Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World

Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World Review your assigned textbook chapters, especially the Technologies and Health Care Developments time line in Section 10.1, and the other required readings for this week: Sick Around the World (Links to an external site.) , Electronic Health Records: Privacy and Security (Links to an external site.) . Health care systems around the world provide different levels and types of care, but funding foreign systems differs greatly from the United States. Choose a country other than the United States and research its health care system. For this discussion, you will provide an overview of your selected country’s health care system. In your main response, address the following elements, which includes your answers to the questions below: Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World Describe any foreign health care system by answering the following questions: How do the citizens of the country access health care? How do the citizens of the country pay for health care? What is the quality of the health care they receive? Are there unique services provided? How is technology used within the system to benefit patients and health outcomes? What are at least one pro and one con of your chosen country’s system? Identify at least two examples of similarities between your selected country and the U.S. health care system. Differentiate between U.S. health care and your chosen country’s health care system by sharing at least two differences. You must use government resources from your chosen country in addition to your textbook for your research and response. Wikipedia is not an acceptable source for any discussion or assignment. You may also want to review What Is CRAAP? A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources (Links to an external site.) . the_ocr_summary.pdf the_business_case_.pdf the_financial_and_nonfinancial_costs_of_implementing_electronic_health_records_in_primary_care_pract.pdf intro_to_healthcare.pdf craap_accessible.pdf OCR PRIVACY BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE HIPAA PRIVACY RULE HIPAA Compliance Assistance SUMMARY OF THE HIPAA PRIVACY RULE Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Statutory & Regulatory Background……………………………………………………………………….. 1 Who is Covered by the Privacy Rule ………………………………………………………………………. 2 Business Associates………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 What Information is Protected ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3 General Principle for Uses and Disclosures ……………………………………………………………… 4 Permitted Uses and Disclosures ……………………………………………………………………………… 4 Authorized Uses and Disclosures……………………………………………………………………………. 9 Limiting Uses and Disclosures to the Minimum Necessary ……………………………………… 10 Notice and Other Individual Rights ………………………………………………………………………. 11 Administrative Requirements……………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Organizational Options ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 15 Other Provisions: Personal Representatives and Minors ………………………………………….. 16 State Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Enforcement and Penalties for Noncompliance ………………………………………………………. 17 Compliance Dates ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 Copies of the Rule & Related Materials…………………………………………………………………. 18 End Notes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 i SUMMARY OF THE HIPAA PRIVACY RULE Introduction The Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (“Privacy Rule”) establishes, for the first time, a set of national standards for the protection of certain health information. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) issued the Privacy Rule to implement the requirement of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”). 1 The Privacy Rule standards address the use and disclosure of individuals’ health information—called “protected health information” by organizations subject to the Privacy Rule — called “covered entities,” as well as standards for individuals’ privacy rights to understand and control how their health information is used. Within HHS, the Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”) has responsibility for implementing and enforcing the Privacy Rule with respect to voluntary compliance activities and civil money penalties. A major goal of the Privacy Rule is to assure that individuals’ health information is properly protected while allowing the flow of health information needed to provide and promote high quality health care and to protect the public’s health and well being. The Rule strikes a balance that permits important uses of information, while protecting the privacy of people who seek care and healing. Given that the health care marketplace is diverse, the Rule is designed to be flexible and comprehensive to cover the variety of uses and disclosures that need to be addressed. This is a summary of key elements of the Privacy Rule and not a complete or comprehensive guide to compliance. Entities regulated by the Rule are obligated to comply with all of its applicable requirements and should not rely on this summary as a source of legal information or advice. To make it easier for entities to review the complete requirements of the Rule, provisions of the Rule referenced in this summary are cited in notes at the end of this document. To view the entire Rule, and for other additional helpful information about how it applies, see the OCR website: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa. In the event of a conflict between this summary and the Rule, the Rule governs. Links to the OCR Guidance Document are provided throughout this paper. Provisions of the Rule referenced in this summary are cited in endnotes at the end of this document. To review the entire Rule itself, and for other additional helpful information about how it applies, see the OCR website: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa. Statutory & Regulatory Background The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), Public Law 104-191, was enacted on August 21, 1996. Sections 261 through 264 of HIPAA require the Secretary of HHS to publicize standards for the electronic exchange, privacy and security of health information.Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World Collectively these are known as the Administrative Simplification provisions. HIPAA required the Secretary to issue privacy regulations governing individually identifiable health information, if Congress did not enact privacy legislation within OCR Privacy Rule Summary 1 Last Revised 05/03 three years of the passage of HIPAA. Because Congress did not enact privacy legislation, HHS developed a proposed rule and released it for public comment on November 3, 1999. The Department received over 52,000 public comments. The final regulation, the Privacy Rule, was published December 28, 2000.2 In March 2002, the Department proposed and released for public comment modifications to the Privacy Rule. The Department received over 11,000 comments. The final modifications were published in final form on August 14, 2002.3 A text combining the final regulation and the modifications can be found at 45 CFR Part 160 and Part 164, Subparts A and E on the OCR website: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa. Who is Covered by the Privacy Rule The Privacy Rule, as well as all the Administrative Simplification rules, apply to health plans, health care clearinghouses, and to any health care provider who transmits health information in electronic form in connection with transactions for which the Secretary of HHS has adopted standards under HIPAA (the “covered entities”). For help in determining whether you are covered, use the decision tool at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/hipaa/hipaa2/support/tools/decisionsupport/default.asp. Health Plans. Individual and group plans that provide or pay the cost of medical care are covered entities.4 Health plans include health, dental, vision, and prescription drug insurers, health maintenance organizations (“HMOs”), Medicare, Medicaid, Medicare+Choice and Medicare supplement insurers, and long-term care insurers (excluding nursing home fixed-indemnity policies). Health plans also include employer-sponsored group health plans, government and church-sponsored health plans, and multi-employer health plans. There are exceptions—a group health plan with less than 50 participants that is administered solely by the employer that established and maintains the plan is not a covered entity. Two types of governmentfunded programs are not health plans: (1) those whose principal purpose is not providing or paying the cost of health care, such as the food stamps program; and (2) those programs whose principal activity is directly providing health care, such as a community health center,5 or the making of grants to fund the direct provision of health care. Certain types of insurance entities are also not health plans, including entities providing only workers’ compensation, automobile insurance, and property and casualty insurance. Health Care Providers. Every health care provider, regardless of size, who electronically transmits health information in connection with certain transactions, is a covered entity. These transactions include claims, benefit eligibility inquiries, referral authorization requests, or other transactions for which HHS has established standards under the HIPAA Transactions Rule.6 Using electronic technology, such as email, does not mean a health care provider is a covered entity; the transmission must be in connection with a standard transaction. The Privacy Rule covers a health care provider whether it electronically transmits these transactions directly or uses a billing service or other third party to do so on its behalf. Health care providers include all “providers of services” (e.g., institutional providers such as hospitals) and “providers of medical or health services” (e.g., non-institutional providers such as physicians, dentists and other practitioners) as defined by Medicare, and any other person or organization that furnishes, bills, or is paid for health care. OCR Privacy Rule Summary 2 Last Revised 05/03 Health Care Clearinghouses. Health care clearinghouses are entities that process nonstandard information they receive from another entity into a standard (i.e., standard format or data content), or vice versa. 7 In most instances, health care clearinghouses will receive individually identifiable health information only when they are providing these processing services to a health plan or health care provider as a business associate. In such instances, only certain provisions of the Privacy Rule are applicable to the health care clearinghouse’s uses and disclosures of protected health Health care clearinghouses include billing services, repricing information.8 companies, community health management information systems, and value-added networks and switches if these entities perform clearinghouse functions. Business Associates Business Associate Defined. Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World In general, a business associate is a person or organization, other than a member of a covered entity’s workforce, that performs certain functions or activities on behalf of, or provides certain services to, a covered entity that involve the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information. Business associate functions or activities on behalf of a covered entity include claims processing, data analysis, utilization review, and billing.9 Business associate services to a covered entity are limited to legal, actuarial, accounting, consulting, data aggregation, management, administrative, accreditation, or financial services. However, persons or organizations are not considered business associates if their functions or services do not involve the use or disclosure of protected health information, and where any access to protected health information by such persons would be incidental, if at all. A covered entity can be the business associate of another covered entity. Business Associate Contract. When a covered entity uses a contractor or other nonworkforce member to perform “business associate” services or activities, the Rule requires that the covered entity include certain protections for the information in a business associate agreement (in certain circumstances governmental entities may use alternative means to achieve the same protections). In the business associate contract, a covered entity must impose specified written safeguards on the individually identifiable health information used or disclosed by its business associates.10 Moreover, a covered entity may not contractually authorize its business associate to make any use or disclosure of protected health information that would violate the Rule. Covered entities that have an existing written contract or agreement with business associates prior to October 15, 2002, which is not renewed or modified prior to April 14, 2003, are permitted to continue to operate under that contract until they renew the contract or April 14, 2004, whichever is first.11 Sample business associate contract language is available on the OCR website at: Also see OCR “Business http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/contractprov.html. Associate” Guidance. What Information is Protected Protected Health Information. The Privacy Rule protects all “individually identifiable health information” held or transmitted by a covered entity or its business associate, in any form or media, whether electronic, paper, or oral. The Privacy Rule calls this information “protected health information (PHI).”12 OCR Privacy Rule Summary 3 Last Revised 05/03 “Individually identifiable health information” is information, including demographic data, that relates to: • the individual’s past, present or future physical or mental health or condition, • the provision of health care to the individual, or • the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to the individual, and