Assignment: Frameworks for Professional Nursing

Assignment: Frameworks for Professional Nursing ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Frameworks for Professional Nursing Nursing role and scope please read attached powerpoint and answer the question below · Follow the discussion questions participation and submission guidelines. Assignment: Frameworks for Professional Nursing · Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per DQ, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph. ` 350-400 WORDS · All answers or discussions comments submitted must be in APA format · Minimum of two references, not older than 2015. Chapter 2: Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice DUE WEDNESDAY JAN.13TH @9:00PM 2. Think about the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts and the assumptions or propositions of each of the theories presented. Which of the theories most closely matches your beliefs? attachment_1 Chapter 2 Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice Definitions • Concept • Conceptual model • Propositions • Assumptions • Theory • Metaparadigm Central Concepts in Nursing • Person receiving the nursing • Environment within which the person exits • Health-illness continuum within which the person falls at the time of the interaction with the nurse • Nursing actions Nightingale’s Environmental Theory • Person: Recipient of nursing care • Environment: External (temperature, bedding, ventilation) and internal (food, water, and medications) • Health: Not only to be well, but to be able to use well every power we have to use • Nursing: Alter or manage the environment to implement the natural laws of health Nightingale’s 13 Canons • Ventilation and warmth • Health of houses • Petty management • Noise • Variety • Food intake • What food? • Bed and bedding • Light • Cleanliness of rooms and walls • Personal cleanliness • Chattering hopes and advises • Observation of the sick Virginia Henderson: Definition of Nursing and 14 Components of Care • Person: Recipient of nursing care who is composed of biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual components • Environment: External environment • Health: Based on the patient’s ability to function independently • Nursing: Assist the person, sick or well, in performance of activities Henderson’s 14 Basic Care Needs (1 of 2) • Breathe normally • Eat and drink adequately • Eliminate bodily wastes • Move and maintain postures • Sleep and rest • Dress and undress • Maintain body temperature within normal range Henderson’s 14 Basic Care Needs (2 of 2) • Keep body clean and protect integument • Avoid dangers • Communicate with others • Worship according to one’s faith • Work (sense of accomplishment) • Recreation • Learn and discover, leading to normal development and health, and use health facilities Jean Watson: Philosophy and Science of Caring (1 of 2) • Goal is to help persons attain a higher level of harmony within the mind-bodyspirit • Goal pursued through transpersonal caring guided by 10 caritas processes Jean Watson: Philosophy and Science of Caring (2 of 2) • Person (human): A unity of mind-body-spirit/nature; embodied spirit • Healing space and environment: A nonphysical energetic environment; a vibrational field integral with the person where the nurse is not only in the environment but “the nurse IS the environment” • Health (healing): Harmony, wholeness, and comfort • Nursing: Reciprocal transpersonal relationship in caring moments guided by caritas processes Benner’s Clinical Wisdom in Nursing Practice: 9 Domains of Critical Care Nursing • • • • • Diagnosing and managing life-sustaining physiological functions in unstable patient Using skilled know-how to manage a crisis Providing comfort measures for the critically ill Caring for patients’ families Preventing hazards in a technological environment • • • • Facing death: End-of-life care and decision making Communicating and negotiating multiple perspectives Monitoring quality and managing breakdown Using the skilled knowhow of clinical leadership and the coaching and mentoring of others Benner’s Clinical Wisdom in Nursing Practice: 6 Aspects of Clinical Judgment and Skilled Comportment (1 of 2) • Reasoning-in-transition: Practical reasoning in an ongoing clinical situation • Skilled know-how: Also known as embodied intelligent performance; knowing what to do, when to do it, and how to do it • Response-based practice: Adapting interventions to meet the changing needs and expectations of patients • Agency: One’s sense of and ability to act upon or influence a situation Benner’s Clinical Wisdom in Nursing Practice: 6 Aspects of Clinical Judgment and Skilled Comportment (2 of 2) • Perceptual acuity and the skill of involvement: The ability to tune into a situation and hone in on the salient issues by engaging with the problem and the person • Links between clinical and ethical reasoning: The understanding that good clinical practice cannot be separated from ethical notions of good outcomes for patients and families Benner’s Clinical Wisdom in