Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings

Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings I need help with a Health & Medical question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn. Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings Select one quantitative research article from this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings or an article from Appendix A-H of Resource Manual for Nursing Research . Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings Complete the Summary of a Research Report worksheet. Fill out the form in its entirety and include the following details in the appropriate sections of the form: Identify the type of design that is used in the study. Using Table 9.4 and Table 9.5 on pp. 193 and 197 of Nursing Research locate the type of design described in the article. Compare the design description in the study to the one in the tables and determine if there is any difference between the two. Describe the data analysis to include specific statistical tests and the reason for selecting the specific tests for the study. If there is a test of a hypothesis, what are the results of the data analysis? Review Box 10.1: Guidelines for Critiquing Design Elements and Study Validity in Quantitative Studies on p. 233 in Ch. 10 of Nursing Research . Develop a data analysis. If there is a test of a hypothesis, what are the results of the data analysis? Do not simply identify a few words by the author(s) referring to the major findings under discussion or conclusions. Include a full reference for the article you selected using APA guidelines. Reference: Hunsaker, S., Chen, H., Maughan, D., & Heaston, S. (2015). Factors That Influence the Development of Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction in Emergency Department Nurses. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 47 (2), 186-194 compassion_fatigue.docx nrp513_r2_wk4_summary_of_a_research_repeort.docx table_9.4_and_9.5.docx box_10.1.docx Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, burnout, emergency nurses Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in emergency department nurses throughout the United States and (b) to examine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in this nursing specialty. Design and Methods: This was a nonexperimental, descriptive, and predictive study using a selfadministered survey. Survey packets including a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5 (ProQOL 5) were mailed to 1,000 selected emergency nurses throughout the United States. The ProQOL 5 scale was used to measure the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses. Multiple regression using stepwise solution was employed to determine which variables of demographics and work-related characteristics predicted the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. The ? level was set at .05 for statistical significance. Findings: The results revealed overall low to average levels of compassion fatigue and burnout and generally average to high levels of compassion satisfaction among this group of emergency department nurses. The low level of manager support was a significant predictor of higher levels of burnout and compassion fatigue among emergency department nurses, while a high level of manager support contributed to a higher level of compassion satisfaction. Conclusions: The results may serve to help distinguish elements in emergency department nurses’ work and life that are related to compassion satisfaction and may identify factors associated with higher levels of compassion fatigue and burnout. Clinical Relevance: Improving recognition and awareness of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses may prevent emotional exhaustion and help identify interventions that will help nurses remain empathetic and compassionate professionals. The profession of emergency nursing is physically and emotionally demanding. Complex patient loads, long shifts, demanding physicians, a fast-paced environment, and working in an emotionally and physically challenging area can cause stress for emergency department (ED) nurses (Healy & Tyrrell, 2011; Hooper, Craig, Janvrin, Wetsel, & Reimels, 2010; Von Rueden et al., 2010). Compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout are conditions that can become overwhelming burdens on nurses and can cause physical, mental, and emotional health difficulties (Potter, 2006). CF is a negative consequence of working with traumatized individuals (Figley, 1995).Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings Moreover, CF has been described as emotional, physical, and spiritual exhaustion from witnessing and absorbing the problems and suffering of others (Peery, 2010; Sabo, 2011). Equally as troubling is burnout, which differs from CF in that it is associated with feelings of hopelessness and apathy and creates an inability to perform one’s job duties effectively (Stamm, 2010). Burnout manifests similarly to CF, but is not typically linked to empathy. Instead, it is a gradual worsening of feelings of frustration with career responsibilities (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Both CF and burnout may cause a nurse to become ineffective, depressed, apathetic, and detached (Boyle, 2011). Long-term results of both CF and burnout include low morale in the workplace, absenteeism, nurse turnover, and apathy (Jones & Gates, 2007; Portnoy, 2011). All of these consequences have a negative impact on patient care. Moreover, high levels of