Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions

Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions BIO 110 – Dr. Ely 110 Lecture Exam 3 Answer Sheet Name: Type your answers directly into this document. Save it as a Word file only, no other file types will be accepted. Upload your completed answer sheet to the dropbox on Blackboard. 1. 23. 45. 67. 2. 24. 46. 68. 3. 25. 47. 69. 4. 26. 48. 70. 5. 27. 49. 71. 6. 28. 50. 72. 7. 29. 51. 73. 8. 30. 52. 74. 9. 31. 53. 75. 10. 32. 54. 76. 11 33. 55. 77. 12. 34. 56. 78. 13. 35. 57. 79. 14. 36. 58. 80. 15. 37. 59. 81. 16. 38. 60. 82. 17. 39. 61. 83. 18. 40. 62. 84. 19. 41. 63. 85. 20. 42. 64. 21. 43. 65. 22. 44. 66. BIO 110 – Introduction to Biology • • • • Instructor: Dr. Ely EXAM #3 Use the Exam 3 Answer Sheet provided on Blackboard to write your answers. Do not provide more than one answer for a question unless the question instructs you to do so. Any signs of academic dishonesty, which include direct copying from published materials and copying from another individual as made evident by similar patterns of misspellings, wrong answers, and/or phrasing of words, may result in a zero on this exam and the possibility of further academic penalties. Grading: Each question is worth 1 point. Total points = 85. (81pts = 100%) UNIT 1 1. Viruses are not living organisms, but they do have one characteristic of life that makes them difficult to eradicate. Which characteristic is it? 2. “Atoms react with each other in ways that make them stable.” True or False? 3. Complete this sentence (write both in the same answer box on your answer sheet): The atomic number of oxygen is 8. Oxygen will ________ (gain or lose?) _________ (how many?) electrons to become a stable ion. 4. What term do we use for the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom? 5. Suppose one atom of P has an atomic mass of 31 and another atom of P has an atomic mass of 32. Which subatomic particle is responsible for the heavier mass: proton, neutron or electron? 6. If you pull two water molecules away from each other, what kind of bond are you breaking? 7. Look up the following organisms: Paramecium, Spirogyra, Oscillatoria, Saccharomyces. Which one of these organisms has no organelles? 8. Which of these molecules is a polymer: glucose, amino acid, glycogen, or nucleotide? 9. A buffer is a chemical that returns the pH of a solution to neutral whether the solution is basic or acidic. If a solution is acidic, will a buffer reduce the amount of hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions to make it neutral? 10. Which element in organic molecules has the highest electronegativity? 11. Which organelle would you expect to be responsible for the synthesis of phospholipids? You must be very specific to get credit. 12. A molecule that is not the correct substrate binds directly to the active site of an enzyme and prevents its further functioning. BIO 110 UA Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions Discussion What kind of enzyme inhibition is being described? 13. Which characteristic of a substance will NOT necessarily affect its transport across a cell membrane: the substance is charged, the substance contains covalent bonds, the substance is large, or the substance is polar? 14. What is the smallest structure we can say is alive: a molecule, an atom, an organ, or a cell? 1 15. Three of these molecules are written incorrectly because they would carry a charge, only one is correct because it is actually neutral as written. Which one is correct? MgCl2 Na2F CaCl KO2 16. Name an organelle you would find in a plant cell but not in an animal cell. 17. Where would you find the DNA in a prokaryote: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, or mitochondria? 18. A neutral molecule with many OH groups will probably be: unstable, hydrophobic, ionic, or hydrophilic? 19. Which statement is best to finish this sentence: An atom is most stable when… A. the # of electrons = # of protons C. the # of electron shells is an even number B. the valence shell holds the maximum # of electrons D. the # of protons = # of neutrons 20. Which statement is best to finish this sentence: A chemical reaction is balanced when… A. the number of molecules is the same for both reactants and products B. the number of ions is the same for both reactants and products C. the quantity of every atom is the same for both reactants and products D. energy has been released from the formation of the products 21. Which statement about unsaturated fats is true? A. They have at least one double bond in their fatty acid tails. B. They are polar unlike saturated fats, which are nonpolar. C. They tend to be solid at room temperature. D. They are not considered organic molecules. 22. Which of these is an example of simple diffusion? A. the movement of small bacteria away from high concentrations of solutes B. the spread of a gas through the air of a classroom C. the buildup of water in tissues D. the maintenance of a concentration gradient by a membrane protein 23. Which process will require ATP: exocytosis, gas exchange, or osmosis? 24. Which of the following is the best way to tell if equilibrium between two solutions has been reached? A. The volume of water is the same for both solutions. B. The solute concentration is the same for both solutions. C. The pH is the same for both solutions. D. There is no further net diffusion to either solution. 2 25. Which characteristic of a cell will be most important to creating a high rate of simple diffusion of a solute into or out of that cell? A. The SA:V is high. B. The concentration of solute inside the cell is high. C. The production of ATP is high. D. The quantity of organelles in the cell is high. For items 26, 27 and 28, decide whether the description is a dehydration reaction or a hydrolysis reaction. 26. When our energy is low between meals, enzymes in the liver use glycogen molecules to form glucose molecules, which travel throughout our body in the blood. 27. Nucleic acid products are formed from nucleotide reactants in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. 28. BIO 110 UA Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions Discussion When we eat fats, enzymes use triglyceride molecules to form fatty acids and glycerol molecules. UNIT 2 29. In which blood vessel would you find the greatest blood pressure: pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, superior vena cava, or aorta? 30. Name a heart valve that would be closed during ventricular systole. 31. Which chamber of the heart provides the most forceful contraction? 