Nursing Practice • Person: Embodied person living in the world who is a “self-interpreting being, that is, the person does not come into the world pre-defined but gets defined in the course of living a life” • Environment: A social environment with social definition and meaningfulness • Health: The human experience of health or wholeness • Nursing: A caring relationship that includes the care and study of the lived experience of health, illness, and disease Martha Rogers’s Science of Unitary Human Beings (1 of 2) • Person (human being): An irreducible, irreversible, pandimensional, negentropic energy field identified by pattern • Environment: An irreducible, pandimensional, negentropic energy field, identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics different from those of the parts and encompassing all that is other than any given human field Martha Rogers’s Science of Unitary Human Beings (2 of 2) • Health: Health and illness are a part of a continuum. • Nursing: Seeks to promote symphonic interaction between fields, to strengthen the integrity of the human field, and to direct patterning of the human and environmental fields for realization of maximum health potential Principle of Hemeodynamics • Helicy • Resonancy • Integrality Martha Rogers Interview Part I Video Martha Rogers Interview Part II Video Dorothea Orem’s General Theory of Nursing • Composed of three related theories: – Theory of self-care – Theory of self-care deficit – Theory of nursing systems Types of Self-Care Requisites • Universal self-care requisites (found in all human beings and associated with life processes) • Developmental self-care requisites (related to different stages of human life cycle) • Health-deviation self-care requisites (related to deviations in structure or function) Dorothea Orem’s General Theory of Nursing (1 of 2) • Person (patient): A person under the care of a nurse; a total being with universal, developmental needs and capable of self-care • Environment: Physical, chemical, biologic, and social contexts within which human beings exist; components include environmental factors, elements, and conditions, as well as the developmental environment Dorothea Orem’s General Theory of Nursing (2 of 2) • Health: A state characterized by soundness or wholeness of developed human structures and of bodily and mental functioning. • Nursing: Therapeutic self-care designed to supplement self-care requisites. Nursing actions fall into one of three categories: wholly compensatory, partly compensatory, or supportive educative system. Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model • Person (human system): A whole with parts that function as a unity • Environment: Internal and external stimuli; the world within and around humans as adaptive systems • Health: A state and process of being and becoming an integrated and whole human being • Nursing: Manipulation of stimuli to foster successful adaptation Roy’s 6-Step Nursing Process • Assessing behaviors manifested from the 4 adaptive modes • Assessing and categorizing stimuli • Making a nursing diagnosis • Setting goals to promote adaptation • Implementing interventions aimed at managing stimuli to promote adaptation • Evaluating achievement of adaptive goals Betty Neuman’s Systems Model (1 of 3) • Wellness model based on general systems theory. • Focus of the model is on the client system in relationship to stressors. • Client system is protected by a circular series of buffers known as lines of defense: – Flexible line of defense – Normal line of defense – Lines of resistance Betty Neuman’s Systems Model (2 of 3) • Person (client system): A composite of physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual variables in interaction with the internal and external environment Betty Neuman’s Systems Model (3 of 3) • Environment: All internal and external factors of influences surrounding the client system; three relevant environments identified are the internal environment, the external environment, and the created environment. • Health: A continuum of wellness to illness; equated with optimal system stability. • Nursing: Prevention as intervention; concerned with all potential stressors. King’s Interacting Systems Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (1 of 3) • Conceptualizes 3 levels of dynamic interacting systems: personal systems (individuals), interpersonal systems (groups), and social systems (society). • Concepts important to understanding the theory include communication, interaction, role, stress, and transaction. King’s Interacting Systems Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (2 of 3) • Person (human being): A personal system that interacts with interpersonal and social systems. • Environment: Can be both external and internal; the external environment is the context within which human beings grow, develop, and perform daily activities. The internal environment of human beings transforms energy to enable them to adjust to continuous external environmental changes. King’s Interacting