nurse burnout are linked to patient dissatisfaction (Vahey, Aiken, Sloane, Clarke, & Vargas, 2004). Consequently, it is imperative that CF and burnout be recognized and addressed. By studying the impact of CF and burnout on ED nurses, researchers may bring to the attention of managers, healthcare leaders, and nurses themselves the reality of this phenomenon and aid in the comprehension of its negative influence. Additionally, the complexity of patient care is climbing, resources are decreasing, and insurance reimbursement is being linked to patient satisfaction (Medicare, 2013). It is more important now, perhaps more than at any other time in health care, to understand the prevalence and predictors of CF and burnout, but also compassion satisfaction (CS), in ED nurses. By understanding factors that influence both positive and negative aspects of nurses’ work, perhaps levels of awareness will be raised and nurses may maintain caring relationships and positive attitudes. Moreover, few studies were conducted to explore factors that influence the prevalence of CF and burnout on ED nurses (Dominguez-Gomez & Rutledge, 2009; Hooper et al., 2010). Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout in ED nurses throughout the United States and to determine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of CS, CF, and burnout in this nursing specialty. Based on the purpose of the study, the research questions were: (a) What is the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses? (b) What demographic characteristics such as age and gender are associated with the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses? (c) What workrelated characteristics such as educational level, years in nursing, shiftlength, years worked in the ED, hours worked per week, and having adequate manager support are significantly associated with the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses? Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings And (d) To what extent do the variables of demographics and work-related characteristics predict the prevalence of developing CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses, respectively? Literature Review The term compassion fatigue was first introduced by Joinson in 1992. She described CF as nurses losing their ability to nurture. CF has been defined as the negative consequences of working with a significant number of traumatized individuals in combination with a strong, personal, empathic orientation. Figley (1995), a noted early researcher on CF, commented that those who are in a caring profession have an enormous capacity for feeling and expressing empathy and tend to be more at risk for CF. Humans, by nature, are wired for empathy, and therefore, caregiving can take a toll both emotionally and physically (Flarity, 2011).The stress resulting from helping a traumatized or suffering person may result in CF, which develops as a self-protection measure (Figley, 1995). While CF is caused by empathy, burnout is associated with environmental factors such as high patient acuity, overcrowding, and problems with administration (Flarity, Gentry, & Mesnikoff, 2013). Burnout is a condition often associated with feelings of hopelessness and inability to perform job duties effectively (Stamm, 2010). Burnout and CF are often linked and closely mimic one another. CF is often described as a type of burnout (Portnoy, 2011). A principal difference between burnout and CF is that burnout typically exhibits a gradual onset while CF may occur suddenly. Although measuring negative aspects of a nurse’s job is important, it is equally valuable to determine what makes a nurse feel happy. CS is the positive aspect of helping others. It is the satisfaction achieved with one’s work by helping others and being able to do one’s job well (Stamm, 2010). Many nurses chose their profession specifically to help others. CF and burnout may have severe professional consequences in addition to affecting a nurse’s personal wellbeing. CF and burnout affect nurse retention, patient safety, and patient satisfaction (Burtson & Stichler, 2010; Potter et al., 2010). Hospitals are expected not only to provide positive outcomes for patients, but make them happy while providing quality care. A relatively new performance measure for hospitals is patient satisfaction. Since 2007, the passage of health reform legislation has increased focus on the importance of the patient experience (McHugh, Kutney-Lee, Cimiotti, Sloane, & Aiken, 2011). Therefore, Medicare reimbursements to hospitals are now partially based on patient satisfaction measurements. Thirty percent of the incentive payments provided by Medicare to hospitals is based on approval scores of satisfaction (Medicare, 2013). Nurses who are experiencing CF and burnout are too exhausted to provide levels of care that help patients feel satisfied (Boyle, 2011; McHugh et al., 2011). Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings As aforementioned, CS is the positive aspect of helping others (Stamm, 2010). Many nurses choose this profession because they experience fulfillment in helping others. Thus, understanding the factors that contribute to CF and burnout may help ED nurses maintain their ability to experience work fulfillment and contribute to patient satisfaction. Empirical Studies Related to the Study Problem The need to identify the level of CF in ED nurses was clear throughout the literature review. The conclusions in most research reviewed portrayed high levels of CF in healthcare workers and indicated the need for further research regarding CF and burnout among ED nurses. To the researchers’ knowledge, there have been only two quantitative studies precisely targeting CF in ED nurses (Dominguez-Gomez & Rutledge, 2009; Hooper et al., 2010). Both studies had a limitation of a small sample size and studied CF in ED nurses in two specific geographical locations: a hospital in the Southeast United States, and three hospitals in California, respectively. Hooper et al. (2010) compared levels of CS, CF, and burnout among ED, intensive care unit, oncology, and nephrology nurses. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale was used to examine a difference in the level of CF and burnout in nurses working in these different specialty units. Although this exploratory, cross-sectional study did not show a significantly statistical difference in CF levels of the nurses among those specialty units, it did attest that ED nurses were at risk for less CS compared to the other types of nurses. This study also revealed a greater risk for burnout in ED nurses and a greater risk for CF in oncology nurses. Dominguez-Gomez and Rutledge’s (2009) study focused on measuring the level of CF in ED nurses using the Secondary Traumatic Stress tool. It was the first quantitative exploration of CF in ED nurses. The findings of the study demonstrated high levels of CF among the ED nurse respondents. High levels of CF in nurses may affect patient care and contribute to burnout. The study suggested further research aims at increasing the awareness of this phenomenon, as well as a recommendation for managers and organizations to be more aware of the problems of CF and burnout and to support nurses, and, when appropriate, urge them to seek counseling (DominguezGomez & Rutledge, 2009). Understandably, EDs are often considered to be a stressful work environment. Multiple studies have revealed that workplace violence, death or resuscitations of patients, caring for trauma victims, and stressful events that occur frequently in this setting contribute to increased stress in ED workers (Healy & Tyrrell, 2011; Von Rueden et al., 2010). Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings ED nurses must deal with unpredictable events, which may include death, violence, and overcrowding. However, little evidence has emerged to identify factors that are associated with ED nurses’ demographics and work-related characteristics contributing to their CF, CS, and burnout levels. Identifying factors that may predict CF and burnout, as well as recognizing factors that improve satisfaction at work, may be useful in retaining ED nurses and developing strategies to support them to provide excellent care without compromising their own health and happiness. Conceptual Framework A number of theoretical frameworks were applied to guide studies related to CS, CF, and burnout, such as Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs and Watson’s theory of human caring (Burtson & Stichler, 2010). A most significant theoretical model developed by Figley (2002) was the stressprocess framework. This model was developed based on factors that contribute to CF. Figley discovered that CF develops as a result of a caregiver’s exposure to his or her patients’ experiences joined with his or her natural empathy. Later on, Stamm (2010) applied the CS-CF model to the development of the Pro-QOL scale. The CS-CF model illustrates a theoretical path analysis of positive outcomes (CS) and negative outcomes (CF) of helping those who have experienced traumatic stress. Based on Stamm’s (2010) theoretical path analysis diagram, a conceptual framework related to CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses was developed to guide this study. The researchers believe that individual and organizational characteristics may contribute to and have an influence on the development of CS, CF, and burnout. Several variables were identified according to literature reviews. The demographic independent variables were age and gender. The work-related independent variables were level of education, years in profession, hours of work per week, length of shift, years as an ED nurse, and manager support. The dependent variables included CS, CF, and burnout. Methods Sample and Population This cross-sectional study used a nonexperimental, descriptive, and predictive design. The target population for this study was registered nurses (RNs) who worked in EDs throughout the United States. The inclusion criteria for participation were: (a) work at least 8 hr per week in the ED, (b) interact directly with ED patients at least 8 hr per week, and (c) have at least 1 year of experience in the ED. The rationale for including a minimum of at least 1 year of experience in the ED and working at least 8 hr per week was the consideration of having experience and exposure frequently enough to traumatic events that contribute to the development of CF and burnout. According to a list of ED nurse members with mailing addresses throughout the United States provided by the Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), a purposive sampling was used to recruit the total 1,000 ED nurses in this study. Data Collection Procedure Approval from the institutional review board of the university was obtained prior to any data collection. The survey packet, including a letter of explanation, an informed consent letter, a copy of the demographic questionnaire, and a copy of the ProQOL version 5 (ProQOL 5) scale, was mailed to each potential participant. Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings The participants returned the surveys to the researchers in a provided self-addressed stamped envelope. In order to maximize the response rate, two follow-up postcard reminders were sent to all 1,000 potential participants at 2-week and 6-week intervals, respectively, from the original survey mailing date. The researchers took every precaution possible to protect the anonymity and privacy of the individuals. The survey was answered anonymously and kept confidential in reporting the results of the study by removing identifying information. To protect confidentiality, all data were numerically coded and accessible only by the researchers. Instrumentation The survey used in this study included the ProQOL 5 scale and a set of demographic questions developed by the researchers. The demographic questions included information about the ED nurses’ education level, years in nursing profession, typical shiftlength, age, etc. The ProQOL is a 30-item self-report survey that includes three subscales: CS, CF, and burnout (Figley & Stamm, 1996). Testing for convergent and discriminant validity have demonstrated that each scale measures different constructs (Stamm, 2010). Each subscale is distinct, and the results of each subscale cannot be combined to give a single significant score. Stamm (2010) reported psychometric properties with an ? reliability ranging from .84 to .90 on the three subscales. The interscale correlations showed 2% shared variance (r = -.23; co-? = 5%; N = 1,187) with CF and 5% shared variance (r = -0.14; co-? = 2%; N = 1,187) with burnout. Each subscale has 10 question items and uses a 5-point Likert scale scoring from 1 = never to 5 = very often (Stamm, 2010). Stamm (2010) has previously established the construct validity and reliability of the ProQOL. The scores of the ProQOL for each subscale were totaled using Stamm’s validated levels: a CS score of 22 or less denotes low levels of CS, a score of 23-41 indicates average levels, and 42 and above suggests high levels of CS. For CF and burnout, a score of 22 or less indicates low levels, 23-41 indicates average levels, and a score of 42 and higher reveals high levels of CF and burnout. The ProQOL tool was first developed in 1995 and has been used, revised, and updated over time. The ProQOL 5 was used to examine the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses in this study. Cronbach’s ? coefficients of internal consistency reliability of the ProQOL 5 for this study were .96 for the total scale, .92 for the CS subscale, .79 for the CF subscale, and .82 for the burnout subscale. Data Analysis All of the data were entered into and analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) for Windows, version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).Assignment: Electronic Reserve Readings Item means, standard deviations, medians, and percentages of the descriptive statistics were computed for the level of CS, CF, and burnout. A series of Pearson r correlation, t test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the associations between demographics, work-related characteristics, and the level of CS, CF, and burnout. The ? level was set at .05 for statistical significance. Multiple regression was employed to determine which variables of demographics and work-related characteristics contributed to the variation of the level of CS, CF, and burnout. Using seven selected independent variables to run a multiple regression, this study needed a minimum sample size of 153 subjects to achieve 95% power and a medium effect size (.15) at ? = .05. Results Demographic Characteristics Of the 1,000 surveys mailed to ED nurses nationwide, 284 were returned, representing a 28% response rate. Because six participants worked fewer than 8 hr per week, their results were removed from data analysis, leaving the total sample number at 278. The participants of the study were primarily women (n = 243, 87.4%), White (n = 248, 89.2%), and married (n = 190, 68.3%). The mean age was 44 years (SD = 11.47; range = 24-74 years). Years working as a nurse ranged from 1 to 48 (M = 17.58; SD = 12.67). The mean length of years working in the ED was 13.01 (SD = 9.89; range = 1-40). The participants’ educational background varied from diploma (n = 86, 30.9%) to MSN/doctoral degree (n = 55, 19.8%), with the largest number holding a bachelor’s degree (n = 137, 49.3%). Most of the participants worked 12-hr shifts (n = 213, 77.2%). Prevalence of CS, CF, and Burnout Research question 1 was “What is the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses?” Descriptive statistics were used to calculate means, standard deviations, and percentages for CS, CF, and burnout. The mean scores for the level of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses were 39.77 (SD = 6.32), 21.57 (SD = 5.44), and 23.66 (SD = 5.87), respectively. According to Stamm’s (2010) interpretation, 56.8% of the ED nurses fell into the average level of CS (score of 23-41), 65.9% of the ED nurses were in the low level of CF (score of 22 or less), and 54.1% of the ED nurses were in the average level of burnout (score of 23-41). Associations Between Demographics, CS, CF, and Burnout Research question 2 was “What demographic characteristics such as age and gender are associated with the prevalence of CS, CF, and burnout among ED nurses?” The Pearson r correlation and t … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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