Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion

Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion After reading Chapter 6 in Willpower, go back and reread pages 132-133. The text authors propose an experiment to build willpower. For this week’s discussion, you can select either technique they propose (using your non-dominant hand or changing your speech habits). Begin your experiment work at the technique that you choose with determination. Three to four days later, stop your experiment and respond to these items in your discussion post: Ourselves . Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion *Which technique did you choose? *Summarize your experience with this technique as the week progressed. Did you find it frustrating? What tools did you use to remind yourself to use the new technique? *Was changing this habitual behavior successful over this short time span? Did you find yourself not needing as many reminders as you did when you first began? *Did you notice that the willpower you were developing spilled over to other behaviors in your life? Were you more disciplined with eating or exercising? Did you find it easier to resist things that tempt you? Did your concentration improve? Were you less distracted by things in your environment? Did you arrive early or on-time for obligations? *Your thoughts on trying this experiment Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion introduction_to_health_behavior_theory_3rd.pdf INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH BEHAVIOR THEORY THIRD EDITION Joanna Hayden, PhD, CHES Professor Emeritus Department of Public Health William Paterson University Wayne, New Jersey JONES & BARTLETT LEARNING World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 [email protected] www.jblearning.com Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning.com. Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to [email protected] Copyright © 2019 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. The content, statements, views, and opinions herein are the sole expression of the respective authors and not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and such reference shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. All trademarks displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted herein. Introduction to Health Behavior Theory, Third Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. There may be images in this book that feature models; these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the activities represented in the images. Any screenshots in this product are for educational and instructive purposes only. Any individuals and scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this product may be real or fictitious, but are used for instructional purposes only. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the Subject Matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional person should be sought. 15913-4 Production Credits VP, Product Management: David D. Cella Director of Product Management: Michael Brown Product Specialist: Danielle Bessette Product Specialist: Carter McAlister Production Manager: Carolyn Rogers Pershouse Director of Vendor Management: Amy Rose Vendor Manager: Juna Abrams Senior Marketing Manager: Sophie Fleck Teague Manufacturing and Inventory Control Supervisor: Amy Bacus Composition: codeMantra U.S. LLC Project Management: codeMantra U.S. LLC Cover Design: Scott Moden Director of Rights & Media: Joanna Gallant Rights & Media Specialist: Merideth Tumasz Media Development Editor: Shannon Sheehan Cover Image (Title Page, Part Opener, Chapter Opener): © ktsdesign/Shutterstock Printing and Binding: Edwards Brothers Malloy Cover Printing: Edwards Brothers Malloy Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Hayden, Joanna, author. Title: Introduction to health behavior theory / Joanna Hayden. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion # Description: Third edition. | Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017038327 | ISBN 9781284125115 (pbk.: alk. paper) Subjects: | MESH: Health Behavior | Health Promotion | Attitude to Health | Behavioral Research Classification: LCC RA776.9 | NLM W 85 | DDC 613 —dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017038327 6048 Printed in the United States of America 21 20 19 18 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Introduction to Theory What Is Theory? Types of Theories Where Do Theories Come From? Health Behavior Putting It All Together: Concepts, Constructs, and Variables Summary Chapter References Chapter 2 Self-Efficacy Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 2 Article: The Feasibility of an Intervention Combining Self-Efficacy Theory and Wii Fit Exergames in Assisted Living Residents: A Pilot Study Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 3 Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 3 Article: Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers’ Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 4 Health Belief Model In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 4 Article: Using the Health Belief Model to Develop Culturally Appropriate WeightManagement Materials for African-American Women Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 5 Attribution Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 5 Article: Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 6 Transtheoretical Model —Stages of Change In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 6 Article: Effect of an ErgonomicsBased Educational Intervention Based on Transtheoretical Model in Adopting Correct Body Posture Among Operating Room Nurses Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 7 Protection Motivation Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 7 Article: Determinants of Skin Cancer Preventive Behaviors Among Rural Farmers in Iran: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 8 Social Cognitive Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 8 Article: Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 9 Diffusion of Innovation In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 9 Article: How Do Low-Income Urban African Americans and Latinos Feel About Telemedicine? A Diffusion of Innovation Analysis Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 10 Social