Assignment: Transactional model of science.

Assignment: Transactional model of science.
Assignment: Transactional model of science.
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ASSIGNMENT: A TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF SCIENCE
Human behavior is shaped by the goals people set for themselves, the skills that they develop, and the outcomes that shape their actions. Similar to indigenous psychology, Bandura (1997) pointed out that people are agents of their own action, motivated to control their lives in order to attain desirable goals and attach meaning to them. Although our body and brain provide the basis for our behavior, they do not determine them. They are used to control the environment and to realize our goals. Bandura pointed out that the human mind and behavior are not just reactive, but they are generative, creative, and proactive.
The method by which we exert control over the environment can be direct or indirect and exerted by an individual or in concert with other people (Bandura, 1997; Kim & Park, 2005). Two types of direct control can be identified: primary control and collective control. If a person exerts direct control over the environment, it is an example of primary control. If people work together in concert to manage their environment, it is an example of collective control (e.g., democracy). Two types of indirect control can be identified: secondary control and proxy control. If a person obtains assistance from another person in managing the environment, it is an example of proxy control. If a person adjusts to a given environment and regulates himself or herself in order to adapt to the environment, it is an example of secondary control. Western theories have emphasized direct control over the environment through the use of primary and collective control. As will be shown subsequently, East Asian cultures emphasize the maintenance of harmony and use of indirect control (i.e., secondary control through self-regulation and proxy control by obtaining social support).
Bandura (1997, 2004) has applied social cognitive theory to help people take control of their lives and to change their lifestyles. This theory forms the basis for interventions to teach diabetic children to manage their health, workers to reduce their cholesterol levels, patients with coronary artery disease to implement lifestyle changes, and patients with arthritis to manage their pain. The theory has also been used to develop television dramas that promote society-wide changes in health and AIDS prevention in India, Mexico, and Tanzania and to reduce the birth rate and elevate the rights of women in China. Consistent with the position advocated by indigenous psychology, Bandura (1997, 2004) has demonstrated that a more rigorous and universal general theory of human functioning can be developed if researchers are willing to integrate human agency, intention, meaning, and context into their research designs.

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