Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article

Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Write an article review for each article (should be on the same document). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article One article review for (Consistent Morning Exercise May Be Beneficial for) One article review for (Physical Exercise During the Morning School-Break) It should be written in the third person for technical writing. Do not include personal opinions. Only report what you find in the research literature. Include the following information: What the study was about and the subjects used Any information from the review of past literature completed by the author that is relevant to your topic How the study was conducted How the data was collected How the data was analyzed Interpretations given by authors of the outcome. Limitations Each article review must be one to two pages long (double-spaced), using 12-point font. (You won’t need a bigger font to get the number of pages you need.) Include a citation of the article right above the review as indicated in the sample article review paper (found in the course Content area). You must use the APA publications manual as your source for APA formatting rules. Your paper will go through the Turnitin system and that you must go back and ensure that your Turnitin percentage is at or below 30%. Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article article_2__consistent_morning_exercise_may_be_beneficial_for.7.pdf article_1___physical_exerc ARTICLE Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/acsm-essr by GR9gVrVMrSJgmx4Z375+D21bOhVeMQJ8RGp16O7haUmlEp42wkwi2UeKUdSttHMZ9avv89y30zzeURozaIzZxuqDEFvZOYAD6vqpClqX+mS6NBsXe0ciBBPfob8dqstW4v6ciwrQPOjmO5u2aRbJeo0WehbaB0VV on 09/23/2020 Consistent Morning Exercise May Be Beneficial for Individuals With Obesity Leah M. Schumacher1, J. Graham Thomas1, Hollie A. Raynor2, Ryan E. Rhodes3, and Dale S. Bond1 1 Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital/Brown Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI; Department of Nutrition, The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN; and 3School of Exercise Science, Physical & Health Education/Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2 SCHUMACHER, L.M., J.G. THOMAS, H.A. RAYNOR, R.E. RHODES, and D.S. BOND. Consistent morning exercise may be beneficial for individuals with obesity. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 201–208, 2020. This review explores the hypothesis that a consistent exercise time, especially consistent morning exercise, improves exercise adherence and weight management for individuals with overweight or obesity. We discuss data supporting this premise, identify limitations of current research, and outline directions for future research on exercise timing to more robustly evaluate our thesis. Key Words: exercise timing, physical activity, circadian rhythms, weight management, habit, obesity, overweight weight management among adults with overweight/obesity. Although physical activity alone does not typically produce substantial weight loss, physical activity in combination with reduced calorie intake leads to greater weight loss than dietary change alone (2). A high amount (e.g., 300 min wk?1) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) can also help protect against weight regain (3). Furthermore, a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality among individuals of all weight statuses (4), highlighting the importance of regular physical activity for enhancing fitness among individuals with obesity independent of changes in body weight. Despite physical activity’s well-established benefits, many adults, and especially those with obesity, do not meet national physical activity recommendations (5). There has been a recent surge of interest in how the time of day that exercise is performed within the 24-h clock (“exercise timing”) affects a variety of outcomes. For example, numerous studies and recent reviews have examined how exercise timing relates to athletic performance, circadian rhythms, and various aspects of health like metabolic functioning (6–11). Several reviews have also discussed how exercise timing, relative to meal timing, affects energy intake behaviors and physiological responses to eating (e.g., glycemic control) (12–14). However, less research has considered how exercise timing might be leveraged to (a) facilitate and sustain exercise behavior change and (b) enhance weight management more broadly. Accordingly, current physical activity guidelines, including those pertaining to physical activity in the context of obesity management, do not address optimal exercise timing. Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article This review has two overarching objectives. First, we aim to review the small but growing literature on the relation of exercise timing to exercise behavior change and weight management Key Points • Physical activity levels tend to be low among adults with obesity, and, in general, many individuals who intend to exercise have difficulty translating these intentions into behavior. • Recent data suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed within the 24-h clock (“exercise timing”) may be able to be leveraged to facilitate exercise behavior change and enhance weight management among adults with obesity. • Consistent exercise timing, and especially consistent morning exercise, may facilitate greater exercise levels by enhancing planning, fostering an exercise habit, and improving self-regulation. • Morning exercise may also enhance weight loss independently of daily physical activity levels. Several behavioral and physiological processes (e.g., modified energy intake behaviors, circadian influences) may underlie such effects. • Potential implications for intervention, current limitations, and directions for future research to more robustly evaluate our thesis are discussed. INTRODUCTION Regular physical activity reduces risk of multiple chronic health conditions, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1). Regular physical activity also assists with healthy Address for correspondence: Dale S. Bond, Ph.D., Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital/Brown Alpert Medical School, 196 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903 (E-mail: [email protected]). Accepted for publication: May 8, 2020. Editor: Monica J. Hubal, Ph.D., FACSM. 0091-6331/4804/201–208 Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews DOI: 10.1249/JES.0000000000000226 Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine 201 Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. (objective 1). On the basis of current findings, we propose that exercising at the same time of day — and specifically during the morning — facilitates exercise adherence and improves weight management among adults with overweight/obesity. We draw on findings from several recent studies, as well as theoretical models of exercise behavior, to support this thesis. We also outline a schematic model of how consistent morning exercise might favorably affect weight management. Second, we aim to outline a research agenda to more rigorously evaluate the potential implications of exercise timing for weight management (objective 2). We discuss key limitations of the current literature base and highlight several important avenues for future research. Given that research on exercise timing and weight management is in its infancy, we hope that this discussion — along with our schematic figure — can guide the design of future studies to more robustly evaluate our thesis. Importantly, this brief review is narrative in nature. Although we carefully reviewed the literature to identify relevant articles for inclusion, this review is not exhaustive. In addition, although we briefly discuss several physiological processes by which exercise timing might affect weight management, we primarily emphasize behavioral pathways through which consistent morning exercise may exert benefit. Given the many biological systems involved in weight regulation, there are undoubtedly additional pathways by which exercise timing could affect weight that we do not discuss (e.g., by affecting cortisol- or appetite-regulating hormones). Although beyond the scope of this brief review, we look forward to further research on these topics. BARRIERS TO REGULAR EXERCISE Many inactive individuals report intentions to exercise (15). This is presumably especially true among individuals with obesity who are participating in structured interventions that emphasize and regularly set exercise goals, such as behavioral weight loss programs. Although exercise intentions are an important predictor of exercise behavior (15), a vast body of evidence indicates that it can be difficult to translate health behavior intentions into behavior. High discordance between exercise intentions and behavior has been documented in numerous experimental and correlational studies (16). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article In addition, experimentally induced increases in exercise intentions have modest effects on behavior (17). Although some of the discordance between exercise intentions and behavior may arise from often overlooked yet important nuances of the intention construct (e.g., decisional intention vs intention strength) (18), individuals may also experience numerous barriers to exercise even when intentions are strong. These include perceived lack of time, waning motivation or low willpower in the moment, competing responsibilities, and low energy (19). Individuals may also intend to exercise but fail to create a specific exercise plan, thus reducing the likelihood of successful enactment. CONSISTENT TIMING AS A STRATEGY FOR FOSTERING REGULAR EXERCISE Potential Mechanisms There are a number of behaviorally oriented reasons why exercising at a consistent time, and especially in the morning, could be a useful strategy for overcoming the aforementioned 202 Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews barriers to exercise. These include simplified planning, improved habit formation, and enhanced self-regulation (Figure). Exercising at a consistent time may help protect time for exercise, thereby making exercise planning easier and less complex. Planning is an effective time management and behavior change strategy that can help individuals to exercise even when faced with time pressures and competing responsibilities (20). Many exercise interventions encourage individuals to create action plans for exercise, including plans for when exercise will be performed. For example, interventions may instruct individuals to schedule