Ecological Model In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Levels Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 10 Article: Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 11 Social Capital Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 11 Article: Building Social Capital as a Pathway to Success: Community Development Practices of an Early Childhood Intervention Program in Canada Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 12 Choosing a Theory Guidelines for Choosing a Theory Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 12 Article: Developing the Content of Two Behavioural Interventions: Using TheoryBased Interventions to Promote GP Management of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Without Prescribing Antibiotics #1 Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Index Preface Theory is the foundation for professional practice and an essential component of professional preparation at any level. However, this does not make the teaching and learning of theory any easier; it just makes it necessary. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion Theory is often the most difficult for undergraduate students to comprehend. It is difficult because they do not have a reservoir of knowledge from which to draw as they do for, say, math, history, English, or the sciences. This text is written for them. The purpose of this text is to provide an easy to understand, interesting, and engaging introduction to a topic that is usually perceived as challenging, dry, and boring. The language used and the depth and breadth of the information presented are intentional. It is not meant to be a comprehensive tome on theory, but rather an introduction to theory. It is meant to be the headwaters of that reservoir of knowledge. While written with the undergraduate in mind, this book would also be of value to graduate students or practicing professionals whose own “reservoir” of theory knowledge and understanding could use a refill. It would be an excellent text to use along with others in preparing for certification examinations in which health behavior is included. The text begins with an explanation of what theory is, how theories are developed, and factors that influence health behavior. Chapters 2–11 cover the more frequently used health behavior theories. New to this edition, each theory chapter begins with a table containing the theory essence sentence (a statement that reflects the essence of the theory in one sentence), its constructs, and brief definitions. This is followed by a more in-depth discussion of the theory concept and constructs using multiple examples from the literature to demonstrate how the theory is used in practice. While some examples are related to college students, many are purposely not, for a few reasons. This book is intended for students in professional preparation programs, so the examples demonstrate how theories are used in a variety of settings, with different populations, addressing an assortment of health issues. Second, because the examples were taken from the literature, students have an extensive reference list at the end of each chapter that contains numerous citations of research studies and programs in which the theory was used. Each theory chapter ends with a Theory in Action section—a full-length, peer-reviewed journal article that provides students a complete picture of the theory used in a practice setting to guide research, develop an intervention, or conduct an evaluation. The Theory in Action articles address a variety of health issues in different populations. The articles are also the basis for a class activity included in each chapter. All of the articles in this third edition are new. Also new to this edition is Chapter 7 on Protection Motivation Theory. This was added in direct response to reviewers’ suggestions for additional theories and in particular those deriving from health communication. The final chapter in the book, Chapter 12, “Choosing a Theory,” answers the often-asked question, “How do I know which theory to use?” This chapter provides a framework to help answer that question, a Theory Chart. The chart groups the theories by levels and is a compilation of the Theory Essence Sentence tables provided at the beginning of each chapter. New to this edition is a table with the construct domains for each theory and suggested techniques for addressing them. The PowerPoint slide presentations have been revised for this edition to the extent possible in keeping with the publisher’s guidelines, as have the examination questions. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion A new instructor’s support is an annotated bibliography with active links to additional journal articles of the theory in practice. In no way does this book purport to cover all of the theories that could be used to explain health behavior, nor does it claim to provide an in-depth, exhaustive discourse of the theories it does contain. It does, however, provide an introduction to the more commonly used theories in health education and health promotion. It is my hope that students will find this book interesting and engaging enough to read it, and that it will entice them to read further, more deeply filling their theory reservoirs. Acknowledgments This book certainly would not have been written if it were not for my former students who struggled to understand theory. They were the reason I stopped trying to find the right book for them and decided to write it myself. I must give a big “thank you” to my editorial and production staff at Jones & Bartlett Learning for all of their help with this third edition—Lindsey Sousa, Merideth Tumasz, Danielle Bessette, Carter McAlister, and of course my editor, Michael Brown, whose confidence in me allowed this edition to come to fruition. A big thank you also goes to the many reviewers who provided me with wonderful suggestions that guided the writing of this third edition. I hope they see how their recommendations were put into action. Finally, I’d like to thank my husband Roger for making sure I had a never-ending supply of hot tea during the writing of this edition and our puppy Alfie, for making sure I got away from the computer every few hours for a walk! © ktsdesign/Shutterstock CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Theory STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading this chapter the student will be able to: ? Describe how theories and models are different but related. ? Explain why theories are used to effect health behavior change. ? Explain concepts, constructs, and variables. ? Discuss factors that influence health and health behavior. ? Explain how theories are developed. The idea of studying theory can be a bit daunting. But, understanding and being able to use theories is essential because they provide the foundation for professional practice. They help us solve problems and formulate interventions to best provide the services we offer. In fact, research tells us that health interventions based on theories are more effective than those without a theoretical base (Bluethmann, Bartholomew, Murphy, & Vernon, 2016; Tebb et al., 2016). ? What Is Theory? So, what is theory? A theory is “a set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2015). “A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict events or situations” (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008, p. 26).Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion From a health promotion and disease prevention perspective, “the term theory is used to represent an interrelated set of propositions that serve to explain health behavior or provide a systematic method of guiding health promotion practice” (DiClemente, Crosby, & Kegler, 2002, p. 8). “Theory, then, provides a framework for explaining phenomena and may serve as the basis for further research as well as practice application” (Baumgartner, Strong, & Hansley, 2002, p. 18). Simply put, theories explain behavior and thus can suggest ways to achieve behavior change (Glanz et al., 2008). By understanding why people engage in unhealthy behaviors, we can better develop interventions that will enable them to change their behavior and adopt healthier lifestyles, if they choose. In addition to theories, there are also models. A model is a composite, a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together. Models help us understand a specific problem in a particular setting (Glanz et al., 2008), which perhaps one theory alone can’t do. Theories and models help us explain, predict, and understand health behavior. Understanding the determinants of health behavior and the process of health behavior change provides the basis upon which interventions can be developed to improve the public’s health and their effectiveness evaluated (Noar & Zimmerman, 2005). Theory is also the driving force behind research. It guides the variables to be studied, how they should be measured, and how they might be combined (Noar & Zimmerman, 2005). ? Types of Theories Theories and models can be separated into three different levels of influence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community. Theories at each of these levels attempt to explain behavior by looking at how different factors at these different levels influence what we do and why we do it. Intrapersonal Theories At the intrapersonal or individual level, theories focus on factors within the person that influence behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, motivation, self-concept, developmental history, past experience, and skills (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2005). These theories and models include, among others, the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Self-Efficacy Theory, Attribution Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model. Interpersonal Theories Theories addressing factors at the interpersonal level operate on the assumption that other people influence our behavior. Other people affect behavior by sharing their thoughts, advice, and feelings and by the emotional support and assistance they provide. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion These other people may be family, friends, peers, healthcare providers, or coworkers (NCI, 2005). Social Cognitive Theory is a very commonly used theory addressing behavior at this level. Community-Level Theories Community-level models and theories focus on factors within social systems (communities, organizations, institutions, and public policies), such as rules, regulations, legislation, norms, and policies. These theories and models suggest strategies and initiatives that can be used to change these factors (Cottrell, Girvam, & McKenzie, 2009; NCI, 2005). These are change theories more than explanatory theories. Changing a social system from one that maintains and supports unhealthy behaviors to one that supports healthy behaviors ultimately supports individual behavior change (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988). A commonly used community-level theory is Diffusion of Innovation. More recent additions to this category are the Social Ecological Model and Social Capital Theory. In health promotion, theories and models are used to explain why people behave, or don’t behave, in certain ways relative to their health. They help us plan interventions to support the public’s adoption of healthier behaviors. However, in order to understand how theories explain health behavior and support behavior change, it is important to understand where theories come from in the first place. ? Where Do Theories Come From? Theories are born from the need to solve a problem or find an explanation that would account for some repeatedly observed occurrence. The goal of theory development then, is to identify a few principles that can account for (explain) a large range of phenomena (Bandura, 2005). Scientific inquiry is a cyclical process where theory and data can be regarded as either starting points or endpoints. In a spiral-shaped process of research, inductive and deductive phases of inquiry follow each other. The starting points are ideas, hypotheses or conceptual frameworks that guide future research. Endpoints are attained when there is a wellsubstantiated explanation of a particular facet of reality, based upon empirical evidence. (Schwarzer, 2014, p. 53) The development of a theory in this manner begins with inductive reasoning and qualitative methods (Mullen & Iverson, 1982; Thomas, 1992). Inductive reasoning, if you recall, starts with specific observations or evidence and moves to a conc … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion

Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion After reading Chapter 6 in Willpower, go back and reread pages 132-133. The text authors propose an experiment to build willpower. For this week’s discussion, you can select either technique they propose (using your non-dominant hand or changing your speech habits). Begin your experiment work at the technique that you choose with determination. Three to four days later, stop your experiment and respond to these items in your discussion post: Ourselves . Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion *Which technique did you choose? *Summarize your experience with this technique as the week progressed. Did you find it frustrating? What tools did you use to remind yourself to use the new technique? *Was changing this habitual behavior successful over this short time span? Did you find yourself not needing as many reminders as you did when you first began? *Did you notice that the willpower you were developing spilled over to other behaviors in your life? Were you more disciplined with eating or exercising? Did you find it easier to resist things that tempt you? Did your concentration improve? Were you less distracted by things in your environment? Did you arrive early or on-time for obligations? *Your thoughts on trying this experiment Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion introduction_to_health_behavior_theory_3rd.pdf INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH BEHAVIOR THEORY THIRD EDITION Joanna Hayden, PhD, CHES Professor Emeritus Department of Public Health William Paterson University Wayne, New Jersey JONES & BARTLETT LEARNING World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 [email protected] www.jblearning.com Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning.com. Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to [email protected] Copyright © 2019 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. The content, statements, views, and opinions herein are the sole expression of the respective authors and not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and such reference shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. All trademarks displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted herein. Introduction to Health Behavior Theory, Third Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. There may be images in this book that feature models; these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the activities represented in the images. Any screenshots in this product are for educational and instructive purposes only. Any individuals and scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this product may be real or fictitious, but are used for instructional purposes only. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the Subject Matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional person should be sought. 15913-4 Production Credits VP, Product Management: David D. Cella Director of Product Management: Michael Brown Product Specialist: Danielle Bessette Product Specialist: Carter McAlister Production Manager: Carolyn Rogers Pershouse Director of Vendor Management: Amy Rose Vendor Manager: Juna Abrams Senior Marketing Manager: Sophie Fleck Teague Manufacturing and Inventory Control Supervisor: Amy Bacus Composition: codeMantra U.S. LLC Project Management: codeMantra U.S. LLC Cover Design: Scott Moden Director of Rights & Media: Joanna Gallant Rights & Media Specialist: Merideth Tumasz Media Development Editor: Shannon Sheehan Cover Image (Title Page, Part Opener, Chapter Opener): © ktsdesign/Shutterstock Printing and Binding: Edwards Brothers Malloy Cover Printing: Edwards Brothers Malloy Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Hayden, Joanna, author. Title: Introduction to health behavior theory / Joanna Hayden. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion # Description: Third edition. | Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017038327 | ISBN 9781284125115 (pbk.: alk. paper) Subjects: | MESH: Health Behavior | Health Promotion | Attitude to Health | Behavioral Research Classification: LCC RA776.9 | NLM W 85 | DDC 613 —dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017038327 6048 Printed in the United States of America 21 20 19 18 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Introduction to Theory What Is Theory? Types of Theories Where Do Theories Come From? Health Behavior Putting It All Together: Concepts, Constructs, and Variables Summary Chapter References Chapter 2 Self-Efficacy Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 2 Article: The Feasibility of an Intervention Combining Self-Efficacy Theory and Wii Fit Exergames in Assisted Living Residents: A Pilot Study Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 3 Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 3 Article: Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers’ Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 4 Health Belief Model In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 4 Article: Using the Health Belief Model to Develop Culturally Appropriate WeightManagement Materials for African-American Women Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 5 Attribution Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 5 Article: Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 6 Transtheoretical Model —Stages of Change In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 6 Article: Effect of an ErgonomicsBased Educational Intervention Based on Transtheoretical Model in Adopting Correct Body Posture Among Operating Room Nurses Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 7 Protection Motivation Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 7 Article: Determinants of Skin Cancer Preventive Behaviors Among Rural Farmers in Iran: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 8 Social Cognitive Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 8 Article: Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 9 Diffusion of Innovation In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 9 Article: How Do Low-Income Urban African Americans and Latinos Feel About Telemedicine? A Diffusion of Innovation Analysis Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 10 Social Ecological Model In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Levels Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 