Systems Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (3 of 3) • Health: Dynamic life experiences of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment through optimum use of one’s resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living. • Nursing: A process of human interaction; the goal of nursing is to help patients achieve their goals. Johnson’s Behavioral System Model: 7 Subsystems of Behavior • Achievement • Sexual • Affiliative • Eliminative • Aggressive • Ingestive • Dependence Johnson’s Behavioral System Model (1 of 2) • Person (human being): A biopsychosocial being who is a behavioral system with 7 subsystems of behavior • Environment: Includes internal and external environment • Health: Efficient and effective functioning of system; behavioral system balance and stability Johnson’s Behavioral System Model (2 of 2) • Nursing: An external regulatory force that acts to preserve the organization and integrity of the patient’s behavior at an optimal level under those conditions in which the behavior constitutes a threat to physical or social health or in which illness is found Parse’s Humanbecoming Theory: Themes and Processes • Three themes: • Three processes: – Meaning – Explicating – Rhythmicity – Dwelling – Transcendence – Moving beyond Parse’s Humanbecoming Theory • Person: An open being, more than and different than the sum of parts in mutual simultaneous interchange with the environment who chooses from options and bears responsibility for choices. • Environment: Coexists in mutual process with the person. • Health: Continuously changing process of becoming. • Nursing: A learned discipline; the nurse uses true presence to facilitate the becoming of the participant. Leininger’s 3 Modalities • Cultural care preservation and/or maintenance • Cultural care accommodation and/or negotiation • Cultural care repatterning or restructuring Madeleine Leininger’s Cultural Diversity and Universality Theory (1 of 2) • Person: Human being, family, group, community, or institution • Environment (environmental context): Totality of an event, situation, or experience that gives meaning to human expressions, interpretations, and social interactions in physical, ecological, sociopolitical, and/or cultural settings Madeleine Leininger’s Cultural Diversity and Universality Theory (2 of 2) • Health: A state of well-being that is culturally defined, valued, and practiced • Nursing: Activities directed toward assisting, supporting, or enabling with needs in ways that are congruent with the cultural values, beliefs, and lifeways of the recipient of care Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations (1 of 4) • Six nursing roles that emerge during the phases of a relationship: – Teacher – Resource – Counselor – Leader – Technical expert – Surrogate Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations (2 of 4) • Three phases in the nurse–patient relationship: – Orientation – Working – Resolution Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations (3 of 4) • Person: Encompasses the patient (who has problems for which expert nursing services are needed or sought) and the nurse • Environment: Forces outside the organism within the context of culture Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations (4 of 4) • Health: Implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living • Nursing: The therapeutic, interpersonal process between the nurse and the patient Pender’s Health Promotion Model: 3 Major Categories to Consider • Individual characteristics and experiences (biological factors, psychological factors, sociocultural factors) • Behavior-specific cognitions and affect (perceived benefits of action, perceived barriers to action, perceived self-efficacy, activity-related affect) • Behavioral outcome Pender’s Health Promotion Model (1 of 2) • Person: The individual, who is the primary focus of the model • Environment: The physical, interpersonal, and economic circumstances in which persons live • Health: A positive high-level state Pender’s Health Promotion Model (2 of 2) • Nursing: The role of the nurse includes raising consciousness related to healthpromoting behaviors, promoting selfefficacy, enhancing the benefits of change, controlling the environment to support behavior change, and managing barriers to change Afaf Ibrahim Meleis: Transitions Theory (1 of 3) • Transition is a process triggered by a change that represents a passage from a fairly stable state to another fairly stable state. • Transitions can be described in terms of types and patterns of transitions, properties of transition experiences, transition conditions, process indicators, outcome indicators, and nursing therapeutics. Afaf Ibrahim Meleis: Transitions Theory (2 of 3) • Person: Persons are active beings who experience fundamental life patterns and who have perceptions of and attach meaning to transition experiences. • Environment: Environmental conditions expose persons to potential damage, problematic recovery, or delayed or unhealthy coping contributing to vulnerability related to transitions. Afaf Ibrahim Meleis: Transitions Theory (3 of 3) • Health: Health consists of complex and multidimensional transitions that are characterized by flow and movement over time; healthy outcomes are defined in terms of the transition process. • Nursing: Nursing means being the primary caregiver for individuals and their families during the transition process and applying nursing therapeutics during transitions to promote healthy outcomes. Swanson’s Theory of Caring (1 of 3) • Five basic processes of caring: – – – – – Maintaining belief Knowing Being with Doing for Enabling Swanson’s Theory of Caring (2 of 3) • Person: Unique beings who are in the midst of becoming and whose wholeness is made manifest in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors • Environment: Any context that influences or is influenced by the designated client Swanson’s Theory of Caring (3 of 3) • Health and well-being: To live the subjective, meaning-filled experience of wholeness; wholeness involves a sense of integration and becoming wherein all facets of being are free to be expressed. • Nursing: Informed caring for the wellbeing of others. Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort (1 of 4) • Comfort care encompasses 3 components: – An appropriate and timely intervention to meet the comfort needs of patients – A mode of delivery that projects caring and empathy – The intent to comfort Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort (2 of 4) • Comfort needs include patients’ or families’ desire for or deficit in relief, ease, or transcendence in the physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, or environmental contexts of human experience. • Comfort measures refer to interventions that are intentionally designed to enhance patients’ or families’ comfort. Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort (3 of 4) • Person: Recipients of care may be individuals, families, institutions, or communities in need of health care • Environment: Includes any aspect of the patient, family, or institutional setting that can be manipulated by the nurse, a loved one, or the institution to enhance comfort Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort (4 of 4) • Health: Considered optimal functioning of the patient, the family, the healthcare provider, or the community • Nursing: The intentional assessment of comfort needs, design of comfort interventions to address those needs, and reassessment of comfort levels after implementation compared with baseline Reed’s Self-Transcendence Theory (1 of 3) • Three major concepts are central to the theory of self-transcendence: – Self-transcendence – Well-being – Vulnerability • Additional concepts include: – Moderating–mediating factors – Points of intervention Reed’s Self-Transcendence Theory (2 of 3) • Person: Human beings who develop over the life span through interactions with other persons and within an environment • Environment: Composed of family, social networks, physical surroundings, and community resources Reed’s Self-Transcendence Theory (3 of 3) • Health (well-being): A sense of feeling whole and healthy, according to one’s own criteria for wholeness and health • Nursing: The role of nursing activity is to assist persons through interpersonal processes and therapeutic management of their environment to promote health and well-being Merle Mishel: Uncertainty in Illness Theory (1 of 4) • Uncertainty is defined as the “inability to determine the meaning of illness-related events inclusive of inability to assign definite value and/or to accurately predict outcomes.” • Second central concept, cognitive schema, defined as a “person’s subjective interpretation of illness-related events.” Merle Mishel: Uncertainty in Illness Theory (2 of 4) • The revised theory incorporates two new concepts: self-organization and probabilistic thinking • Uncertainty in illness theory is organized around 3 themes: – Antecedents of uncertainty – Appraisal of uncertainty – Coping with uncertainty Merle Mishel: Uncertainty in Illness Theory (3 of 4) • Person: The concept of the person is the central focus of the theory and may be an individual or the family of an ill individual; the individual is viewed as a biopsychosocial being who is an open system exchanging energy with the environment. • Environment: Not explicitly defined, but is acknowledged to exchange energy with the person system. Merle Mishel: Uncertainty in Illness Theory (4 of 4) • Health: Defined in terms of uncertainty in the context of the illness experience, with the concept of health or well-being being congruent with the formulation of a new life view and probabilistic thinking. • Nursing: Nurses are viewed as a part of the antecedent variable of structure providers. Cheryl Tatano Beck: Postpartum Depression Theory (1 of 3) • Two major concepts: Postpartum mood disorders and loss of control • Four stages in the coping process • Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) used in screening Cheryl Tatan … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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