L. Stein. Description: Fourth edition. | Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY : Routledge, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016050966 (print) | LCCN 2017007888 (ebook) | ISBN 9781138719972 (hardback : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781138692527 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781315532172 (e-book) Subjects: LCSH: Religion. | Anthropology of religion. | Religion and culture. Classification: LCC GN470. S73 2017 (print) | LCC GN470 (ebook) | DDC 306.6—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016050966 ISBN: 978-1-138-71997-2 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-69252-7 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-53217-2 (ebk) Typeset in Sabon by Keystroke, Neville Lodge, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton Visit the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/stein For Elijah Contents Illustrations Preface Acknowledgments 1 The anthropological study of religion The anthropological perspective The holistic approach The study of human societies The Fore of New Guinea: an ethnographic example Two ways of viewing culture Cultural relativism Box 1.1 Karen McCarthy Brown and Vodou The concept of culture The study of religion Attempts at defining religion The domain of religion Theoretical approaches to the study of religion Box 1.2 Malinowski and the Trobriand Islands Box 1.3 Evans-Pritchard and the Azande The biological basis of religious behavior Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 2 Mythology The nature of myths Worldview Stories of the supernatural The nature of oral texts Box 2.1 Genesis Box 2.2 The gender-neutral Christian Bible Understanding myths Approaches to the analysis of myths Box 2.3 The Gururumba creation story Common themes in myths Box 2.4 The power of storytelling Box 2.5 The Navaho creation story: Diné Bahane’ Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 3 Religious symbols What is a symbol? Religious symbols Box 3.1 Religious toys and games Sacred art The sarcophagus of Lord Pakal The meaning of color Sacred time and sacred space The meaning of time Box 3.2 The end of time Sacred time and space in Australia The symbolism of music and dance The symbolism of music ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion The symbolism of dance Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 4 Ritual The basics of ritual performance Prescriptive and situational rituals Periodic and occasional rituals A classification of rituals A survey of rituals Technological rituals Social rites of intensification Therapy rituals and healing Revitalization rituals Rites of passage Alterations of the human body Pilgrimages Box 4.1 The Hajj The Huichol pilgrimage Religious obligations Tabu Jewish food laws Box 4.2 Menstrual tabus Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 5 Altered states of consciousness The nature of altered states of consciousness Entering an altered state of consciousness The biological basis of altered states of consciousness Box 5.1 Altered states in Upper Paleolithic art Ethnographic examples of altered states of consciousness San healing rituals The Sun Dance of the Cheyenne The Holiness Churches Drug-induced altered states of consciousness Hallucinogenic snuff among the Yanomamö Tobacco in South America Peyote in the Native American Church Marijuana among the Rastafarians Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 6 Religious specialists Shamans Defining shamanism Siberian shamanism Korean shamanism Pentecostal healers as shamans Box 6.1 Clown doctors as shamans Neoshamanism Priests Zuni priests Okinawan priestesses Eastern Orthodox priests Other specialists Healers and diviners Box 6.2 African healers meet Western medicine Prophets Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 7 Magic and divination The nature of magic Magic and religion Rules of magic Magic in society Magic in the Trobriand Islands Magic among the Azande Sorcery among the Fore Wiccan magic Divination Forms of divination A survey of divination techniques Box 7.1 I Ching: The Book of Changes Box 7.2 Spiritualism and séances Astrology Fore divination Oracles of the Azande Divination in Ancient Greece: the oracle at Delphi Magical behavior and the human mind Magical thinking Why magic works Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 8 Souls, ghosts, and death Souls and ancestors Variation in the concept of the soul Box 8.1 How do you get to heaven? Souls, death, and the afterlife Examples of concepts of the soul Ancestors Box 8.2 Determining death Bodies and souls Ghosts The living dead: vampires and zombies Death rituals Funeral rituals Disposal of the body U.S. death rituals in the nineteenth century U.S. funeral rituals today Days of death Box 8.3 Roadside memorials Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 9 Gods and spirits Spirits The Dani view of the supernatural Guardian spirits and the Native American vision quest Jinn Christian angels and demons Box 9.1 Christian demonic exorcism in the United States Gods Types of gods Gods and society Box 9.2 Games and gods The gods of the Yoruba The gods of the Ifugao Goddesses Monotheism: conceptions of god in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Atheism Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 10 Witchcraft The concept of witchcraft in small-scale societies Witchcraft among the Azande Witchcraft among the Navaho Witchcraft reflects human culture Witchcraft and AIDS Euro-American witchcraft beliefs The connection with pagan religions The