Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion

Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion DQ 10 · Select one question as your DQ 1 · Follow the discussion questions participation and submission guidelines. Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion · Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per DQ, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph. · All answers or discussions comments submitted must be in APA format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (7th ed.) ISBN: 978-1-4338-3216-1 · Minimum of two references, not older than 2015. Chapter 10: Patient Education and Patient-Centered Care in Professional Nursing Practice 1. One recent change on some nursing units has been the establishment of walking rounds to patient rooms during change of shift report. Using this model, the nurses, patient, and family members (if the patient wishes) are all involved in the exchange of information during the transition of care to the nurse coming on shift. Can you think of any other changes that you have observed in the healthcare setting that help to facilitate a PCC environment? 2. Think about your own life. Do you act to prevent a disease or accident when you perceive that you are not susceptible to the disease or at risk for the accident? 3. Have you ever been assigned to read a book that had so many big words in it that you had to keep the dictionary by your side? If it was assigned for school, you probably struggled through it for the sake of not failing the test, but what about if you were not being graded? Would you bother to read it? If you did read it because you knew it would help you, would you have enough understanding to actually apply the information? attachment_1 attachment_2 Chapter 10 Patient Education and Patient-Centered Care in Professional Nursing Practice What Is Patient-Centered Care (PCC)? • Care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions (IOM, 2001) • Recognizes the patient or designee as the source of control and full partner in providing compassionate and coordinated care based on respect for the patient’s preferences, values, and needs (QSEN, 2014) PCC Competency • The nurse “will provide holistic care that recognizes an individual’s preferences, values, and needs and respects the patient or designee as a full partner in providing compassionate, coordinated, age and culturally appropriate, safe and effective care” (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 9). Dimensions of PCC • Respect for patients’ values, preferences, and needs • Coordination and integration of care • Information, communication, and education • Physical comfort • Emotional support • Involvement of family and friends • Transition and continuity • Access to care Components of Patient-Centered and Family-Centered Care Delivery Models (1 of 2) • • • • • Coordination of care conference Hourly rounding by the nurse Bedside report Use of patient care partner Individualized care established on admission • Open medical record policy Components of Patient-Centered and Family-Centered Care Delivery Models (2 of 2) • Eliminating visiting restrictions in relation to family members • Allowing family presence with a chaperone during resuscitation and other invasive procedures • Silence and healing environment Communication as a Strategy to Support PCC • Communication is defined as the nurse interacting “effectively with patients, families, and colleagues, fostering mutual respect and shared decision making, to enhance patient satisfaction and health outcomes” (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 27). Empathetic Communication (1 of 2) • Behaviors that facilitate empathetic communication include: – Listening carefully and reflecting back a summary of the patient’s concerns – Using terms and vocabulary appropriate for the patient – Calling the patient by his or her preferred name – Using respectful and professional language Empathetic Communication (2 of 2) • Behaviors that facilitate empathetic communication include (cont.): – Asking the patient what they need and responding promptly to those needs – Providing helpful information – Soliciting feedback from the patient – Using self-disclosure appropriately –Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion Employing humor as appropriate – Providing words of comfort when appropriate Nonempathetic Communication (1 of 2) • Behaviors can also hinder empathetic communication: – Interrupting the patient with irrelevant information – Using vocabulary that is either beneath the level of the patient or not understandable to the patient – Using language that may be perceived as patronizing or demeaning – Using nonprofessional language Nonempathetic Communication (2 of 2) • Behaviors can also hinder empathetic communication (cont.): – Reprimanding or scolding the patient – Preaching to the patient – Providing the patient with inappropriate information – Asking questions at inappropriate times or giving patient advice inappropriately – Self-disclosing inappropriately Kleinman’s Questions (1 of 2) • What do you think has caused your problem? • Why do you think it started when it did? • What do you think your problem does inside your body? • How severe is your problem? Will it have a short or long course? Kleinman’s Questions (2 of 2) • What kind of treatment do you think you should receive? • What are the most important results you hope to receive from this treatment? • What are the chief problems your illness has caused you? • What do you fear most about your