10 Article: Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 11 Social Capital Theory In the Beginning Theory Concept Theory Constructs Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 11 Article: Building Social Capital as a Pathway to Success: Community Development Practices of an Early Childhood Intervention Program in Canada Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Chapter 12 Choosing a Theory Guidelines for Choosing a Theory Theory in Action—Class Activity Chapter 12 Article: Developing the Content of Two Behavioural Interventions: Using TheoryBased Interventions to Promote GP Management of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Without Prescribing Antibiotics #1 Theory in Action—Article Questions Chapter References Index Preface Theory is the foundation for professional practice and an essential component of professional preparation at any level. However, this does not make the teaching and learning of theory any easier; it just makes it necessary. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion Theory is often the most difficult for undergraduate students to comprehend. It is difficult because they do not have a reservoir of knowledge from which to draw as they do for, say, math, history, English, or the sciences. This text is written for them. The purpose of this text is to provide an easy to understand, interesting, and engaging introduction to a topic that is usually perceived as challenging, dry, and boring. The language used and the depth and breadth of the information presented are intentional. It is not meant to be a comprehensive tome on theory, but rather an introduction to theory. It is meant to be the headwaters of that reservoir of knowledge. While written with the undergraduate in mind, this book would also be of value to graduate students or practicing professionals whose own “reservoir” of theory knowledge and understanding could use a refill. It would be an excellent text to use along with others in preparing for certification examinations in which health behavior is included. The text begins with an explanation of what theory is, how theories are developed, and factors that influence health behavior. Chapters 2–11 cover the more frequently used health behavior theories. New to this edition, each theory chapter begins with a table containing the theory essence sentence (a statement that reflects the essence of the theory in one sentence), its constructs, and brief definitions. This is followed by a more in-depth discussion of the theory concept and constructs using multiple examples from the literature to demonstrate how the theory is used in practice. While some examples are related to college students, many are purposely not, for a few reasons. This book is intended for students in professional preparation programs, so the examples demonstrate how theories are used in a variety of settings, with different populations, addressing an assortment of health issues. Second, because the examples were taken from the literature, students have an extensive reference list at the end of each chapter that contains numerous citations of research studies and programs in which the theory was used. Each theory chapter ends with a Theory in Action section—a full-length, peer-reviewed journal article that provides students a complete picture of the theory used in a practice setting to guide research, develop an intervention, or conduct an evaluation. The Theory in Action articles address a variety of health issues in different populations. The articles are also the basis for a class activity included in each chapter. All of the articles in this third edition are new. Also new to this edition is Chapter 7 on Protection Motivation Theory. This was added in direct response to reviewers’ suggestions for additional theories and in particular those deriving from health communication. The final chapter in the book, Chapter 12, “Choosing a Theory,” answers the often-asked question, “How do I know which theory to use?” This chapter provides a framework to help answer that question, a Theory Chart. The chart groups the theories by levels and is a compilation of the Theory Essence Sentence tables provided at the beginning of each chapter. New to this edition is a table with the construct domains for each theory and suggested techniques for addressing them. The PowerPoint slide presentations have been revised for this edition to the extent possible in keeping with the publisher’s guidelines, as have the examination questions. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion A new instructor’s support is an annotated bibliography with active links to additional journal articles of the theory in practice. In no way does this book purport to cover all of the theories that could be used to explain health behavior, nor does it claim to provide an in-depth, exhaustive discourse of the theories it does contain. It does, however, provide an introduction to the more commonly used theories in health education and health promotion. It is my hope that students will find this book interesting and engaging enough to read it, and that it will entice them to read further, more deeply filling their theory reservoirs. Acknowledgments This book certainly would not have been written if it were not for my former students who struggled to understand theory. They were the reason I stopped trying to find the right book for them and decided to write it myself. I must give a big “thank you” to my editorial and production staff at Jones & Bartlett Learning for all of their help with this third edition—Lindsey Sousa, Merideth Tumasz, Danielle Bessette, Carter McAlister, and of course my editor, Michael Brown, whose confidence in me allowed this edition to come to fruition. A big thank you also goes to the many reviewers who provided me with wonderful suggestions that guided the writing of this third edition. I hope they see how their recommendations were put into action. Finally, I’d like to thank my husband Roger for making sure I had a never-ending supply of hot tea during the writing of this edition and our puppy Alfie, for making sure I got away from the computer every few hours for a walk! © ktsdesign/Shutterstock CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Theory STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading this chapter the student will be able to: ? Describe how theories and models are different but related. ? Explain why theories are used to effect health behavior change. ? Explain concepts, constructs, and variables. ? Discuss factors that influence health and health behavior. ? Explain how theories are developed. The idea of studying theory can be a bit daunting. But, understanding and being able to use theories is essential because they provide the foundation for professional practice. They help us solve problems and formulate interventions to best provide the services we offer. In fact, research tells us that health interventions based on theories are more effective than those without a theoretical base (Bluethmann, Bartholomew, Murphy, & Vernon, 2016; Tebb et al., 2016). ? What Is Theory? So, what is theory? A theory is “a set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2015). “A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict events or situations” (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008, p. 26).Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion From a health promotion and disease prevention perspective, “the term theory is used to represent an interrelated set of propositions that serve to explain health behavior or provide a systematic method of guiding health promotion practice” (DiClemente, Crosby, & Kegler, 2002, p. 8). “Theory, then, provides a framework for explaining phenomena and may serve as the basis for further research as well as practice application” (Baumgartner, Strong, & Hansley, 2002, p. 18). Simply put, theories explain behavior and thus can suggest ways to achieve behavior change (Glanz et al., 2008). By understanding why people engage in unhealthy behaviors, we can better develop interventions that will enable them to change their behavior and adopt healthier lifestyles, if they choose. In addition to theories, there are also models. A model is a composite, a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together. Models help us understand a specific problem in a particular setting (Glanz et al., 2008), which perhaps one theory alone can’t do. Theories and models help us explain, predict, and understand health behavior. Understanding the determinants of health behavior and the process of health behavior change provides the basis upon which interventions can be developed to improve the public’s health and their effectiveness evaluated (Noar & Zimmerman, 2005). Theory is also the driving force behind research. It guides the variables to be studied, how they should be measured, and how they might be combined (Noar & Zimmerman, 2005). ? Types of Theories Theories and models can be separated into three different levels of influence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community. Theories at each of these levels attempt to explain behavior by looking at how different factors at these different levels influence what we do and why we do it. Intrapersonal Theories At the intrapersonal or individual level, theories focus on factors within the person that influence behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, motivation, self-concept, developmental history, past experience, and skills (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2005). These theories and models include, among others, the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Self-Efficacy Theory, Attribution Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model. Interpersonal Theories Theories addressing factors at the interpersonal level operate on the assumption that other people influence our behavior. Other people affect behavior by sharing their thoughts, advice, and feelings and by the emotional support and assistance they provide. Assignment: Willpower Tremendous Ability to Hold Ourselves Back Discussion These other people may be family, friends, peers, healthcare providers, or coworkers (NCI, 2005). Social Cognitive Theory is a very commonly used theory addressing behavior at this level. Community-Level Theories Community-level models and theories focus on factors within social systems (communities, organizations, institutions, and public policies), such as rules, regulations, legislation, norms, and policies. These theories and models suggest strategies and initiatives that can be used to change these factors (Cottrell, Girvam, & McKenzie, 2009; NCI, 2005). These are change theories more than explanatory theories. Changing a social system from one that maintains and supports unhealthy behaviors to one that supports healthy behaviors ultimately supports individual behavior change (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988). A commonly used community-level theory is Diffusion of Innovation. More recent additions to this category are the Social Ecological Model and Social Capital Theory. In health promotion, theories and models are used to explain why people behave, or don’t behave, in certain ways relative to their health. They help us plan interventions to support the public’s adoption of healthier behaviors. However, in order to understand how theories explain health behavior and support behavior change, it is important to understand where theories come from in the first place. ? Where Do Theories Come From? Theories are born from the need to solve a problem or find an explanation that would account for some repeatedly observed occurrence. The goal of theory development then, is to identify a few principles that can account for (explain) a large range of phenomena (Bandura, 2005). Scientific inquiry is a cyclical process where theory and data can be regarded as either starting points or endpoints. In a spiral-shaped process of research, inductive and deductive phases of inquiry follow each other. The starting points are ideas, hypotheses or conceptual frameworks that guide future research. Endpoints are attained when there is a wellsubstantiated explanation of a particular facet of reality, based upon empirical evidence. (Schwarzer, 2014, p. 53) The development of a theory in this manner begins with inductive reasoning and qualitative methods (Mullen & Iverson, 1982; Thomas, 1992). Inductive reasoning, if you recall, starts with specific observations or evidence and moves to a conc … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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