Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation

Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation
Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation
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One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate. Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation
informed consent
voluntary consent
beneficence
primary agent
Question 2
The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.
hypothesis
etiology
consent
agent
Question 3
The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.
understand causation
establish risk factors
track trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in the population
describe the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other relevant indicators
Question 4
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.
non-modifiable risk factor
pandemic
modifiable risk factor
distribution
Question 5
Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.
risk factors
health-related states
agents
determinants
Question 6
The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.
transmission
pandemic
endemic
epidemic
Question 7
A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.
epidemic
endemic
outbreak
epidemic threshold
Question 8
For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.
latency
incubation
temporal
plausibility
Question 9
Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.
indirect causes
direct causes
dependent variables
independent variables
Question 10
A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.
predictive value
diagnosis
prevention
screening test
Question 11
Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
Question 12
The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.
alternate explanations
risk factors
results
coherence
Question 13
The aspect of consistency means that ____.
an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk
the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge
the association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different settings using different methods
the findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological processes
Question 14
While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.
psychology
statistics
sociology
mathematics
Question 15
The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.
prevalence proportion
incidence rate
contingency
case severity
Question 16
The number of existing cases of disease divided by the population is known as ____.
crude rate
person time
incidence rate
prevalence proportion
Question 17
A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.
period prevalence
prevalence proportion
point prevalence
rate
Question 18
Prevalence equals ____.
incidence times duration of disease
incidence divided by duration of disease
incidence plus duration of disease
incidence divided by duration of disease times 100
Question 19
Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period. Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.
incidence
prevalence
suspect case
case
Question 20
While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Question 21
The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.
proportion
rate
incidence rate
specific rate
Question 22
A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.
proportion
contingency
specific
crude
Question 23
A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.
convalescent carrier
passive carrier
active carrier
inactive carrier
Question 24
One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.
deadly parasitic infections
antibiotic resistant viral infections
antibiotic resistant bacterial infections
vaccine resistant viral infections
Question 25
The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.
healthy or passive carrier
pregnant carrier
convalescent carrier
active carrier
Question 26
Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.
90; 70
98; 50
50; 90
20; 80
Question 27
If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.
multidrug resistant drug or super-drug
multidrug resistant bacterium or superbug
resistant bacterium or streptococcus bacterium
killer bacterium or deadly bacterium
Question 28
____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.
Horizontal transmission
Vertical transmission
Quick transmission
Polar transmission
Question 29
There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.
a definite increase
a slight decrease
hardly any change
a clear decline
Question 30
____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.
Horizontal transmission
Vertical transmission
Lateral transmission
Polar transmission

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