illness/treatment? Patient Education as a Strategy to Support PCC • Patient education is any set of planned educational activities designed to improve patients’ health behaviors and/or health status. Learning Domains • Cognitive learning encompasses the intellectual skills of knowledge acquisition, comprehension, application, analysis, and evaluation. • Psychomotor learning refers to learning skills and performance of behaviors or skills. • Affective learning requires a change in feelings, attitudes, or beliefs. Andragogy • Letting learners know why something is important to learn • Showing learners how to direct themselves through information • Relating the topic to the learners’ experiences • Realizing that people will not learn until they are ready and motivated Health Belief Model (HBM) • According to HBM, the likelihood of acting in response to health threat is dependent upon 6 factors: – – – – – – Person’s perception of the severity of the illness Person’s perception of susceptibility to the illness Value of the treatment benefits Barriers to treatment Costs of treatment in physical and emotional terms Cues that stimulate taking action toward treatment of illness Social Learning Theory (1 of 2) • If a person believes he or she is capable of performing a behavior (self-efficacy) and also believes the behavior will lead to a desirable outcome, the person is more likely to perform the behavior. Social Learning Theory (2 of 2) • Four methods for enhancing efficacy expectations: – Performance accomplishments – Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion Vicarious experience or modeling – Verbal persuasion – Interpretation of physiological state The Patient Education Process • • • • Assessment Planning Implementation Evaluation Assessment of Learning Needs • • • • • • • • What information does the patient need? What attitudes should be explored? What skills does the patient need to know? What factors may be barriers? Is the patient likely to return home? Can the caregiver handle the care? Is the home situation appropriate? What kinds of assistance will be required? Other Variables in the Patient Education Process • Learning styles • Readiness to learn • Health literacy – “The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions” (IOM, 2004, p. 31) Ask Me 3® Questions • What is my main problem? • What do I need to do? • Why is it important for me to do this? Ask Me 3® Video ACTS • Assess • Compare • Teach 3/Teach back • Survey Readability of Written Materials • Written materials for patients with low health literacy skills should be fifth-grade level or below. • Several readability formulas are available to determine the grade level of materials (Flesch, 1948; Fry, 1968; McLaughlin, 1969). • SMOG formula. Planning • Nurse responsible for guiding the process through the use of goals and objectives. • Objectives for patient education are stated as behavioral objectives. – Performance – Conditions – Criteria • Learning objectives should be specific, measurable, and attainable. Implementation • Learning activities need to be consistent with learning objectives. • Using varied learning activities can make learning more fun and more effective. – Examples include lecture, demonstration, practice, games, simulation, role play, discussion, and self-directed learning Criteria for Judging Patient Education Materials • Material contains the information that the patient wants. • Material contains the information that the patient needs. • Patient understands and uses the material as presented. Patient Education with Older Adults: Age-Related Barriers (1 of 3) • Cognitive changes: – Changes in encoding and storage of information – Changes in the retrieval of information – Decreases in the speed of processing information Patient Education with Older Adults: Age-Related Barriers (2 of 3) • Visual changes: – Smaller amount of light reaches the retina – Reduced ability to focus on close objects – Scattering of light resulting in glare – Changes in color perception – Decrease in depth perception and peripheral vision Patient Education with Older Adults: Age-Related Barriers (3 of 3) • Changes in hearing: – Reduced ability to hear sounds as loudly – Decrease in hearing acuity – Decrease in ability to hear high-pitched sounds – Decrease in ability to filter background noise Strategies to Accommodate for Age-Related Barriers: Cognitive (1 of 2) • Slow the pace of presentation. • Give smaller amounts of information. • Repeat information frequently. • Reinforce verbal teaching with audiovisuals, written materials, and practice. • Reduce distractions. • Allow more time for self-expression. Strategies to Accommodate for Age-Related Barriers: Cognitive (2 of 2) • Use analogies and examples from everyday experience to illustrate abstract information. • Increase meaningfulness of content. • Teach mnemonic devices and imaging techniques. • Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion Use printed materials and visual aids that are age specific. Strategies to Accommodate for Age-Related Barriers: Visual (1 of 2) • Make sure glasses are clean and in place. • Use printed materials with 14- to 16-point font and serif letters. • Use bold type on printed materials and do not mix fonts. • Avoid use of dark colors with dark backgrounds but instead use large, distinct configurations with high contrast. Strategies to Accommodate for Age-Related Barriers: Visual (2 of 2) • Avoid blue, green, and violet to differentiate type, illustrations, or graphics. • Use line drawings with high contrast. • Use soft white light to