Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist

Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist Theories are patterns that guide the thinking about, being, and doing of nursing. Theories provide structure to nursing practice and research. Theories guide nursing practice, stimulate creative thinking, facilitate communication, and at the same time clarify purposes. A metaparadigm is a global concept of a disciple that identifies the primary phenomena of interest to that discipline. In nursing, the Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist dominate phenomena within the science of nursing revolves around the concepts of man. Assignment Criteria: For this assignment develop a scholarly paper that includes the following criteria: 2. Define theory and the purpose of theory. 3. Define and discuss the nursing metaparadigm. a. Explain each of the four concepts that comprise the nursing metaparadigm 4. Explain the importance of theory in nursing practice. a. provide and discuss two examples from current practice 5. The scholarly paper should be 4-5 pages excluding the title and reference pages. 6. Include level 1 and level 2 headings. 7. The paper should begin with an introductory paragraph that includes the purpose statement. The introductory paragraph and purpose statement allow the reader to understand what the paper/assignment is going to address. 8. The paper should include a conclusion. 9. Write the paper in third person, not first person (meaning do not use ‘we’ or ‘I’). 10. Include a minimum of three references from professional peer-reviewed nursing journals (review in Ulrich Periodical Directory) to support the paper. ***You may use historical references. (Definition of historical reference: reference to a well-known person, place event or literary work that adds meaning to the paper.) 11. APA format is required (attention to spelling/grammar, a title page, a reference page, and in-text citations). 12. Submit the assignment to Turnitin Direct prior to the final submission to the assignment drop box 13. Review the originality report and make any needed changes prior to submitting. 14. Submit to the assignment drop box by the posted due date (October 15 by 11:59pm). betty_neuman.pdf betty_nursing_research_.pdf important_.pdf Guest Editorial Honoring Dr. Betty Neuman’s Contributions to Nursing Science Editor’s Note Betty Neuman is a leader in the development of nursing knowledge. Many of her works have been published in Nursing Science Quarterly over the last 25 years.The Editorial Board is pleased to honor her and her work with this special issue. Nursing Science Quarterly 25(4) 297–299 © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission: DOI: 10.1177/0894318412457064 Eileen Gigliotti, RN; PhD1 Keywords Neuman systems model Betty Neuman Reflective of the continued development of the Neuman sys- tems model (NSM) since its inception in 1970, the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium (June, 2011) featured presentations concerning innovations in NSM- based education, practice, and research from both novices and experts. At the symposium, Dr. Neuman humbly expressed her gratefulness to all for their enthusiastic use of the model noting that, though she created the model, it is its innovative use by educators, practitioners, and researchers alike that is the basis of its success. As a tribute to Dr. Neuman’s vision and graciousness, I would like to focus this guest editorial on recent innovative uses of the NSM, many of which are detailed in the issue. 1Professor,The City University of NewYork,The College of Staten Island; Professor and Deputy Executive Officer,The Graduate Center,NewYork Editor: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, RN, PhD, FAAN, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Loyola University Chicago, 320 Fort Duquesne Blvd. #25H, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Email: [email protected] 298 Nursing Science Quarterly 25(4) Several years ago, to further the development of the NSM and highlight innovations, the NSM Trustee Group decided to establish centers of NSM excellence. The first established center was the NSM Research Institute, in June 2004, to help further the use of the NSM as a research model and to build ties among NSM researchers. Since that time, five NSM research fellows have been named, in recognition of their contributions. In addition, a research grant was established in honor of Dr. Patricia Chadwick, a past NSM trustee who was committed to excellence in scholarship. To date, two research grants have been awarded. Also, in June 2008, the NSM Research Institute held its first think tank at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York where lively dis- cussion among invited NSM scholars centered on varied conceptualizations of NSM. One result of this discussion was Dr. Neuman’s changing the wording of her description of a core response in the new- est NSM text (Neuman, 2011), to include all person variables and to clarify that one could reconstitute after a core response. Another breakthrough was Gehrling’s (2011) clarification of the dual nature of the concept of reconstitution. These new advances, as well as others, are detailed in my article in this present edition. In addition, at the 13th Biennial NSM symposium, Dr. Theresa Gunter Lawson, a 2011 NSM research fellow, reflected on building her program of research concerning sexually-transmitted diseases and adolescents (Gunter- Lawson, 2011) and Dr. Nancy Manister, the 2011 recipient of the research grant, presented her work on obesity among clergy (Manister, 2011). Notably, Manister’s study (Manister, 2012), the first to empirically test relations among the normal line of defense, lines of resistance, and core response, reflects Neuman’s clarified core response. The theoretical rationale for her study is presented as an exemplar in this issue. Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist Following establishment of the Research Institute, the Educational Academy was established in 2010 at the Biennial Trustee Meeting in The Netherlands. This award was named in honor of Dr. Rosalie Mirenda (NSM Trustee Emeritus) and, at the 13th Biennial Symposium the first NSM educa- tion fellows were named: Anna Helewka and Sanna Boxley- Harges. With many years experience using the NSM in nursing education in Canada and the United States respec- tively, they led the education plenary session presenting the need for rigorous inquiry into nursing curriculum design. Notably, they focused on practical applications and adapting the NSM-based curriculum to the needs of the millennial learner (Boxley-Harges & Helewka, 2011) This plenary session also highlighted the continued use of the NSM as an educational model and the contributions of Dr. Lois Lowry were recognized. Dr. Lowry has assisted countless nursing programs to develop NSM-based curricula and is greatly responsible for the continued widespread use of the NSM as both an educational and a research model. In this issue, Sanna Boxley-Harges, along with colleague Sara Beckman provide further insight into lessons learned in implementing an NSM-based curriculum which they gleaned from their many years of leadership in nursing education. Also in this issue Marilyn McClure presents her innovative work (McClure, 2011) on using the NSM in simulation debriefing sessions. Finally, in 2011, the NSM Practice Center was established. At the symposium’s practice plenary session, Breckenridge and colleagues presented work on four translational research projects using the NSM-based RAIN (Research Approach in Nursing) model (Breckenridge, Grosik, Kristiniak, & Shields, 2011). Breckenridge’s (2011) RAIN model is a major reason why Abington Memorial Hospital, in Pennsylvania has been designated a Magnet Hospital. At this plenary session, innovations in practice were also the focus of colleagues from The Netherlands (de Kuiper, de Jong, & Dobbenberg, 2011) where the NSM has been adopted as a model for nursing practice in several institu- tions. In addition, Merks (2011) presented his work on implementation of the NSM in The Netherlands, and his work is featured in Baumann’s international column in this issue. As well, Lowry’s research highlights spirituality as a focal person variable, and in this issue, both her research and the research of Cobb shed new light on the role of spirituality in nursing practice. I, and countless others, know from personal experience that it is Dr. Neuman who has made such innovations possi- ble. She has consistently been accessible, enthusiastic, and open to new uses of the model. It has thus been an honor to write this guest editorial for the NSM issue and to dedicate this issue to Dr. Betty Neuman who is truly the wind beneath our wings. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article References Boxley-Harges, S., & Helewka, A. (2011, June). Evidence based education: Reality or created environment? Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Breckenridge, D. (2011). The Neuman systems model and evidence based nursing practice. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp. 245-252). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Breckenridge, D., Grosik, C., Kristiniak, S., & Shields, K. (2011, June). NSM theory guided evidence based practice in USA- Magnet hospitals. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Gigliotti 299 de Kuiper, M., de Jong, A., & Dobbenberg, A. (2011, June). Chang- ing healthcare in the Netherlands and the theoretical contribu- tion of the NSM. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Gehrling, K. R.Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist (2011). Reconstitution. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp 89-99). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Gunter-Lawson, T. (2011, June). Application of the Neuman sys- tems model to the work of a teacher-scholar. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Manister, N. (2011, June). Role stress and eating behaviors among clergy. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Manister, N. (2012). The relations between role stress, eating behav- iors and obesity in congregational clergy. (Doctoral dissertation, The City University of New York, 2012). Dissertation Abstracts International. McClure, M. (2011, June). Medieval metaphorical adaptation of the NSM as an educational tool in the patient simulation labo- ratory. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Systems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Merks, A. (2011, June). The use of LJNMEI in the implementation of the NSM. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Neuman Sys- tems Model Symposium, Lehigh Valley, PA. Neuman, B. (2011). The Neuman systems model. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp 3-33). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Research Issues Violet M. Malinski, Contributing Editor Nursing Research and Nursing Conceptual Models: Betty Neuman’s Systems Model Violet M. Malinski, RN; PhD Associate Professor and Graduate Program Director, Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College of the City University of New York Scholars actively engaged in research within the framework of Neuman’s systems model have collaborated in the devel- opment of The Institute for the Study of the Neuman Systems Model. Gigliotti presents a comprehensive review of the gen- esis, progress, and future plans of this group. As Gigliotti in- dicates, the proposal to establish this group was first approved by the Neuman Systems Model Trustees Group, established in 1988 by Neuman “to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the integrity of the model for the future of nursing” (Neuman, 2002, p. 360). The trustees group and the institute offer a highly structured model by which Neuman nurses can con- tinue developing and testing the model. Reference Neuman, B. (2002). Appendix D: The Neuman Systems Model Trustees Group, Inc. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (4th ed., pp. 360-363). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. DOI: 10.1177/0894318403254439 The Neuman Systems Model Institute: Testing Middle-Range Theories Eileen Gigliotti, RN; PhD Associate Professor, College of Staten Island/The City University of New York, Staten Island, New York The credibility of the Neuman systems model can only be established through the generation and testing of Neuman systems model-derived middle-range theories. However, due to the number and complexity of Neuman systems model concepts/concept interrelations and the diversity of middle-range theory concepts linked to these Neuman systems model concepts by researchers, no explicit middle-range theories have yet been derived from the Neuman systems model. This article describes the development of an organized program for the systematic study of the Neuman systems model. Preliminary work, already accomplished, is detailed, and a tentative plan for the comple- tion of further preliminary work as well as beginning the actual research conduction phase is proposed. The Neuman systems model (NSM) is an abstract frame- work and, like all nursing conceptual models, its credibility Editor’s Note: Send manuscripts concerning research using nursing theories and models, new research methods, or research issues perti- nent to nursing’s epistemology to Violet M. Malinski, RN, PhD, As- sociate Professor and Graduate Program Director, Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, 425 E. 25th Street, Box 945, New York, NY 10010-2590; phone: (212) 481-4465; fax: (212) 481-4427; E-mail: vmalinsk@ Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 16 No. 3, July 2003, 201-206 DOI: 10.1177/0894318403255343 © 2003 Sage Publications cannot be established directly (Fawcett, 2000). Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist Thus, the goal of those interested in testing the credibility of the NSM is the generation and testing of NSM-derived middle-range theo- ries. Toward this goal, much work has been done to identify what is currently known about the NSM concepts, their link- ages with middle-range theory concepts, and the research in- struments used to measure these middle-range theory concepts (Fawcett & Giangrande, 2001, 2002; Gigliotti, 1997, 2001; Gigliotti & Fawcett, 2002). However, to date, Keywords: middle-range theory development, Neuman systems model APPLICATION OF NEUMAN SYSTEM MODEL TO PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT OF VULNERABLE SCHOOL CHILDREN ^Olowokere, Adekemi Eunice RPHN, PhD and 2Okanlawon, Funmilayo Adeniyi, RN, PhD ^Corresponding Author: Department of Nursing Science, Obafemi Awolowo University. Email:[email protected]. Tel: 08050502125 Abstract This paper presents the applicability o f Betty Neuman’s model to the care and support o f vulnerable school children. Focus o f application was on psychosocial care. The paper explained how public health nurses or other health care professionals can use the model to address psychosocial health problems o f school children using the three levels o f prevention which are primary, secondary and tertiary. The need for public health nurse to utilize available resources within the children’s’ environment to promote adaptation to stressors is also emphasized. Keywords: Betty Neuman’s Model, Vulnerable children, Resilience, Protective resources, vulnerability Background The human condition of vulnerability is a concept of vital concern to nurses in that a large portion of nursing practice is spent either helping individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable position or helping them avoid vulnerability1. However, nursing has been slow in developing theoretical constructs of vulnerability within a nursing perspective2. The traditional definitions of vulnerability are framed within an epidemiological approach to identify individual and groups at risk for harm and . these groups include the elderly, children, the poor, people with disability or chronic illness, people from minority cultures and captive populations such as prisoners and refugees3. The discourse of this paper is focused on children as a subset of vulnerable population. They are at particular risk of vulnerability because of their dependent status1. The term “vulnerable children” is a complex issue that depends on a specific milieu4and if the term is dependent on a particular setting, it must automatically denote different things to different people. This is likely the reason why researchers have asked th a t local communities take responsibility for identifying factors in their context that can cause vulnerability and use their own judgment for setting priorities for local action5. It is from this background that for the purpose of this paper, a definition that meets Nigeria local standards for identifying vulnerable children is adopted. According to the Nigeria National Plan of Action for vulnerable children 6, a vulnerable child is defined as a child who because of circumstances of birth or immediate environment, is prone to deprivation of basic needs related to health, nutrition, education, protection, psychosocial, shelter and economic support and thus disadvantaged relative to his or her peers and are currently in public schools. 