Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal

Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a future time. It is the document which potential researchers typically submit to an institutional review board (IRB) for ethical review and approval, and/or to funding agencies to secure financial support for a research effort. Because it is a plan for research which has not yet been conducted, the Methods section should be written in the future tense and should not contain any hypothetical results. The paper must address all of the components required in the Methods section of a research proposal. The following actions must be completed. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal State the research question and/or hypothesis. Briefly compare the characteristics of the major research paradigms used in previous studies on the chosen topic. Introduce the specific approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used in this study. Provide a short explanation as to why the selected procedures are more feasible than other alternatives for the research topic. Describe any relevant variables, measures, and statistical tests. Apply ethical principles and professional standards to the proposed psychological research. Provide an analysis of any ethical issues that may arise and explain how these issues will be resolved. The following headings for the required sections and subsections must appear in the paper. In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the text of the paper. Introduction Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present an appropriately and narrowly defined research question and/or hypothesis. Literature Review Evaluate the published research on the chosen topic including a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles. Summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies. Briefly mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether the proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach employing methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all sources in APA style. Methods Design – Create a feasible research design that incorporates appropriate methods to address the topic. Indicate whether the approach of the proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Identify the specific research design, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate the chosen design and explain why this design is feasible and appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information needed to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support these choices. Include a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources. Participants – Identify and describe the sampling strategy to be used to recruit participants for the study. Estimate the number of participants needed, and explain why this sampling method is appropriate for the research design and approach. Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps to be taken in carrying out the study. Identify any test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument to be utilized. If an existing published instrument will be employed, briefly describe it and cite the source. If an original questionnaire, survey, or test will be created for the project, describe the types of information that will be collected with it and explain how the validity and reliability of the instrument will be established. If such an instrument will not be used, describe how the data will be collected for the study. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) to be used to analyze the data. Cite at least one peer-reviewed source on the chosen analysis technique. Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on the proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to the project, indicate what will be done to handle these concerns. Conclusion Briefly summarize the major points of the paper and reiterate why the proposed study is needed. Attention Students: The Masters of Arts in Psychology program is utilizing the Pathbrite portfolio tool as a repository for student scholarly work in the form of signature assignments completed within the program. After receiving feedback for this Research Proposal, please implement any changes recommended by the instructor, go to Pathbrite, (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. and upload the revised Research Proposal to the portfolio. Use the Pathbrite Quick-Start Guide to create an account if you do not already have one. The upload of signature assignments will take place after completing each course. Be certain to upload revised signature assignments throughout the program as the portfolio and its contents will be used in other courses and may be used by individual students as a professional resource tool. See the Pathbrite (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. website for information and further instructions on using this portfolio tool. The Research Proposal Must be five to seven double-spaced pages (excluding title page and references page) in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. . Must include a title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought and provide a thorough explanation of all required issues. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal Must utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. . experimental_research_week_2_033019__1_.doc emotions_032519_rodriguez__1_.doc research_methods_literature_review_040419.docx qualitative_critique_0 Running head: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON POSTIVE EMOTIONS Experimental Research Study on Positive Emotions Regina Rodriguez PSY 635 Research Design and Methods Instructor: Lisa Cree 03/30/2019 1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS 2 Experimental Study on Positive Emotions for Subjective Well-being Experimental research studies have confirmed that negative and positive emotions are initiated by participants with a contradiction of the health-related features associated with the physiology of an individual. There have been numerous research carried out related to negative and positive emotions. This is because the emotions are influenced by different factors for the variable for each psychologically. Therefore, this psychological factors attracted researchers and psychologist to carry out an experiment to relate positive and negative emotions to some conditions through experiments using human beings and observing the behaviors of human beings. Hypotheses