Witchcraze in Europe The Witchcraze in England and the United States Box 10.1: The evil eye Modern-day witch hunts Box 10.2 Satanism Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 11 The search for new meaning Adaptation and change Mechanisms of culture change Haitian Vodou Santeria Revitalization movements The origins of revitalization movements Types of revitalization movements Cargo cults Box 11.1 The John Frum cult The Ghost Dance of 1890 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism) Neo-Paganism and revival The Wiccan movement High demand religions The “cult” question Characteristics of high demand religions Examples of high demand religions UFO religions ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 12 Religion, conflict, and peace Religion and conflict Role of religion in conflict and violence Box 12.1 Nationalism as religion Fundamentalism Characteristics of fundamentalist groups Case studies of religion and conflict The Iranian Revolution Box 12.2 The veil in Islam The Arab Spring The Hobby Lobby case in the United States Religion, terrorism, and peace Religious conflict and terrorism Religion and peace Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes Glossary Index Illustrations Maps 1 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Western Hemisphere 2 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Eastern Hemisphere Figures 1.1 Holism 1.2 Brain scans. Courtesy of Andrew Newberg 3.1 Navaho blanket with swastika. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Helga Teiwes, photographer 3.2 The pentagram 3.3 Some Christian symbols 3.4 The mayan cosmos. D. Donne BryantDDB Stock Photography, LLC 3.5 Yin-yang 4.1 Alterations of the human body. 4.1a © Bettman/CORBIS All Rights Reserved; 4.1b © Westend61 GmbH / Alamy Stock Photo; 4.1c © Robert Estall photo agency / Alamy Stock Photo 4.2 Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Granger Collection, New York 5.1 Mayan carving. 5.1a © The Trustees of the British Museum; 5.1b © The Trustees of the British Museum 5.2 San healing ceremony. © Peter Johnson/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 6.1 Shaman. Photo by Tao Zhang/Nur Photo. Sipa USA via AP 6.2 Okinawan priestesses. © Chris Willson / Alamy Stock Photo 7.1 Divination. © Earl and Nazima Kowall/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 7.2 Painting of the Pythia. Bpk, Berlin/Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen/Johannes Laurentius/Art Resource, NY 8.1 The Wheel of Life. © Getty Images/Time Life Pictures 8.2 Vampire burial. Courtesy of the Slavia Project and the Slavia Field School in Mortuary Archaeology, Drawsko, Poland 8.3 The Day of the Dead. © Danny Lehman/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 9.1 The Greek pantheon 9.2 Venus of Willendorf. INTERFOTO / Alamy Stock Photo 9.3 The Hindu goddess Kali. © Earl and Nazima Kowall/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 10.1 Execution of English witches. The Granger Collection, New York 11.1 Vodou altar. AP Photo/Lynsey Addiaro 11.2 Wiccan ritual. © Jim Cartier/Science Photo Library 11.3 Mass wedding of the Unification Church. CORBIS-NY 12.1 Hobby Lobby. Mark Wilson/Getty Images 12.2 Terrorist attacks in Paris. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images Tables 1.1 Culture areas of the world 1.2 Food-getting strategies 2.1 Forms of narrative 2.2 The monomyth in cinema: a sampling of common features 4.1 A classification of rituals 4.2 Causes and treatment of supernatural illnesses 4.3 Characteristics of liminality 5.1 Characteristics of altered states of consciousness 5.2 Factors bringing about an altered state of consciousness 5.3 Drugs that produce an altered state of consciousness 7.1 A classification of methods of divination with examples 9.1 The supernatural world of the Dani 9.2 The Roman gods and goddesses of agriculture 9.3 Some of the Yoruba orisha 11.1 The lwa of Haitian Vodou Preface Although courses in the anthropology of religion are usually upper-division courses taught at four-year institutions to anthropology majors, the course is increasingly being taught at the lower-division level, especially at community colleges. ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Here the emphasis is not on the training of majors, of whom there are few, but on meeting a general education requirement in the social sciences or humanities. Most significantly, this course is probably the only anthropology course that such students will take. Therefore the instructor has the obligation not only to discuss the topics of religion, but also to teach the student about the nature of anthropology and to present its basic principles. We had great difficulty in finding a textbook that is appropriate for this type of course. Three types of books exist. First is the reader, which often includes articles that are too advanced for the introductory student. A major problem is the inconsistency of terminology and concepts as the student moves from article to article. The second is the general textbook on the anthropology of religion; but these appear to be written for upper-division students who have already been introduced to the field and often heavily emphasize theory. Third, there are abundant books on the more familiar world religions but few that discuss religions in small-scale societies, where much of the anthropological studies have been conducted. Our goal in writing this text has been to introduce the beginning student to the basic concepts involved in the anthropological study of religion, including an introduction to