that identifies the individual or for which there is a reasonable basis to believe can be used to identify the individual.13 Individually identifiable health information includes many common identifiers (e.g., name, address, birth date, Social Security Number). The Privacy Rule excludes from protected health information employment records that a covered entity maintains in its capacity as an employer and education and certain other records subject to, or defined in, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 20 U.S.C. §1232g. De-Identified Health Information. There are no restrictions on the use or disclosure of de-identified health information.14 De-identified health information neither identifies nor provides a reasonable basis to identify an individual. There are two ways to de-identify information; either: 1) a formal determination by a qualified statistician; or 2) the removal of specified identifiers of the individual and of the individual’s relatives, household members, and employers is required, and is adequate only if the covered entity has no actual knowledge that the remaining information could be used to identify the individual.15 General Principle for Uses and Disclosures Basic Principle. A major purpose of the Privacy Rule is to define and limit the circumstances in which an individual’s protected heath information may be used or disclosed by covered entities. A covered entity may not use or disclose protected health information, except either: (1) as the Privacy Rule permits or requires; or (2) as the individual who is the subject of the information (or the individual’s personal representative) authorizes in writing.16 Required Disclosures. A covered entity must disclose protected health information in only two situations: (a) to individuals (or their personal representatives) specifically when they request access to, or an accounting of disclosures of, their protected health information; and (b) to HHS when it is undertaking a compliance investigation or review or enforcement action.17 See OCR “Government Access” Guidance. Assignment: Discussion Health Care Systems Around the World Permitted Uses and Disclosures Permitted Uses and Disclosures. A covered entity is permitted, but not required, to use and disclose protected health information, without an individual’s authorization, for the following purposes or situations: (1) To the Individual (unless required for access or accounting of disclosures); (2) Treatment, Payment, and Health Care Operations; (3) Opportunity to Agree or Object; (4) Incident to an otherwise permitted use and disclosure; (5) Public Interest and Benefit Activities; and OCR Privacy Rule Summary 4 Last Revised 05/03 (6) Limited Data Set for the purposes of research, public health or health care operations.18 Covered entities may rely on professional ethics and best judgments in deciding which of these permissive uses and disclosures to make. (1) To the Individual. A covered entity may disclose protected health information to the individual who is the subject of the information. (2) Treatment, Payment, Health Care Operations. A covered entity may use and disclose protected health information for its own treatment, payment, and health care operations activities.19 A covered entity also may disclose protected health information for the treatment activities of any health care provider, the payment activities of another covered entity and of any health care provider, or the health care operations of another covered entity involving either quality or competency assurance activities or fraud and abuse detection and compliance activities, if both covered entities have or had a relationship with the individual and the protected health information pertains to the relationship. See OCR “Treatment, Payment, Health Care Operations” Guidance. Treatment is the provision, coordination, or management of health care and related services for an individual by one or more health care providers, including consultation between providers regarding a patient and referral of a patient by one provider to another.20 Payment encompasses activities of a health plan to obtain premiums, determine or fulfill responsibilities for coverage and provision of benefits, and furnish or obtain reimbursement for health care delivered to an individual21 and activities of a health care provider to obtain payment or be reimbursed for the provision of health care to an individual. Health care operations are any of the following activities: (a) quality assessment and improvement activities, including case management and care coordination; (b) competency assurance activities, including provider or health plan performance evaluation, credentialing, and accreditation; (c) conducting or arranging for medical reviews, audits, or legal services, including fraud and abuse detection and compliance programs; (d) specified insurance functions, such as underwriting, risk rating, and reinsuring risk; (e) business planning, development, management, and administration; and (f) business management and general administrative activities of the entity, including but not limited to: de-identifying protected health information, creating a limited data set, and certain fundraising for the benefit of the covered entity.22 Most uses and disclosures of psychotherapy notes for treatment, payment, and health care operations purposes require an authorization as described below.23 Obtaining “consent” (written permission from individuals to use and disclose their protected health information for treatment, payment, and health care operations) is optional under the Privacy Rule for all covered entities.24 The content of a consent form, and the process for obtaining consent, are at the discretion of the covered entity electing to seek consent. OCR Privacy Rule Summary 5 Last Revised 05/03 (3) Uses and Disclosures with Opportunity to Agree or Object. Informal permission may be obtained by asking the individual outright, or by circumstances that clearly give the individual the opportunity to agree, acquiesce, or object. Where the individual is incapacitated, in an emergency situation, or not available, covered entities generally may make such uses and disclosures, if in the exercise of their professional judgment, the use or disclosure is determined to be in the best interests of the individual. Facility Directories. It is a common practice in many health care facilities, such as hospitals, to maintain a directory of patient contact information. A covered health care provider may rely on an individual’s informal permission to list in its facility directory the individual’s name, general condition, religious affiliation, and location in the provider’s facility.25 The provider may then disclose the individual’s condition and location in the facility to anyone asking for the individual by name, and also may disclose religious affiliation to clergy. Members of the clergy are not required to ask for the individual by name whe … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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