exercise on their weekly calendar and to treat it as a nonnegotiable appointment. Although such strategies can be effective, they require recurrent planning week to week. Planning may be less likely to occur during busy times. It may also be difficult to find time for exercise if planning occurs at the last minute or if other activities are allowed to fill one’s schedule. Having a consistent, designated exercise time reduces the need for complex planning, thus increasing the chances of exercise occurring. Committing to a consistent exercise time rather than allowing for a temporally variable exercise routine might also reduce the need for coping plans (i.e., plans for how to achieve one’s goal if one’s first-choice plan becomes unrealistic) (21). Consistent morning exercise may be especially effective in reducing planning complexity. Many individuals may have fewer events (e.g., social or work events) scheduled for the morning. This may, thus, allow individuals to plan on morning as their designated exercise time with fewer arising conflicts and needed coping plans. Second, exercising at a consistent time may facilitate more frequent exercise via habit formation. Habit can broadly be defined as the process by which a specific context or cue triggers an impulse for a learned behavioral response with little conscious awareness or reflection (22). As several researchers have recently highlighted (22–26), exercise is a complex behavior that is unlikely to ever become fully controlled by nonconscious, automatic processes. Moreover, exercise is perhaps best conceptualized not as a single behavior but as multiple subactions that are expressed in a “macro” action, or as having distinct stages (e.g., instigation vs execution). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Notwithstanding these important distinctions, there is general agreement that aspects of exercise can be made more habitual and automatic, thus requiring less deliberate motivation and cognitive resources in the moment. A stronger exercise habit can help individuals to more efficiently translate their exercise intentions into behavior and can facilitate exercise when explicit motivation temporarily wanes (15,27). Current evidence reveals a strong relation between exercise habit and behavior (28). The cue-behavior associations that partially drive habit formation can be learned by repeated performance of the target behavior in a consistent context (29). Consistently exercising at a specific time of day is thus one way to support exercise habit formation. Again, consistent morning exercise may be especially helpful for promoting an exercise habit. Many people have established morning routines, which offer potential cues to link with exercise (e.g., waking up, brushing teeth, then getting dressed for a walk). Physiological processes (e.g., circadian-related elevations in cortisol) may also support improved habit formation in the morning (30). Consistent morning exercise may also lead to more effective self-regulation. As the day progresses, self-regulation may become www.acsm-essr.org Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Figure. Conceptual model of the hypothesized effect of consistent morning exercise on physical activity levels and weight regulation. Blue boxes depict hypothesized mediators, and yellow boxes depict potential moderators. As shown in gray, several processes may be influenced by circadian rhythms. Solid lines depict pathways for which there is strong evidence; dashed lines depict pathways that require further research. more difficult due to the following: new and emerging priorities that compete with exercise, lower self-regulatory strength, and incidental affect from other events in the day. These factors can negatively affect both exercise intentions and performance (31–33). For these reasons, individuals may be most successful with making and enacting exercise intentions early in the day. Indeed, greater exercise intention-behavior concordance has been observed in the morning versus in the evening (34). Current Studies Data from two studies conducted by our group support the potential benefits of a consistent exercise time, and perhaps specifically morning exercise, for facilitating exercise among adults with overweight/obesity (Table). In one study, we assessed the relation of exercise timing to weekly exercise frequency and minutes among physically active successful weight loss maintainers (i.e., individuals who had lost and maintained ?13.6 kg for ?1 yr and who were performing MVPA on ?2 d wk?1, n = 375) (35). Participants first reported whether they tended to exercise at the same time of day. If so, they then provided the start time of each exercise session (if any) for each day in a typical week. Exercise sessions were coded as early morning (4:00–8:59 a.m.), late morning (9:00–11:59 a.m.), afternoon (12:00–4:59 p.m.), or evening (5:00 p.m.-3:49 a.m.). