Assignment: Extrinsic Motivation

Assignment: Extrinsic Motivation
Assignment: Extrinsic Motivation
Assignment: Extrinsic Motivation
Using sport related examples, illustrate the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. What kind of rewards would you use to enhance intrinsic motivation, and what are some reward examples that would be extrinsic in nature. Lastly, what is meant by, token reward, how and where does this concept apply to learning and performance?
500 words
2 apa references
· 17:35DR. ROLLO MAY Oh, exactly. It’s very good to talk with you, because you’ve read all of what I’ve written, and you know exactly which way to turn. No, I don’t like the new age movement. I think it’s over simplified, makes everybody feel temporarily happy. But, they avoid the real problems.Uh, and the new age can come only as we face anxiety, as we face guilt feeling for our, our, uh, misapprehension of what’s the purpose of life, as the way we face death, uh, as a new adventure. Uh, now none of these things does the new age talk about. It talks about only being gleeful. And, uh, everybody singing songs.
· 18:25JEFFREY MISHLOVE But, you know, I’ve sensed another paradox here. I noticed in your book, “Freedom and Destiny” that you, you have a section on mysticism, and you refer to the great Western mystics, Jacob Boehme and Meister Eckhart and their search for, for the divine fire within themselves.
· 18:40DR. ROLLO MAY Yes.
· JEFFREY MISHLOVE And, you, you seem to see that almost as, well, I, I don’t know uite what to say, but almost as a model deep existential trolling.
· 18:50DR. ROLLO MAY Well, it is. I’m very much a believer and follower of these mystics in our tradition. I’m not a believer and follower of, uh, Rajneesh, uh, or the other.
· 19:05JEFFREY MISHLOVE Maharishi or…
· DR. ROLLO MAY No, Maharishi. Muktananda, I called the most , uh, companionable, uh, of these leaders. But, most of them that come from India, uh, build up cults and get into all kinds of trouble, and are sued for billions of dollars. Uh, and the, uh, cult then collapses. Or, like Jim Jones, who took this 800 and 900 people to an island, and there they were going to set up the perfect community. And they all committed suicide, 919.
· 19:45JEFFREY MISHLOVE My sense is that your criticism goes much deeper than just the scandals themselves. My sense is that what you’re saying is that in this sort of retreat to a mystical lotus land, that, uh, or, or perhapsbeliefs such as spiritualism and reincarnation, that people are losing touchwith the basic issues of their very existence.
· 20:10DR. ROLLO MAY Oh, absolutely. You said it beautifully. I, uh, I’m very critical of these movements that soft pedal our problems. Uh, and that indicate that we, uh, should forget them. I think it’s the mystics that you andI were talking about. Jacob Boehme was burned at the stake. Uh, and, uh, the other Christian mystics or mystics of Mohammedism and so on, back in our tradition, are very important. And though the church at that time opposed them, uh, they never the less left great, uh, books full of knowledge that we can read, and we can understand, we can learn from.
· 21:05JEFFREY MISHLOVE Well, I know that some of the existentialist philosophers, such as, uh, Camus and, and Sartre, and perhaps even Jenez(ph) made quite a bit about out of the idea of rebelling against the, the, conventional mores of, of society. And I sense that what you’re saying that genuine mysticism has to also involve this, this kind of cutting edge rebellion against the, the, the herd instincts.
· 21:35ROLLO MAY, PhD Existential Psychologist
· DR. ROLLO MAY Yes, it does. It’s, it’s rebellion against the herd instinct. Sartre was very important, uh, in this movement of the rebel. Camus wrote the book, “The Rebel”. Uh, and, Paul Tillich, who was my dear and very close friend for some 30 years, uh, he and, and the others of the existentialists understood that joy and freedom come only from, uh, thefacing of life, the confronting of the difficulties. Sartre, when France was overrun by the Nazis, Sartre wrote a drama called, “The Flies”. This is a retelling of the ancient Greek story of Orestes and the, a little bit of it that I want to quote as that Zeus tries to get Orestes not to go back, uh, to, uh, his hometown, and, uh, kill his mother, which he was ordered to do to revenge his father. Uh, and Zeus says, “I made you, so you must obey me.” And, Orestes says, “You made me, but you blundered. You made me free.”And then Zeus gets quite angry, and he has the stars and the planets zooming around to show how powerful he is. And, uh, he says,”But do you realize how much despair lies ahead of you if you follow your course?” And Orestes says, “Human life begins on the far side of despair.” Now, I happen to believe that, that human joy begins, like the alcoholics, they cannot get over the alcohol except as they get into despair. And then, the AA can take them, and, uh, and free them from alcoholism. That’s why I think despairhas a constructive side as well as anxiety having constructive effect.
· JEFFREY MISHLOVE And, and you’ve mentioned earlier the great artistic achievements of Mozart and, and Beethoven. And, one has a sense, well we even have this term, tears of joy, that when one experiences deep joy,it’s because it somehow incorporates the wholeness of human life, and, and we see the joy bubbling up, emerging through the despair itself. And, and that’s real joy.
· 24:10DR. ROLLO MAY Yeah, yeah. That’s, uh, you have understood it very well.
· JEFFREY MISHLOVE And yet, there’s something in, almost intimidating. It’s, it’s as if, in many of us, as we live our lives and, and, and go through our routines that we’re afraid to really drink deeply of, of the fullness of that.
· 24:30DR. ROLLO MAY Yes, I know. Well, if it were easy, it wouldn’t be effective.It’s not easy. Life is difficult, and, uh, has many conflicts in it, many challenges. Uh, but, it seems to me that without those, life wouldn’t be interesting. The interest, the joy, the creativity that comes from these is, say in Beethoven’s symphonies. A joy, joyful , we adore Thee. That’s the end of the Ninth Symphony. And that joyful, joyful comes only after the agony of, it is shown in the first part of that, uh, symphony. Now, I believe in life , and I believe in the joy of human existence, but these things cannot be experienced except as we also face the, the despair, uh, also face theanxiety, uh, that every human being, uh, has to face if he lives, uh, with any creativity at all.

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