According to Algoe, Fredrickson, and Chow (2016), positive and negative emotions are induced by various factors that trigger the behavior of people. For example, individuals induced to stress and some others with no stress exposed to experiment portray different emotions. An experiment carried about the people on the recovery time for the skin subjected to stripping of the tape through measurement confirmed positive emotions attracted skin recovery time that is at a faster rate for an individual that is stress induced indicating the effect of the buffer towards positive feelings. Another related experiment showed participants under the mood induction that is positively responded quickly to the recovery of a cardiovascular problem upon subjection of a task that is stressful as opposed to mood inductions that were negative. This confirms the existence of emotional components that are induced by some factors to either demonstrate negative or positive emotions of an individual. According to research, stress is a factor that contributes to negative or positive emotions. For EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS 3 example, individuals that are optimistic of recovering from cardiovascular problem had positive emotions that either mentally prepared the individual for a quick recovery. Alternatively, if the other participants realized a sign of health deterioration, negative emotions could arise due to a lack of improvement in health. In a determination of positive emotions of subjective well-being probability sampling was applied by the researchers in hospitals and workplaces to get the number of people representing the population. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal The state of happiness is determined by the environment the person is exposed and the physiological healthiness of an individual. Thus, people portrayed positive emotions under a less stressful environment while negative emotions that are associated with unhappiness is associated with a stressful environment of individuals. Descriptive research was applicable by the researchers experimenting. People at the same places were induced to stress and used to get the emotions portrayed through their talking or general behaviors (Revord, Walsh & Lyubomirsky, 2017). More so, some scholars engaged in surveying to get the response regarding the emotions correlated to the environment different people had been exposed to at different circumstances. Consequently, upon the collection of data regarding emotions, the data were analyzed statistically through inferential and use of statistical packages for social sciences. This concluded how different people behavior upon subjection to stress to expose their positive emotions. Finally, upon the analysis, the results were that persons induced to stress responded to emotions that were negative in the fight to regain the normal functioning mentally. Hence, the state of happiness is accompanied by emotions that are positive as while reducing negative emotions. Such positive emotions contribute to mental healthiness with reduced depression and other stress-related disorders. Researchers apply a different approach to suit each according to personality uniqueness. Such strategies subject an individual to a situation EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS 4 that enables him or her to demonstrate emotions that are considered either positive or negative. An experiment conducted in getting the practical information regarding the positive emotion for subjective well-being indicated the source of happiness in which people were induced with stress had negative emotions that concluded that people are influenced by either internal or external factors that bring about emotions that are either positive or negative. Hence, the experimental studies conducted had strong validity since the data obtained for stress induction provided primary data that was analyzed by the researcher realizing the positive and negative emotions of the participants. More so, the researcher applied qualitative and quantitative research method due to the uniqueness of people to ensure the respect and ethical consideration of research is taken into consideration. In most workplaces, the individual is possessed with positive emotions due to the accomplishment of tasks and with less complains from the management, the person is happy for the personal compliment on the good work done. However, there are threats of some participants responding due to personal convenience or total failing to respond, leading the researchers to collect data that doesn’t represent the actual intended information regarding the emotions. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal The threats were the validity, instruments used and the history of participants that could alter the information collected. Threats and ethical consideration According to my view as per the experimental study, the threat of validity was addressed by the researcher by researching induction of stress factors to selected individuals in a similar place. More so, the instruments used were piloted to ensure they work towards achieving the desired goals of the research. To achieve the ethical principles the researchers EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS created awareness to the participants on the purpose of research, and with the consent of respondents, the research was conducted. References Algoe, S. B., Fredrickson, B. L., & Chow, S. (2016). The Future of Emotions Research within Positive Psychology. Designing Positive Psychology, 8(3), 115-132. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373585.003.0008 Record, J., Walsh, L. C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2017). Positive Activity Interventions to Enhance Well-Being. Subjective Well-Being and Life Satisfaction, 10(4), 451-471. doi:10.4324/9781351231879-21 5 POSITIVE EMOTIONS FOR SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING Positive Emotions for Subjective Well-Being Regina Rodriguez PSY 635 Research Design and Methods Instructor: Lisa Cree 03/25/2019 1 POSITIVE EMOTIONS FOR SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING 2 Positive Emotions for Subjective Well-Being The subjective well-being of an individual is referred to as a composite of positive negative and positive emotional impacts, optimism and memories. It is documented that there is an existence of a significant quantity of primary emotional components that are correlated concerning the subjective well-being of individuals emotionally. Negative and positive effects are composite given over some time are entitled to describing the tendency centrally surrounding the person on an alternate basis. Sampling methods experienced in research for experience analyses for a specified period have increased effectiveness for analyzing the duties of emotions that are positive towards the evaluation of people’s happiness (Thomason, 2017). According to scholars argument judging happiness provides a ration of negative emotions to positive emotions for constructive. The status of happiness and satisfaction is always elevated for increased emotions that are positive through reducing negative emotions of a human being. Increased emotional responses lead to healthy disorder mentally, reduced depression and anxiety (KoenigLewis, Palmer, Dermody & Urbye, 2014). The emotional framework is useful in studying emotions for positive and negative emotions research by applying an approach that is a single perspective due to the uniqueness of the features. The emotional framework provides a helpful analysis of emotions both in negative and positive. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal Whereas, emotions that are negative narrowly tolls down the thought of an individual broadening the positive emotions since they don’t require action that is immediate and quick action response Interest, contentment and joy are emotions that are positive not requiring physical action taken with cognitive activity. The intervention strategies are useful for cultivating emotions that are positive leading to a reduction of the effects that are negative anger, depression POSITIVE EMOTIONS FOR SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING 3 and anxiety with purposeful and life that has positive direction (Berthoz, Grèzes, Yahia-Cherif & Hicheur, 2016). Together quantitative and quantitative methods of research have been used by the researchers for studying the coping and intervention strategies that are useful for channelling the emotional responses that are positive for effective reduction of the effects of emotional responses that are negative (Brannen, 2017). In most documented work, the presence of a single approach directed towards positive cultivation of emotions in respect to mutual consensus with an achievement for collaborative tasks within an area of specialisation. Empirically scholars though their findings have backed up the hypotheses that muscle relaxation, yoga and meditation forms the core physical therapies leading to a reduction of negative emotions. The inclusion of relaxation methods has the responsibility of methods of relaxation cultivate cultivation of positive emotions. Behavioural therapies play the role of cognitive therapies and increasing social activities as that of teaching optimism, and positive direction is efficient and effective in cultivating positive emotions and broadening the thinking and mental perspectives. Studies have explicitly shows that cultivation of specific emotions for example gratitude, peace and love, gratitude has a paramount role in endorsing the well-being subjective individuals regarding religious context. It is evidence that various positive emotions are contributors to happiness and individual well-being spiritually. About responses of emotions, findings of cultivation build detailed quantitative and qualitative studies with inclusion of historical case studies, experimental research designs and cross-sectional studies are useful for examination of the connection between happiness and emotional constructs (Brannen, 2017). Academic scholars, counselling institution relate to psychology and therapist lays the coping strategies and intervention on research as means of POSITIVE EMOTIONS FOR SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING providing a solution to physical and mental diseases related to psychotic diseases, circulatory diseases and general body disorder. 4 POSITIVE EMOTIONS FOR SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING 5 References Berthoz, A., Grèzes, J., Yahia-Cherif, L., & Hicheur, H. (2016). PL5.2 Emotion in gait & mental function. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 14, S7. doi:10.1016/s1353-8020(08)700865 Brannen, J. (2017). Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches: an overview. Mixing Methods: qualitative and quantitative research, 3-37. doi:10.4324/9781315248813-1 Koenig-Lewis, N., Palmer, A., Dermody, J., & Urbye, A. (2014). Positive and Negative Emotions Measure. PsycTESTS Dataset. doi:10.1037/t30495-000 Thomason, K. K. (2017). Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal A Good Enough Heart: Kant and the Cultivation of Emotions. Kantian Review, 22(03), 441-462. doi:10.1017/s1369415417000164 Running head: RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW Research Methods Literature Review Regina Rodriguez PSY 635 Research Design and Methods Instructor: Lisa Cree 04/04/2019 1 RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Experimental Study on Positive Emotions for Subjective Well-being Experimental research studies have confirmed that negative and positive emotions are initiated by participants with a contradiction of the health-related features associated with the physiology of an individual. There has been numerous research carried out related to negative and positive emotions. This is because the emotions are influenced by different factors for the variable for each psychologically. Therefore, these psychological factors attracted researchers and psychologist to carry out an experiment to relate positive and negative emotions to some conditions through experiments using human beings and observing the behaviors of human beings. The main aim of this paper to categories some of the design and determine how they could help in designing the above experiment. Research question The research conducted (week one) in getting the practical information regarding the positive emotion for subjective well-being indicated that people’s happiness is influenced by either internal or external factors that bring about emotions that are either positive or negative. How can these factors be mitigated to make sure that people are always happy in workplaces? Hypothesis According to Algoe, Fredrickson, and Chow (2016), positive and negative emotions are induced by various factors that trigger the behavior of people. For example, individuals induced to stress and some others with no stress exposed to experiment portray different emotions. An experiment carried about the people on the recovery time for the skin subjected to stripping of the tape through measurement confirmed positive emotions attracted skin recovery time that is at a faster rate for an individual that is stress induced indicating the effect of the buffer towards positive RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 3 feelings. Another related experiment showed participants under the mood induction that is positive responded quickly to the recovery of a cardiovascular problem upon subjection of a task that is stressful as opposed to mood inductions that were negative. This confirms the existence of emotional components that are induced by some factors to either demonstrate negative or positive emotions of an individual. These internal or external factors that lead people to be stressed causing a negative emotional change can be minimized or eliminated through these studies. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal There are different designs to model the research and give the best results. Evaluation of Research Designs There are different categories of research designs, that is, non-experimental, quantitative experimental, Qualitative, and mixed methods. Each of the categories has its own designs. This paper will evaluate the following research designs chosen from the four categories listed above stating how they could be used in designing the experimental study on positive emotions for subjective well-being. a. Descriptive research method. This method belongs to the non-experimental category and it refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that is to be applied to a given topic. It can employ both the qualitative and quantitative methodologies in the same study. It seeks to unfold “what it is” in answering research questions. In other words, its descriptive statistics tell what it is. The method is unique in the total number of variables used. The descriptive studies give a summary of data such as the measures of central tendencies that include percentage, the correlation between the variables, median, mean, deviance from the mean, and mode. The description comes from creative exploration, and its main purpose is to organize the findings in order to fit them with an explanation and finally test to validate the explanation. Its main methods are surveyed method, case study RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 4 method, and the observation method (Sekaran, & Bougie, 2016). In my research, this method would enable me to select and describe my sample. The study requires the researcher to describe different types of people in order to acquire accurate results. It also requires one to describe the conditions that make people happy throughout. The case study and survey methods would be used to formulate the research questions. b. Pretest-posttest control group. It is also called a true experimental design. The design belongs to the quantitative experimental category and it refers to an experimental design where the test units are randomly allocated to experimental groups and a control group. The two groups are measured before and after and then the experimental group is exposed to immediate treatment (Valente, & MacKinnon, 2017). The true experimental design would be useful in the original research to tell which internal or external factors induce happiness and positive emotions in the workplace. The experimental groups to be subjected to both factors that induce stress and happiness and the control group is subjected to happy moments. This is because the main aim of the research is to come up with positive emotions that promote well-being in workplaces. The control group will reveal if people subjected to good moments throughout have negative emotions at one point. c. Phenomenology research design It is a qualitative study method that seeks to describe how human beings experience a certain phenomenon. The study attempts to take aside preconceived assumptions and biases about human feelings, experiences, and responses to certain situations. Phenomenological studies allow the researcher to delve into perspectives, perceptions, feelings, and understandings of those people who have lived or actually experienced the situation of interest (Creswell, & Creswell, 2017). In the original research, we are seeking to understand human positive and negative emotions for well- RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 5 being in the workplaces. This design can help us monitor human emotions when induced to stress and when subjected to happy moments. d. Explanatory research design Explanatory research is a mixed research method that is used to explain a problem that has never been researched well before and provide a better-researched model. Ashford University PSY635 Week 1 Positive Emotions Research Proposal It explains the details of a study in finer details. It starts with a general idea from the researcher (Schwartz-Shea, & Yanow, 2013). Explanatory research does not give substantive conclusions of the study. For the research on the positive emotions for subjective well-being, it can be used to hypothesis the research design before the exact data collection begins. Comparison and contrast of the research designs The research designs are similar in such that they are seeking to provide an answer to problems that face human beings. They all start by describing the problem and creating a hypothesis. The designs go-ahead to test the hypothesis and collect data for analysis. After data analysis, research designs come up with results and conclusions which are used to solve the problem that was being studied. On the other, the testing methods for each design are different depending on the topic and hypothesis under study. Another difference is that some designs do not conduct experiments while seeking solutions to problems being studied. As a researcher, the approach that fits my worldview is the descriptive research method. This design is unique because it combines two methods in one study. It uses both quantitative and qualitative techniques which makes it use numerous variables during the study. Secondly, it seeks to investigate the exact problem, that is, it focuses on telling “what it is.” When you use this method you are assured of a final answer to your problem whether positive or negative. RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 6 References Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). 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