ethnographical information from a wide range of societies and a basic introduction to the field of anthropology. One of the most difficult decisions we have had to make in writing this text is the organization and order of presentation of topics. The range of topics is large, and they overlap in myriad ways—everyone has his or her own approach. We have attempted to present the material beginning with basic concepts and proceeding to the more complex. For example, we begin with myth, symbolism, and ritual before moving on to magic and witchcraft later in the text. We have attempted to include a number of ethnographic examples with a good geographical distribution. Societies discussed in the text are included in Table 1.1, “Culture areas of the world,” and the locations of many of these are shown on the maps at the front of the book. Of course, many topics are associated with classic ethnographic studies, which have been included. We have also attempted to balance the presentation of a wide variety of cultures with the inclusion of certain key societies that reappear as examples of several topics throughout the text, to give students some continuity and a deeper understanding of a small group of societies. These societies include the Navaho of North America, the Yanomamö of South America, the Azande and Yoruba of Africa, the Murngin of Australia, and the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea. The writing of a manuscript is a major and complex undertaking. It is a thrill to see the book in print, but when reading it in book form and using it in class, the authors often see things that could have been done a little differently, as well as having ideas for new avenues to explore. We have continued to make a number of changes in this fourth edition. Some of these changes are minor: a little reorganization, an expansion or contraction of a particular topic, the introduction of a new example or elimination of an old one, and a little rewording to make the point a little clearer. Other changes are more substantial. ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion For example, we have added a new Chapter 12 in which we discuss fundamentalism, formerly in Chapter 11, and new material on religion and conflict, violence and peace. We have added small sections on apotropaic features found in archaeological context, vampire beliefs in New English, big gods, and witchcraft in Soweto, South Africa. We have also added four new boxes on “The Power of Storytelling,” “Spiritualism and Séances,” “Nationalism as Religion,” and “The Veil in Islam.” To assist the student in learning the material, we have divided each chapter into several sections with different levels of headings. Terms that appear in the Glossary have been set in bold. Each chapter concludes with a summary, study questions, suggested reading, and suggested websites. Additional materials for students and instructors are available on the companion website www.routledge.com/cw/stein Acknowledgements We want to take this opportunity to thank the many faculty members who have aided us in the writing of this text by reviewing the manuscript and offering advice and suggestions. Katherine Bradford, Los Angeles Mission College Nicola Denzey, Bowdoin College Charles O. Ellenbaum, College of DuPage Karen Fjelstad, Cabrillo College Wendy Fonarow, Glendale College Arthur Gribben, Los Angeles Mission College Amy Harper, Central Oregon Community College Barbara Hornum, Drexel University William Jankowiak, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Theresa Kintz, Wilkes University Debra L. Klein, Gavilan College Christopher Kovats-Bernat, Muhlenberg College Lilly M. Langer, Florida International University Phillip Naftaly, Adirondack Community College Lesley Northup, Florida International University Robin O’Brian, Elmira College Lisa Raskind, Los Angeles Valley College Cheryle Ross, Rio Hondo College Terry N. Simmons, Paradise Valley Community College As well as the many anonymous reviewers for both Prentice Hall and Routledge. We would like to thank everyone at Routledge for their assistance and support in the writing of this book. We also want to thank our students for their assistance. After all, this book was written for them. The text was originally based on our lecture notes for an anthropology of religion course which developed over many years with student dialogue. The manuscript was then used as a textbook, which provided an opportunity for student feedback. Finally, we wish to thank our respective spouses, Robert Frankle and Carol Stein, for their patience and support, and assistance. Map 1 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Western Hemisphere Map 2 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Eastern Hemisphere Chapter 1 The anthropological study of religion Human beings pose questions about nearly everything in the world, including themselves. The most fundamental of these questions are answered by a people’s religious beliefs and practices, which are the subject of this book. We will examine the religious lives of a broad range of human communities from an anthropological perspective. The term anthropological perspective means many things. It is a theoretical orientation that will be discussed later in the chapter. It is also an approach that compares human societies throughout the world—contemporary and historical, industrial and tribal. Many college courses and textbooks focus on the best-known religions, those that are practiced by millions upon millions of people and are often referred to as the “world’s great religions”—Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, among others. This book will expand the subject matter to include and focus on lesser-known religious systems, especially those that are found in small-scale, traditional communities. As we do this, we want to look for commonalities as well as to celebrate diversity. This book will not simply describe a series of religious systems. We will approach the study of religion by looking at particular topics that are usually included in the anthropological definition of religion and providing examples to illustrate these topics from the anthropological literature. We obviously are unable to present the thousands of religio … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion

ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Home > Humanities > ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Question Description I’m studying for my Social Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? No need to site Be sure to read carefully. Where asked to describe, you must actually explain with detail. Lists or bullet points will not be accepted for full credit. Please use full sentences and support any statements or claims that you make with course materials (examples of cultures or religions). Use the text box at the bottom to number, then reply to each of the questions. Where sub-questions exists, please follow the format provided in the question (bullet point, letter, etc.). Use the grading rubric (on the top right) for further grading criteria. All work must be in your own words . Work Witchcraft beliefs in small-scale societies … (use the proper names of the oracles and be able to describe the use/function of each) 1) Describe thoroughly witchcraft accusations, the functions of these accusations, punishment for witches, and the identification of witches (the three oracles- for divination- should be known well) among the Azande. Who is most likely to be accused of witchcraft and why? How does gender factor into witchcraft accusations? What types of misfortunes are blamed on witches? In what ways do the Azande identify an individual who is a witch? In what ways are witches among the Azande “punished”? Small-scale and large-scale comparison… 2) Using the above discuss of the way in which witchcraft accusations are used, the functions of witchcraft, punishment of witchcraft, and perceptions of witches in small-scale and large-scale societies, identify the similarities and differences. Read the bullet points for each of the above questions and compare the responses, then analyze them. What might we conclude about witchcraft accusations in all cultures? Are there generalizations we can make about them? How do they differ? What about the way in which witches harm others? Is this the same in both cultures? Different? How/why? This topic assignment, if done well, will help you immensely with the exam. Put the elbow grease in now. ?? Unformatted Attachment Preview The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft This concise and accessible textbook introduces students to the anthropological study of religion. Stein and Stein examine religious expression from a cross-cultural perspective and expose students to the varying complexity of world religions. The chapters incorporate key theoretical concepts and a rich range of ethnographic material. The fourth edition of The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft offers: increased coverage of new religious movements, fundamentalism, and religion and conflict/violence; fresh case study material with examples drawn from around the globe; further resources via a comprehensive companion website. This is an essential guide for students encountering anthropology of religion for the first time. Rebecca L. Stein is Professor of Anthropology and Department Chair at Los Angeles Valley College, USA. Philip L. Stein is Professor of Anthropology (Emeritus) at Los Angeles Pierce College, USA. He is a fellow of the American Anthropological Association and a past president of the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges. The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft Fourth Edition Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein Fourth edition published 2017 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2017 Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein The right of Rebecca L. Stein and Philip L. Stein to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. First published 2005 by Prentice Hall Third edition published 2011 by Prentice Hall British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Stein, Rebecca L., 1970- author. | Stein, Philip L., author. Title: The anthropology of religion, magic, and witchcraft / Rebecca L. Stein, Philip L. Stein. Description: Fourth edition. | Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY : Routledge, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016050966 (print) | LCCN 2017007888 (ebook) | ISBN 9781138719972 (hardback : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781138692527 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781315532172 (e-book) Subjects: LCSH: Religion. | Anthropology of religion. | Religion and culture. Classification: LCC GN470. S73 2017 (print) | LCC GN470 (ebook) | DDC 306.6—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016050966 ISBN: 978-1-138-71997-2 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-69252-7 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-53217-2 (ebk) Typeset in Sabon by Keystroke, Neville Lodge, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton Visit the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/stein For Elijah Contents Illustrations Preface Acknowledgments 1 The anthropological study of religion The anthropological perspective The holistic approach The study of human societies The Fore of New Guinea: an ethnographic example Two ways of viewing culture Cultural relativism Box 1.1 Karen McCarthy Brown and Vodou The concept of culture The study of religion Attempts at defining religion The domain of religion Theoretical approaches to the study of religion Box 1.2 Malinowski and the Trobriand Islands Box 1.3 Evans-Pritchard and the Azande The biological basis of religious behavior Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 2 Mythology The nature of myths Worldview Stories of the supernatural The nature of oral texts Box 2.1 Genesis Box 2.2 The gender-neutral Christian Bible Understanding myths Approaches to the analysis of myths Box 2.3 The Gururumba creation story Common themes in myths Box 2.4 The power of storytelling Box 2.5 The Navaho creation story: Diné Bahane’ Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 3 Religious symbols What is a symbol? Religious symbols Box 3.1 Religious toys and games Sacred art The sarcophagus of Lord Pakal The meaning of color Sacred time and sacred space The meaning of time Box 3.2 The end of time Sacred time and space in Australia The symbolism of music and dance The symbolism of music ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion The symbolism of dance Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 4 Ritual The basics of ritual performance Prescriptive and situational rituals Periodic and occasional rituals A classification of rituals A survey of rituals Technological rituals Social rites of intensification Therapy rituals and healing Revitalization rituals Rites of passage Alterations of the human body Pilgrimages Box 4.1 The Hajj The Huichol pilgrimage Religious obligations Tabu Jewish food laws Box 4.2 Menstrual tabus Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 5 Altered states of consciousness The nature of altered states of consciousness Entering an altered state of consciousness The biological basis of altered states of consciousness Box 5.1 Altered states in Upper Paleolithic art Ethnographic examples of altered states of consciousness San healing rituals The Sun Dance of the Cheyenne The Holiness Churches Drug-induced altered states of consciousness Hallucinogenic snuff among the Yanomamö Tobacco in South America Peyote in the Native American Church Marijuana among the Rastafarians Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 6 Religious specialists Shamans Defining shamanism Siberian shamanism Korean shamanism Pentecostal healers as shamans Box 6.1 Clown doctors as shamans Neoshamanism Priests Zuni priests Okinawan priestesses Eastern Orthodox priests Other specialists Healers and diviners Box 6.2 African healers meet Western medicine Prophets Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 7 Magic and divination The nature of magic Magic and religion Rules of magic Magic in society Magic in the Trobriand Islands Magic among the Azande Sorcery among the Fore Wiccan magic Divination Forms of divination A survey of divination techniques Box 7.1 I Ching: The Book of Changes Box 7.2 Spiritualism and séances Astrology Fore divination Oracles of the Azande Divination in Ancient Greece: the oracle at Delphi Magical behavior and the human mind Magical thinking Why magic works Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 8 Souls, ghosts, and death Souls and ancestors Variation in the concept of the soul Box 8.1 How do you get to heaven? Souls, death, and the afterlife Examples of concepts of the soul Ancestors Box 8.2 Determining death Bodies and souls Ghosts The living dead: vampires and zombies Death rituals Funeral rituals Disposal of the body U.S. death rituals in the nineteenth century U.S. funeral rituals today Days of death Box 8.3 Roadside memorials Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 9 Gods and spirits Spirits The Dani view of the supernatural Guardian spirits and the Native American vision quest Jinn Christian angels and demons Box 9.1 Christian demonic exorcism in the United States Gods Types of gods Gods and society Box 9.2 Games and gods The gods of the Yoruba The gods of the Ifugao Goddesses Monotheism: conceptions of god in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Atheism Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 10 Witchcraft The concept of witchcraft in small-scale societies Witchcraft among the Azande Witchcraft among the Navaho Witchcraft reflects human culture Witchcraft and AIDS Euro-American witchcraft beliefs The connection with pagan religions The Witchcraze in Europe The Witchcraze in England and the United States Box 10.1: The evil eye Modern-day witch hunts Box 10.2 Satanism Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 11 The search for new meaning Adaptation and change Mechanisms of culture change Haitian Vodou Santeria Revitalization movements The origins of revitalization movements Types of revitalization movements Cargo cults Box 11.1 The John Frum cult The Ghost Dance of 1890 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism) Neo-Paganism and revival The Wiccan movement High demand religions The “cult” question Characteristics of high demand religions Examples of high demand religions UFO religions ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes 12 Religion, conflict, and peace Religion and conflict Role of religion in conflict and violence Box 12.1 Nationalism as religion Fundamentalism Characteristics of fundamentalist groups Case studies of religion and conflict The Iranian Revolution Box 12.2 The veil in Islam The Arab Spring The Hobby Lobby case in the United States Religion, terrorism, and peace Religious conflict and terrorism Religion and peace Conclusion Summary Study questions Suggested readings Suggested websites Notes Glossary Index Illustrations Maps 1 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Western Hemisphere 2 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Eastern Hemisphere Figures 1.1 Holism 1.2 Brain scans. Courtesy of Andrew Newberg 3.1 Navaho blanket with swastika. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Helga Teiwes, photographer 3.2 The pentagram 3.3 Some Christian symbols 3.4 The mayan cosmos. D. Donne BryantDDB Stock Photography, LLC 3.5 Yin-yang 4.1 Alterations of the human body. 4.1a © Bettman/CORBIS All Rights Reserved; 4.1b © Westend61 GmbH / Alamy Stock Photo; 4.1c © Robert Estall photo agency / Alamy Stock Photo 4.2 Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Granger Collection, New York 5.1 Mayan carving. 5.1a © The Trustees of the British Museum; 5.1b © The Trustees of the British Museum 5.2 San healing ceremony. © Peter Johnson/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 6.1 Shaman. Photo by Tao Zhang/Nur Photo. Sipa USA via AP 6.2 Okinawan priestesses. © Chris Willson / Alamy Stock Photo 7.1 Divination. © Earl and Nazima Kowall/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 7.2 Painting of the Pythia. Bpk, Berlin/Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen/Johannes Laurentius/Art Resource, NY 8.1 The Wheel of Life. © Getty Images/Time Life Pictures 8.2 Vampire burial. Courtesy of the Slavia Project and the Slavia Field School in Mortuary Archaeology, Drawsko, Poland 8.3 The Day of the Dead. © Danny Lehman/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 9.1 The Greek pantheon 9.2 Venus of Willendorf. INTERFOTO / Alamy Stock Photo 9.3 The Hindu goddess Kali. © Earl and Nazima Kowall/CORBIS All Rights Reserved 10.1 Execution of English witches. The Granger Collection, New York 11.1 Vodou altar. AP Photo/Lynsey Addiaro 11.2 Wiccan ritual. © Jim Cartier/Science Photo Library 11.3 Mass wedding of the Unification Church. CORBIS-NY 12.1 Hobby Lobby. Mark Wilson/Getty Images 12.2 Terrorist attacks in Paris. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images Tables 1.1 Culture areas of the world 1.2 Food-getting strategies 2.1 Forms of narrative 2.2 The monomyth in cinema: a sampling of common features 4.1 A classification of rituals 4.2 Causes and treatment of supernatural illnesses 4.3 Characteristics of liminality 5.1 Characteristics of altered states of consciousness 5.2 Factors bringing about an altered state of consciousness 5.3 Drugs that produce an altered state of consciousness 7.1 A classification of methods of divination with examples 9.1 The supernatural world of the Dani 9.2 The Roman gods and goddesses of agriculture 9.3 Some of the Yoruba orisha 11.1 The lwa of Haitian Vodou Preface Although courses in the anthropology of religion are usually upper-division courses taught at four-year institutions to anthropology majors, the course is increasingly being taught at the lower-division level, especially at community colleges. ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion Here the emphasis is not on the training of majors, of whom there are few, but on meeting a general education requirement in the social sciences or humanities. Most significantly, this course is probably the only anthropology course that such students will take. Therefore the instructor has the obligation not only to discuss the topics of religion, but also to teach the student about the nature of anthropology and to present its basic principles. We had great difficulty in finding a textbook that is appropriate for this type of course. Three types of books exist. First is the reader, which often includes articles that are too advanced for the introductory student. A major problem is the inconsistency of terminology and concepts as the student moves from article to article. The second is the general textbook on the anthropology of religion; but these appear to be written for upper-division students who have already been introduced to the field and often heavily emphasize theory. Third, there are abundant books on the more familiar world religions but few that discuss religions in small-scale societies, where much of the anthropological studies have been conducted. Our goal in writing this text has been to introduce the beginning student to the basic concepts involved in the anthropological study of religion, including an introduction to ethnographical information from a wide range of societies and a basic introduction to the field of anthropology. One of the most difficult decisions we have had to make in writing this text is the organization and order of presentation of topics. The range of topics is large, and they overlap in myriad ways—everyone has his or her own approach. We have attempted to present the material beginning with basic concepts and proceeding to the more complex. For example, we begin with myth, symbolism, and ritual before moving on to magic and witchcraft later in the text. We have attempted to include a number of ethnographic examples with a good geographical distribution. Societies discussed in the text are included in Table 1.1, “Culture areas of the world,” and the locations of many of these are shown on the maps at