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Participants were categorized as a temporally consistent exerciser if >50% of their exercise sessions were in a single period. Participants were categorized as a temporally inconsistent exerciser if they (a) denied having a consistent exercise time or (b) endorsed Volume 48 • Number 4 • October 2020 a temporally consistent schedule but ?50% of their reported exercise sessions fell within a single time window. Consistency in cues for exercise and exercise habit strength were assessed via questionnaire. Results revealed that 68% of participants reported a temporally consistent exercise routine. Temporally consistent exercisers performed more exercise (e.g., MVPA on 4.8 vs 4.4 d wk?1, P = 0.007; 350 vs 285 MVPA min wk?1, P = 0.03) than temporally inconsistent exercisers. Although early morning was the most common exercise time, exercise levels did not differ among temporally consistent exercisers based on the specific time of day (e.g., morning vs evening) of temporally consistent exercise. Across participants, greater consistency in time-based cues for exercise (i.e., greater consistency in the time of exercise within the 24-h clock and within one’s daily routine) and a stronger exercise habit related to more exercise days per week and minutes per week. These findings provide observational support for the notion that a consistent exercise time may help promote high levels of exercise. These findings also suggest that greater consistency in exercise timing relates to a stronger exercise habit. Findings from another study by our group among individuals who were initiating exercise suggest that morning exercise, in particular, might be beneficial for exercise behavior change (36). Bariatric surgery candidates with severe obesity (n = 33) who were enrolled in a 6-wk preoperative exercise program were instructed to identify a specific time in the morning to complete their longest session of daily exercise (i.e., longest daily bout of walking at a moderate intensity). Participants’ exercise timing and bouted Exercise Timing and Weight Management Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 203 TABLE. Summary of studies on the effects of exercise timing on exercise adherence and weight change Reference Participants Design Studies evaluating effects on exercise frequency and weekly minutes Schumacher et al. 375 physically active adults in Correlational (2019) the National Weight Control Registry Exercise Timing Randomized Exercise Setting No Community Secondary analysis No Bond et al. (2017) 33 adults seeking bariatric from RCT surgery participating in a nonspecific to 6-wk preoperative exercise exercise timing intervention Community Studies evaluating effects on weight Chomistek et al. 7157 older women in the (2016) Women’s Health Study Correlational No Willis et al. (2019) 88 inactive young adults with Secondary analysis No from RCT overweight/obesity nonspecific to participating in the exercise timing Midwest Exercise Trial 2 Alizadeh et al. (2017) 48 inactive women with overweight BMIs in a 6-wk exercise training study on exercise timing 20 inactive adults with overweight/obesity in a 12-wk exercise study assessing the feasibility and acceptability of exercise timing Brooker et al. (2019) Di Blasio et al. (2010) N/A Lower % of accelerometer counts in the morning (before 12:00 p.m.) related to higher odds of obesity; women in the lowest quartile for morning exercise had 26% higher odds of obesity compared with those in the highest quartile (P = 0.02). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Energy intake, energy intake 10-month weight loss was greater among early timing, RMR exercisers (?50% exercise sessions from 7:00 to 11:59 a.m.) compared with late exercisers (?50% exercise sessions from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m.) and controls (no supervised exercise; P’s < 0.001). A greater proportion of early exercisers (vs late) achieved ?5% weight loss (P = 0.007). 10-month weight ? negatively related to proportion of exercise sessions completed in the early period (P < 0.001). Morning exercisers (8:00–10:00 a.m.) had greater 6-wk Body composition, appetite and eating desire scores, reductions in weight (P = 0.04) and BMI (P = 0.04) dietary intake compared with afternoon exercisers (2:00–4:00 p.m.). Community Supervised exercise training Yes Supervised exercise training RCT Yes Supervised exercise training and community No Measured Potential Moderators/Mediators 68% of participants had a consistent exercise time, of Exercise habit strength, whom 48% performed exercise in the early morning exercise cue consistency (4:00–8:59 a.m.). Temporally consistent exercisers (>50% of exercise sessions per week at a consistent time of day) performed more exercise than temporally inconsistent exercisers (4.8 vs 4.4 d wk?1, P = 0.007; 350 vs 285 min wk?1, P = 0.03; 86% vs 74% achieving ?150 min wk?1; P = 0.004). At post-tx, a greater % of bouted morning exercise N/A (4:00–11:59 a.m.) related to greater pre- to post-tx increases in exercise (P = 0.03). A greater proportion of morning exercisers (>50% of exercise in the morning) achieved ?150 min wk?1 of exercise than nonmorning exercisers (P = 0.04). RCT 42 inactive, postmenopausal Nonrandomized women with overweight/ trial obesity in a 3-month walking program Key Findings The intervention was feasible (e.g., 90% of enrolled Body composition; RMR; participants completed the study; the morning group energy intake; appetite, completed 94% of supervised exercise sessions and food preferences, and the evening group completed 87%) and acceptable eating behaviors; time (e.g., perceived enjoyment of exercise was similar use; sleep quality; in the morning [67%] and … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article

Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Write an article review for each article (should be on the same document). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article One article review for (Consistent Morning Exercise May Be Beneficial for) One article review for (Physical Exercise During the Morning School-Break) It should be written in the third person for technical writing. Do not include personal opinions. Only report what you find in the research literature. Include the following information: What the study was about and the subjects used Any information from the review of past literature completed by the author that is relevant to your topic How the study was conducted How the data was collected How the data was analyzed Interpretations given by authors of the outcome. Limitations Each article review must be one to two pages long (double-spaced), using 12-point font. (You won’t need a bigger font to get the number of pages you need.) Include a citation of the article right above the review as indicated in the sample article review paper (found in the course Content area). You must use the APA publications manual as your source for APA formatting rules. Your paper will go through the Turnitin system and that you must go back and ensure that your Turnitin percentage is at or below 30%. Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article article_2__consistent_morning_exercise_may_be_beneficial_for.7.pdf article_1___physical_exerc ARTICLE Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/acsm-essr by GR9gVrVMrSJgmx4Z375+D21bOhVeMQJ8RGp16O7haUmlEp42wkwi2UeKUdSttHMZ9avv89y30zzeURozaIzZxuqDEFvZOYAD6vqpClqX+mS6NBsXe0ciBBPfob8dqstW4v6ciwrQPOjmO5u2aRbJeo0WehbaB0VV on 09/23/2020 Consistent Morning Exercise May Be Beneficial for Individuals With Obesity Leah M. Schumacher1, J. Graham Thomas1, Hollie A. Raynor2, Ryan E. Rhodes3, and Dale S. Bond1 1 Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital/Brown Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI; Department of Nutrition, The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN; and 3School of Exercise Science, Physical & Health Education/Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2 SCHUMACHER, L.M., J.G. THOMAS, H.A. RAYNOR, R.E. RHODES, and D.S. BOND. Consistent morning exercise may be beneficial for individuals with obesity. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 201–208, 2020. This review explores the hypothesis that a consistent exercise time, especially consistent morning exercise, improves exercise adherence and weight management for individuals with overweight or obesity. We discuss data supporting this premise, identify limitations of current research, and outline directions for future research on exercise timing to more robustly evaluate our thesis. Key Words: exercise timing, physical activity, circadian rhythms, weight management, habit, obesity, overweight weight management among adults with overweight/obesity. Although physical activity alone does not typically produce substantial weight loss, physical activity in combination with reduced calorie intake leads to greater weight loss than dietary change alone (2). A high amount (e.g., 300 min wk?1) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) can also help protect against weight regain (3). Furthermore, a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality among individuals of all weight statuses (4), highlighting the importance of regular physical activity for enhancing fitness among individuals with obesity independent of changes in body weight. Despite physical activity’s well-established benefits, many adults, and especially those with obesity, do not meet national physical activity recommendations (5). There has been a recent surge of interest in how the time of day that exercise is performed within the 24-h clock (“exercise timing”) affects a variety of outcomes. For example, numerous studies and recent reviews have examined how exercise timing relates to athletic performance, circadian rhythms, and various aspects of health like metabolic functioning (6–11). Several reviews have also discussed how exercise timing, relative to meal timing, affects energy intake behaviors and physiological responses to eating (e.g., glycemic control) (12–14). However, less research has considered how exercise timing might be leveraged to (a) facilitate and sustain exercise behavior change and (b) enhance weight management more broadly. Accordingly, current physical activity guidelines, including those pertaining to physical activity in the context of obesity management, do not address optimal exercise timing. Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article This review has two overarching objectives. First, we aim to review the small but growing literature on the relation of exercise timing to exercise behavior change and weight management Key Points • Physical activity levels tend to be low among adults with obesity, and, in general, many individuals who intend to exercise have difficulty translating these intentions into behavior. • Recent data suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed within the 24-h clock (“exercise timing”) may be able to be leveraged to facilitate exercise behavior change and enhance weight management among adults with obesity. • Consistent exercise timing, and especially consistent morning exercise, may facilitate greater exercise levels by enhancing planning, fostering an exercise habit, and improving self-regulation. • Morning exercise may also enhance weight loss independently of daily physical activity levels. Several behavioral and physiological processes (e.g., modified energy intake behaviors, circadian influences) may underlie such effects. • Potential implications for intervention, current limitations, and directions for future research to more robustly evaluate our thesis are discussed. INTRODUCTION Regular physical activity reduces risk of multiple chronic health conditions, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1). Regular physical activity also assists with healthy Address for correspondence: Dale S. Bond, Ph.D., Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital/Brown Alpert Medical School, 196 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903 (E-mail: [email protected]). Accepted for publication: May 8, 2020. Editor: Monica J. Hubal, Ph.D., FACSM. 0091-6331/4804/201–208 Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews DOI: 10.1249/JES.0000000000000226 Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine 201 Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. (objective 1). On the basis of current findings, we propose that exercising at the same time of day — and specifically during the morning — facilitates exercise adherence and improves weight management among adults with overweight/obesity. We draw on findings from several recent studies, as well as theoretical models of exercise behavior, to support this thesis. We also outline a schematic model of how consistent morning exercise might favorably affect weight management. Second, we aim to outline a research agenda to more rigorously evaluate the potential implications of exercise timing for weight management (objective 2). We discuss key limitations of the current literature base and highlight several important avenues for future research. Given that research on exercise timing and weight management is in its infancy, we hope that this discussion — along with our schematic figure — can guide the design of future studies to more robustly evaluate our thesis. Importantly, this brief review is narrative in nature. Although we carefully reviewed the literature to identify relevant articles for inclusion, this review is not exhaustive. In addition, although we briefly discuss several physiological processes by which exercise timing might affect weight management, we primarily emphasize behavioral pathways through which consistent morning exercise may exert benefit. Given the many biological systems involved in weight regulation, there are undoubtedly additional pathways by which exercise timing could affect weight that we do not discuss (e.g., by affecting cortisol- or appetite-regulating hormones). Although beyond the scope of this brief review, we look forward to further research on these topics. BARRIERS TO REGULAR EXERCISE Many inactive individuals report intentions to exercise (15). This is presumably especially true among individuals with obesity who are participating in structured interventions that emphasize and regularly set exercise goals, such as behavioral weight loss programs. Although exercise intentions are an important predictor of exercise behavior (15), a vast body of evidence indicates that it can be difficult to translate health behavior intentions into behavior. High discordance between exercise intentions and behavior has been documented in numerous experimental and correlational studies (16). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article In addition, experimentally induced increases in exercise intentions have modest effects on behavior (17). Although some of the discordance between exercise intentions and behavior may arise from often overlooked yet important nuances of the intention construct (e.g., decisional intention vs intention strength) (18), individuals may also experience numerous barriers to exercise even when intentions are strong. These include perceived lack of time, waning motivation or low willpower in the moment, competing responsibilities, and low energy (19). Individuals may also intend to exercise but fail to create a specific exercise plan, thus reducing the likelihood of successful enactment. CONSISTENT TIMING AS A STRATEGY FOR FOSTERING REGULAR EXERCISE Potential Mechanisms There are a number of behaviorally oriented reasons why exercising at a consistent time, and especially in the morning, could be a useful strategy for overcoming the aforementioned 202 Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews barriers to exercise. These include simplified planning, improved habit formation, and enhanced self-regulation (Figure). Exercising at a consistent time may help protect time for exercise, thereby making exercise planning easier and less complex. Planning is an effective time management and behavior change strategy that can help individuals to exercise even when faced with time pressures and competing responsibilities (20). Many exercise interventions encourage individuals to create action plans for exercise, including plans for when exercise will be performed. For example, interventions may instruct individuals to schedule exercise on their weekly calendar and to treat it as a nonnegotiable