14 WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING 2Department of Nursing, University of Ibadan Application o f Neuman System Model to Psychosocial Support o f Vulnerable School Children Globally, the well-being of children has been a subject of great concern. For many years, the multilateral and bilateral organisations, the nonprofit groups, and charitable foundations have focused resources on improving the health and well-being of children. Nonetheless, the needs of millions of children remain unmet7. Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist Affected mostly among these children are the vulnerable ones which include children affected by HIV or other chronic illnesses, children who have lost either or both parents, children in need of alternative family care, the abused and neglected children, physically challenged ones, children affected by armed/communal conflicts, and children in need of legal protection. This population being a subset of vulnerable populations has been described to have heightened risk for adverse health outcomes8 which may be social, psychological, and physical in nature9. Major responses addressing the needs of these children have been focused on physical well-being while neglecting their psychosocial well-being10. Meanwhile, optimal development of children requires care that impacts their physical and mental health, moral and social development, and the experiences of happiness, love, and understanding11. The last situational assessment and analysis of vulnerable children in Nigeria by the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development12 found that vulnerable children were significantly more likely to experience psychological and emotional stress than non-vulnerable children. This is because the children are constantly being exposed to several risk factors that may impair their well-being. The risk factors may be internal or external hazards or threats that increase their vulnerability or susceptibility to negative developmental and health outcomes13. Neumans’ Health Care Systems Model, which focuses on client as a dynamic, open system holds a considerable relevance and an innovative nursing framework that could be used to address psychosocial problems among vulnerable school children. This paper is directed towards application of theoretical base of Newman’s model to the provision of psychosocial care and support to vulnerable school children. Example is provided from research that demonstrates its applicability to psychosocial support of vulnerable school children. Neuman’s Health Care Systems Model: Major Concepts and Definitions Neuman Health Care System Model14 is related to the meta-paradigm of the discipline of nursing. Like other models of nursing, the major concepts are person, health, nursing and the environment but Neuman uses a systems approach to explain how these elements interact in ways that provide nurses with guidance to intervene with clients, families or communities. Assignment 2: Middle Range Nursing Theorist The client, according to Neuman, is defined as an open system that interacts with the environment by making behavioural adjustments or by adjusting the environment to meet personal needs15. Client may be a person, family, group, or community. A system is open when its elements are continuously exchanging information and energy within its complex organization and stress and reaction to WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING 15 Application of Neuman System Model to PsychosocialSupport of Vulnerable School Children stress are basic components of an open system. According to Neuman, the clients have a number of five variables which are physiological psychological, socio-cultural, developmental and spiritual qualities. These qualities between them contribute to a set of survival factors unique to that person but which operate within a range of values shared with other individuals. A person’s core structure of survival factors, or basic structure (e.g. innate or genetic features), is protected by a number of internal lines of resistance (Va series of broken rings surrounding the basic core structure which represents the resource factors that help the client defend against a stressor). For example, the immune response system. When the lines of resistance are effective, the client system can reconstitute or adapt; but if they are ineffective, ill health or death may ensue. The amount of resistance to a stressor is determined by the interrelationship of the five variables of the client system. These help to establish a normal line o f defense, or state of adaptation, which the individual is able to maintain over time. Normal line of defense represents a stability state for the individual or system. It is maintained over time and serves as a standard to assess deviations f … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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