the front of the book. Of course, many topics are associated with classic ethnographic studies, which have been included. We have also attempted to balance the presentation of a wide variety of cultures with the inclusion of certain key societies that reappear as examples of several topics throughout the text, to give students some continuity and a deeper understanding of a small group of societies. These societies include the Navaho of North America, the Yanomamö of South America, the Azande and Yoruba of Africa, the Murngin of Australia, and the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea. The writing of a manuscript is a major and complex undertaking. It is a thrill to see the book in print, but when reading it in book form and using it in class, the authors often see things that could have been done a little differently, as well as having ideas for new avenues to explore. We have continued to make a number of changes in this fourth edition. Some of these changes are minor: a little reorganization, an expansion or contraction of a particular topic, the introduction of a new example or elimination of an old one, and a little rewording to make the point a little clearer. Other changes are more substantial. ANTH Cypress College Punishment of Witchcraft and Societies Perceptions Discussion For example, we have added a new Chapter 12 in which we discuss fundamentalism, formerly in Chapter 11, and new material on religion and conflict, violence and peace. We have added small sections on apotropaic features found in archaeological context, vampire beliefs in New English, big gods, and witchcraft in Soweto, South Africa. We have also added four new boxes on “The Power of Storytelling,” “Spiritualism and Séances,” “Nationalism as Religion,” and “The Veil in Islam.” To assist the student in learning the material, we have divided each chapter into several sections with different levels of headings. Terms that appear in the Glossary have been set in bold. Each chapter concludes with a summary, study questions, suggested reading, and suggested websites. Additional materials for students and instructors are available on the companion website www.routledge.com/cw/stein Acknowledgements We want to take this opportunity to thank the many faculty members who have aided us in the writing of this text by reviewing the manuscript and offering advice and suggestions. Katherine Bradford, Los Angeles Mission College Nicola Denzey, Bowdoin College Charles O. Ellenbaum, College of DuPage Karen Fjelstad, Cabrillo College Wendy Fonarow, Glendale College Arthur Gribben, Los Angeles Mission College Amy Harper, Central Oregon Community College Barbara Hornum, Drexel University William Jankowiak, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Theresa Kintz, Wilkes University Debra L. Klein, Gavilan College Christopher Kovats-Bernat, Muhlenberg College Lilly M. Langer, Florida International University Phillip Naftaly, Adirondack Community College Lesley Northup, Florida International University Robin O’Brian, Elmira College Lisa Raskind, Los Angeles Valley College Cheryle Ross, Rio Hondo College Terry N. Simmons, Paradise Valley Community College As well as the many anonymous reviewers for both Prentice Hall and Routledge. We would like to thank everyone at Routledge for their assistance and support in the writing of this book. We also want to thank our students for their assistance. After all, this book was written for them. The text was originally based on our lecture notes for an anthropology of religion course which developed over many years with student dialogue. The manuscript was then used as a textbook, which provided an opportunity for student feedback. Finally, we wish to thank our respective spouses, Robert Frankle and Carol Stein, for their patience and support, and assistance. Map 1 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Western Hemisphere Map 2 Map showing location of societies discussed in text: Eastern Hemisphere Chapter 1 The anthropological study of religion Human beings pose questions about nearly everything in the world, including themselves. The most fundamental of these questions are answered by a people’s religious beliefs and practices, which are the subject of this book. We will examine the religious lives of a broad range of human communities from an anthropological perspective. The term anthropological perspective means many things. It is a theoretical orientation that will be discussed later in the chapter. It is also an approach that compares human societies throughout the world—contemporary and historical, industrial and tribal. Many college courses and textbooks focus on the best-known religions, those that are practiced by millions upon millions of people and are often referred to as the “world’s great religions”—Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, among others. This book will expand the subject matter to include and focus on lesser-known religious systems, especially those that are found in small-scale, traditional communities. As we do this, we want to look for commonalities as well as to celebrate diversity. This book will not simply describe a series of religious systems. We will approach the study of religion by looking at particular topics that are usually included in the anthropological definition of religion and providing examples to illustrate these topics from the anthropological literature. We obviously are unable to present the thousands of religio … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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