appointment. Although such strategies can be effective, they require recurrent planning week to week. Planning may be less likely to occur during busy times. It may also be difficult to find time for exercise if planning occurs at the last minute or if other activities are allowed to fill one’s schedule. Having a consistent, designated exercise time reduces the need for complex planning, thus increasing the chances of exercise occurring. Committing to a consistent exercise time rather than allowing for a temporally variable exercise routine might also reduce the need for coping plans (i.e., plans for how to achieve one’s goal if one’s first-choice plan becomes unrealistic) (21). Consistent morning exercise may be especially effective in reducing planning complexity. Many individuals may have fewer events (e.g., social or work events) scheduled for the morning. This may, thus, allow individuals to plan on morning as their designated exercise time with fewer arising conflicts and needed coping plans. Second, exercising at a consistent time may facilitate more frequent exercise via habit formation. Habit can broadly be defined as the process by which a specific context or cue triggers an impulse for a learned behavioral response with little conscious awareness or reflection (22). As several researchers have recently highlighted (22–26), exercise is a complex behavior that is unlikely to ever become fully controlled by nonconscious, automatic processes. Moreover, exercise is perhaps best conceptualized not as a single behavior but as multiple subactions that are expressed in a “macro” action, or as having distinct stages (e.g., instigation vs execution). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Notwithstanding these important distinctions, there is general agreement that aspects of exercise can be made more habitual and automatic, thus requiring less deliberate motivation and cognitive resources in the moment. A stronger exercise habit can help individuals to more efficiently translate their exercise intentions into behavior and can facilitate exercise when explicit motivation temporarily wanes (15,27). Current evidence reveals a strong relation between exercise habit and behavior (28). The cue-behavior associations that partially drive habit formation can be learned by repeated performance of the target behavior in a consistent context (29). Consistently exercising at a specific time of day is thus one way to support exercise habit formation. Again, consistent morning exercise may be especially helpful for promoting an exercise habit. Many people have established morning routines, which offer potential cues to link with exercise (e.g., waking up, brushing teeth, then getting dressed for a walk). Physiological processes (e.g., circadian-related elevations in cortisol) may also support improved habit formation in the morning (30). Consistent morning exercise may also lead to more effective self-regulation. As the day progresses, self-regulation may become www.acsm-essr.org Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Figure. Conceptual model of the hypothesized effect of consistent morning exercise on physical activity levels and weight regulation. Blue boxes depict hypothesized mediators, and yellow boxes depict potential moderators. As shown in gray, several processes may be influenced by circadian rhythms. Solid lines depict pathways for which there is strong evidence; dashed lines depict pathways that require further research. more difficult due to the following: new and emerging priorities that compete with exercise, lower self-regulatory strength, and incidental affect from other events in the day. These factors can negatively affect both exercise intentions and performance (31–33). For these reasons, individuals may be most successful with making and enacting exercise intentions early in the day. Indeed, greater exercise intention-behavior concordance has been observed in the morning versus in the evening (34). Current Studies Data from two studies conducted by our group support the potential benefits of a consistent exercise time, and perhaps specifically morning exercise, for facilitating exercise among adults with overweight/obesity (Table). In one study, we assessed the relation of exercise timing to weekly exercise frequency and minutes among physically active successful weight loss maintainers (i.e., individuals who had lost and maintained ?13.6 kg for ?1 yr and who were performing MVPA on ?2 d wk?1, n = 375) (35). Participants first reported whether they tended to exercise at the same time of day. If so, they then provided the start time of each exercise session (if any) for each day in a typical week. Exercise sessions were coded as early morning (4:00–8:59 a.m.), late morning (9:00–11:59 a.m.), afternoon (12:00–4:59 p.m.), or evening (5:00 p.m.-3:49 a.m.). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Participants were categorized as a temporally consistent exerciser if >50% of their exercise sessions were in a single period. Participants were categorized as a temporally inconsistent exerciser if they (a) denied having a consistent exercise time or (b) endorsed Volume 48 • Number 4 • October 2020 a temporally consistent schedule but ?50% of their reported exercise sessions fell within a single time window. Consistency in cues for exercise and exercise habit strength were assessed via questionnaire. Results revealed that 68% of participants reported a temporally consistent exercise routine. Temporally consistent exercisers performed more exercise (e.g., MVPA on 4.8 vs 4.4 d wk?1, P = 0.007; 350 vs 285 MVPA min wk?1, P = 0.03) than temporally inconsistent exercisers. Although early morning was the most common exercise time, exercise levels did not differ among temporally consistent exercisers based on the specific time of day (e.g., morning vs evening) of temporally consistent exercise. Across participants, greater consistency in time-based cues for exercise (i.e., greater consistency in the time of exercise within the 24-h clock and within one’s daily routine) and a stronger exercise habit related to more exercise days per week and minutes per week. These findings provide observational support for the notion that a consistent exercise time may help promote high levels of exercise. These findings also suggest that greater consistency in exercise timing relates to a stronger exercise habit. Findings from another study by our group among individuals who were initiating exercise suggest that morning exercise, in particular, might be beneficial for exercise behavior change (36). Bariatric surgery candidates with severe obesity (n = 33) who were enrolled in a 6-wk preoperative exercise program were instructed to identify a specific time in the morning to complete their longest session of daily exercise (i.e., longest daily bout of walking at a moderate intensity). Participants’ exercise timing and bouted Exercise Timing and Weight Management Copyright © 2020 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 203 TABLE. Summary of studies on the effects of exercise timing on exercise adherence and weight change Reference Participants Design Studies evaluating effects on exercise frequency and weekly minutes Schumacher et al. 375 physically active adults in Correlational (2019) the National Weight Control Registry Exercise Timing Randomized Exercise Setting No Community Secondary analysis No Bond et al. (2017) 33 adults seeking bariatric from RCT surgery participating in a nonspecific to 6-wk preoperative exercise exercise timing intervention Community Studies evaluating effects on weight Chomistek et al. 7157 older women in the (2016) Women’s Health Study Correlational No Willis et al. (2019) 88 inactive young adults with Secondary analysis No from RCT overweight/obesity nonspecific to participating in the exercise timing Midwest Exercise Trial 2 Alizadeh et al. (2017) 48 inactive women with overweight BMIs in a 6-wk exercise training study on exercise timing 20 inactive adults with overweight/obesity in a 12-wk exercise study assessing the feasibility and acceptability of exercise timing Brooker et al. (2019) Di Blasio et al. (2010) N/A Lower % of accelerometer counts in the morning (before 12:00 p.m.) related to higher odds of obesity; women in the lowest quartile for morning exercise had 26% higher odds of obesity compared with those in the highest quartile (P = 0.02). Assignment: Physical Exercise During Morning Breaks Article Energy intake, energy intake 10-month weight loss was greater among early timing, RMR exercisers (?50% exercise sessions from 7:00 to 11:59 a.m.) compared with late exercisers (?50% exercise sessions from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m.) and controls (no supervised exercise; P’s < 0.001). A greater proportion of early exercisers (vs late) achieved ?5% weight loss (P = 0.007). 10-month weight ? negatively related to proportion of exercise sessions completed in the early period (P < 0.001). Morning exercisers (8:00–10:00 a.m.) had greater 6-wk Body composition, appetite and eating desire scores, reductions in weight (P = 0.04) and BMI (P = 0.04) dietary intake compared with afternoon exercisers (2:00–4:00 p.m.). Community Supervised exercise training Yes Supervised exercise training RCT Yes Supervised exercise training and community No Measured Potential Moderators/Mediators 68% of participants had a consistent exercise time, of Exercise habit strength, whom 48% performed exercise in the early morning exercise cue consistency (4:00–8:59 a.m.). Temporally consistent exercisers (>50% of exercise sessions per week at a consistent time of day) performed more exercise than temporally inconsistent exercisers (4.8 vs 4.4 d wk?1, P = 0.007; 350 vs 285 min wk?1, P = 0.03; 86% vs 74% achieving ?150 min wk?1; P = 0.004). At post-tx, a greater % of bouted morning exercise N/A (4:00–11:59 a.m.) related to greater pre- to post-tx increases in exercise (P = 0.03). A greater proportion of morning exercisers (>50% of exercise in the morning) achieved ?150 min wk?1 of exercise than nonmorning exercisers (P = 0.04). RCT 42 inactive, postmenopausal Nonrandomized women with overweight/ trial obesity in a 3-month walking program Key Findings The intervention was feasible (e.g., 90% of enrolled Body composition; RMR; participants completed the study; the morning group energy intake; appetite, completed 94% of supervised exercise sessions and food preferences, and the evening group completed 87%) and acceptable eating behaviors; time (e.g., perceived enjoyment of exercise was similar use; sleep quality; in the morning [67%] and … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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