CBT For Group And Families Assignment

CBT For Group And Families Assignment
CBT For Group And Families Assignment
Compare the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for groups to cognitive behavioral therapy for families
Analyze challenges of using cognitive behavioral therapy for groups
Recommend effective strategies in cognitive behavioral therapy for groups
Milne, L., Scotland, G., Tagiyeva-Milne, N., & Hussein, J. (2004). Safe motherhood program evaluation: Theory and practice. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 49(4), 338–344.
This article identifies and evaluates the different approaches to program evaluation related to safe motherhood.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Chronic disease indicators [Data set]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cdi/.
This site allows you to search and compare different regions for specific chronic disease indicators.
Hulton, L. J. (2007). An evaluation of a school-based teenage pregnancy prevention program using a logic model framework. Journal of School Nursing, 23(2), 104–110.
This article describes the use of the logic model to develop, implement, and evaluate a nursing intervention in a school setting.
Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J. O. (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9(5), 291–301.
This article introduces the use of the transtheoretical model and stages of change as applied to interventions aimed at medication adherence for patients with hypertension.
Rogers, L. Q., Shah, P., Dunnington, G., Greive, A., Shanmugham, A., Dawson, B., & Courneya, K. S. (2005). Social cognitive theory and physical activity during breast cancer treatment. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32(4), 807–815.
The social cognitive theory is utilized to examine associations with physical activity in breast cancer patients. This article posits that the social cognitive theory can be used as a mediator for intervention evaluation with this population.
W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Using logic models to bring together planning, evaluation, and action: Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wkkf.org/resource-directory/resource/2006/02/wk-kellogg-foundation-logic-model-development-guide.
This report offers a guide for the use of the logic model in program planning and outcome-oriented evaluation for nonprofit projects.
CBT For Group And Families Assignment
Family Therapy
Family therapy, a type of psychotherapy, is commonly applied in families having gridlocks, conflicts or misunderstandings, aiming at improving family functioning. The goals of family therapy include improving communication among family members, improving autonomy for each member, improve agreement about roles, reducing conflicts and reducing stress in the member who is the patient. (Gelder, Harrison & Cowen, 2006) In Virgina Satir’s model, congruence is an essence in achieving good communication between family members. Congruence refers to a state of being as well as a quality of communicating. It is viewed at three different levels. First, congruence entails acknowledging and accepting our inner experiences (sensations, interpretations, and consequent feelings about those feelings) and being able to express them. In the second level, it involves listening to our perceptions and expectations, and translating those into a responsible pattern of meeting our needs by tapping our yearnings. At level three, we move into harmony with spiritual essence, or what Satir called the universal life force. (Satir, Banmen, Gerber & Gomori, 1991)The Satir Change Model
In the process of family therapy, change is an important focus of internal shift that brings about external change. To elicit change, the concepts of discovery, awareness, understanding and new applications were examined. (Satir, Banmen, Gerber & Gomori, 1991)
Stages of change
Once an accepting, positive context for change are established, the client can begin with the process of change. According to Satir, the process has 6 stages:
Stage 1: Status Quo
When a system is in status quo, we can make reliable predictions about how it is operating. The system has set up a clear set of expectations and reactions. We can count on these. Stable relationship gives member a sense of belonging and identity. They know what to expect, how to react and how to behave. Nevertheless, the system could become unhealthy when some members routinely respond to anger or guilt by placating, blaming, overly reasonable or being irrelevant. In this way, some individuals may impose a burden to another, resulting in system imbalance. Stress may lead to physical symptoms such as headache and abdominal pain that could possibly increase absenteeism.

Stage 2: Introduction of a foreign element
“Foreign element” refers to a psychotherapist or a family counselor who was not in the system before. This outside person needs to be accepted by the majority of the system’s member so as to make the therapy work. The therapist is responsible for the process, such as guiding the members to examine the barriers to change and the resistance. It is helpful for the members to identify the aspects that they believe they cannot change. In Satir’s model, resistance contains elements of reframing, in which the therapist helps the clients see themselves as capable and open to change.

Stage 3: Chaos
Chaos means the system is operating in ways that are not predictable. The unpredictability often makes members to become fearful and anxious. Therapist assists client to normalize the chaotic stage by neutralizing client’s fear and anxiety. Clients consider a new perception of self and others, and let go of their perceptions that no longer fit. Attaining positive, healthier, and more functional possibilities requires moving through a period of chaos. It is significant because it accepts people’s fear of unknown, anxiety, uncertainty, and panic. It also moves the person or system from a dysfunctional status quo to a new functional state of being. CBT For Group And Families Assignment

Stage 4: New Opinions and Integration
In this stage, clients develop new possibilities, integrating new ideas and reevaluating past and present expectations. Clients learn to take charge of consciousness and become more responsible for internal process of self. Joyfulness, new hope and regained energy become part of new status quo.

Stage 5: Implementation
As the past patterns are very strong, family members are encouraged to maintain and practice new options. To achieve this, they are taught to write things down, or have reminders in the car, on the refrigerator door, or on the bulletin board. The longer the practice, the more familiar and comfortable they feel.

Stage 6: The New Status Quo
The last stage provides a new status quo, a healthier equilibrium, and better functioning of individuals and relationship between family members. A new sense of comfort has taken the place of old familiarity. Moreover, new sets of predictions develop about how the system operates. New self-images and new hopes emerge with enhanced sense of well-being radiating.

Based on the concepts of family therapy and the change model proposed by Virginia Satir, a lot of studies were conducted by various practitioners. According to Markus et al., (1990) the effect of family therapy was found to be comparable to other forms of psychotherapy. Approximately 75% of clients had a better outcome with family therapy, when compared to those receiving minimal or no treatment at all. In a randomized control trial (Diamond et al., 2002) of an attachment-based family therapy for depressed adolescents, it was found that the majority of client no longer meet the criteria of major depressive episode as seen from the post-test result. In a meta-analysis, (Karver, Handelsman, Fields & Bickman, 2006) family therapy served as a promising intervention with an examination on youth and parent willingness to participate in treatment, and their actual participation performance. Besides, therapist’s professional interpersonal skills and direct influence skills also contribute to the success of the treatment. CBT For Group And Families Assignment
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
All psychiatric illness has cognitive and behavioral components. Alterations and changes for cognitive or behavioral, or both features are one of the processes to promote recovery. Since 1970s’, cognitive behavioral therapy has gained popularity as a choice of treatment due to the strong evidence base of its effectiveness. The assessment and case formulation in CBT were used to provide an individualized treatment program for clients presenting with a variety of clinical problems. CBT teaches client to recognize their own maladaptive thinking and to become aware of those thoughts, feelings and situations that trigger negative automatic thoughts. Once this has been accomplished, CBT aims to clarify if the client would like to change their current problems. CBT is based on a series of principles originated from Aaron Beck’s cognitive triad which states that an individual may be vulnerable to negative thinking about the self, the world and the future. (Thomas & Drake, 2012) Beck suggested that thinking is underpinned by attitudes (assumptions), which are based in early childhood experiences and later life events. It is believed that everyone has a tendency to react in a certain way for a particular situation. The predisposition is based on genetics, early experience, environment and life events. Some life events, nevertheless, could be traumatic and painful which give rise to negative thinking and lower mood states. Low mood can possibly intensify the probability of more negative thinking and eventually result in negative circle that influence daily living. Negative thinking is sometimes known as cognitive distortion. People with cognitive distortion often establish a negative view of themselves, the current experience of the work, or about their future. Changing the way that an individual sees from a negative perspective to a positive one is referred to the process of cognitive restructuring. However, the process is not always easy and it takes time to go through.

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