32. What percentage of blood is made up of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets? 33. Which organ of the digestive system has the lowest pH? 34. What is the substrate for salivary amylase? 35. “The cardiovascular system plays a role in temperature regulation of the body.” True or False? 36. “Intestinal villi help push the chyme along through the small intestine.” True or False? 37. “Blood fills the lumen of the small intestine to digest polymers into monomers, and then the blood returns to the cardiovascular system through the capillaries.” True or False? 38. Secretions from the accessory organs meet the chyme in which specific part of the digestive system? 39. Which structure is not associated with the larynx: the glottis, the hyoid bone, the pharynx, or the vocal cords? 40. What specific transport process is responsible for moving oxygen gas into the blood? 41. To increase the rate of breathing, the medulla oblongata will send excitatory messages to which muscle? 3 42. “Rapid breathing during exercise helps to regulate blood pH.” True or False? 43. Which molecule should be reabsorbed the least during urine formation: urea, glucose, salt, or amino acids? 44. The renal corpuscle is the name we use to identify the combination of which two structures in the kidney? 45. In which region of the kidney would you look to find the renal corpuscle? 46. The release of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland increases the permeability of the collecting duct. Will this result in greater or lesser urine volume? 47. Which type of neuron will synapse with a chemoreceptor in the taste buds on your tongue? 48. Pharmaceutical drugs often affect the transmission of neurotransmitters. In this case, which part of the nervous system would be targeted: myelin sheath, synaptic cleft, ganglia, or the sodium-potassium pump? 49. Are the secretions of our salivary glands controlled by the somatic or the autonomic nervous system? 50. “Interneurons of the CNS can send action potentials in either direction along their axons.” True or False? UNIT 3 51. “A cell must undergo DNA replication to make mRNA.” True or False? 52. If you wanted to break the connection between a sugar and a phosphate in the DNA backbone, what kind of bond would you have to break? 53. Which of the following is not associated with DNA replication: nucleotides, helicase, DNA polymerase, or amino acids? 54. Could DNA polymerase produce a nucleic acid with the sequence AUGGUACAACGCU? Yes or no. 55. Which of the following is not associated with gene expression: mRNA, DNA polymerase, the base uracil (U), or tRNA? 56. In which phase of mitosis would you find chromosomes loosening into their chromatin form? 57. BIO 110 UA Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS To what part of a chromosome does the spindle fiber attach? 58. What is the name for the proteins that DNA wraps around to form chromosomes? 59. What is the final product of translation? 4 60. Which of the following is the result of a nondisjunction during meiosis: a mutation, a missing chromosome, a misfolded protein, or a missing nucleus? 61. One of the main functions of meiosis is to ____. A. produce most of the cells of the body B. produce homologous chromosomes C. reduce the chromosome number D. prevent mutations 62. How would a sperm cell be affected if the seminal vesicle did not produce its secretions? 63. During ovulation, ________. A. four haploid eggs are released from the ovary B. one haploid egg is released from the ovary C. a secondary oocyte is released from the ovary D. a zygote is released from the ovary 64. The allele for six fingers (A) is dominant over the allele for five fingers (a). What is the probability that two people who are heterozygous for this trait will produce a child with six fingers? 65. Hemophilia is a sex-linked, recessive trait that only occurs on the X chromosome. A child has hemophilia, but their father does not. Which of the following statements about this child is TRUE? A. They are male and could have inherited the trait from their father. B. They are male and could have inherited the trait from their mother. C. They are female and could have inherited the trait from their mother. D. There is not enough information to choose among the statements. 66. BIO 110 UA Biology Genetics and Other Human Functions Discussion Finish the sentence: On the ribosome, the A site will receive a tRNA that is carrying ______. 67. In which specific part of the female reproductive system would you find the process of fertilization taking place? 68. “Two homologous chromosomes will have the same locus for a gene.” True or False? 69. “Two chromatids that are separated from each other during meiosis 2 may not be identical to each other in every way.” True or False? 70. “Cells that go through mitosis do not possess homologous chromosomes.” True or False? 71. “A parent that is homozygous dominant for a trait cannot have a child that expresses the recessive phenotype.” True or False? 72. What term is used for programmed cell death? 73. Which pattern of inheritance results in a blending of two phenotypes in heterozygotes that presents an intermediate form: codominance, incomplete dominance, or sex-linked? 5 74. If you were to observe a sample of plant or animal tissue and look at the hundreds of cells within, in which major portion of the cell cycle do you think you would find most of them? 75. “If a mother is a carrier for a sex-linked gene and the father expresses the recessive sex-linked trait, then there is a 50% chance that their daughter will express the recessive phenotype.” True or False? Gene Expression – Refer to the following diagrams to answer questions 76-84 76. The letter A refers to a specific location inside the cell. What is this location? 77. What is the specific name of the entire molecule indicated by B? 78. What do we call the process that is creating B? 79. What is the large structure indicated by the letter C? 80. The letter D refers to a specific molecule that is exposing the bases CCA. What is the name of this entire molecule? Use the codon chart to determine the identity of the amino acids indicated by E, F, and G on the picture above. 81. Which amino acid is E? 82. Which amino acid is F? 83. Which amino acid is G? 84. The letter H refers to the final molecule produced by this entire process. Give the specific name (not the group) of any molecule that we have learned about that this molecule could be. 85. What are you most looking forward to doing again AC (After Coronavirus)? ? 6 … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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