decrease glare. • Light should shine from behind learner. • Use color and touch to help differentiate depth. • Position materials directly in front of learner. Strategies to Accommodate for Age-Related Barriers: Hearing • • • • • Speak distinctly. Do not shout. Speak in a normal voice or lower pitch. Decrease extraneous noise. Face person directly while speaking at a distance of 3 to 6 feet. • Reinforce verbal teaching with visual aids or easy-to-read materials. Cultural Considerations • Adapt information to be more specific and use more relevant terminology. • Create descriptions or explanations that fit with different people’s understandings of key concepts. • Incorporate a group’s cultural beliefs and practices into the program content and process. Evaluation • Measuring the extent to which the patient has met the learning objectives • Identifying when there is a need to clarify, correct, or review information • Noting learning objectives that are unclear • Pointing out shortcomings in patient teaching interventions • Identifying barriers that prevented learning Evaluation of PCC • National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care priority • Link between quality and patient satisfaction • HCAHPS standardized survey • CAHPS supplemental item sets Don Berwick What Patient Centred Care Really Means Video The Pedagogy Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice, Fifth Edition drives comprehension through various strategies that meet the learning needs of students while also generating enthusiasm about the topic. This interactive approach addresses different learning styles, making this the ideal text to ensure mastery of key concepts. The pedagogical aids that appear in most chapters include the following: World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 [email protected] Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to [email protected] Copyright © 2020 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. 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Treatments and side effects described in this book may not be applicable to all people; likewise, some people may require a dose or experience a side effect that is not described herein. Drugs and medical devices are discussed that may have limited availability controlled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use only in a research study or clinical trial. Research, clinical practice, and government regulations often change the accepted standard in this field. When consideration is being given to use of any drug in the clinical setting, the healthcare provider or reader is responsible for determining FDA status of the drug; reading the package insert; reviewing prescribing information for the most up-to-date recommendations on dose, precautions, and contraindications; and determining the appropriate usage for the product. Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion This is especially important in the case of drugs that are new or seldom used. 16306-3 Production Credits VP, Executive Publisher: Amanda Martin Product Manager: Tina Chen Product Assistant: Anna-Maria Forger Product Specialist: Alex Schab Senior Marketing Manager: Jennifer Scherzay Product Fulfillment Manager: Wendy Kilborn Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Cover Design: Kristin E. Parker Rights & Media Specialist: John Rusk Media Development Editor: Troy Liston Cover Image: © James Kang/EyeEm/Getty Images Printing and Binding: LSC Communications Cover Printing: LSC Communications Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Masters, Kathleen, editor. Title: Role development in professional nursing practice / [edited by] Kathleen Masters. Description: Fifth edition. | Burlington, Massachusetts : Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018023086 | eISBN 9781284152920 Subjects: | MESH: Nursing–trends | Nursing–standards | Professional Practice | Nurse’s Role | Philosophy, Nursing Classification: LCC RT82 | NLM WY 16.1 | DDC 610.73–dc23 LC record available at 6048 Printed in the United States of America 22 21 20 19 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dedication This book is dedicated to my Heavenly Father and to my loving family: my husband, Eddie, and my two daughters, Rebecca and Rachel. Words cannot express my appreciation for their ongoing encouragement and support throughout my career. © James Kang/EyeEm/Getty Images CONTENTS Preface Contributors UNIT I: FOUNDATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE 1 A History of Health Care and Nursing Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters Classical Era Middle Ages The Renaissance The Dark Period of Nursing The Industrial Revolution And Then There Was Nightingale . . . Continued Development of Professional Nursing in the United Kingdom The Development of Professional Nursing in Canada The Development of Professional Nursing in Australia Early Nursing Education and Organization in the United States The Evolution of Nursing in the United States: The First Century of Professional Nursing The New Century International Council of Nurses Conclusion References 2 Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Overview of Selected Nursing Theories Overview of Selected Nonnursing Changes in Healthcare that Facilitate PCC Environment Discussion Theories Relationship of Theory to Professional Nursing Practice Conclusion References 3 Philosophy of Nursing Mary W. Stewart Philosophy Early Philosophy Paradigms Beliefs Values Developing a Personal Philosophy of Nursing Conclusion References 4 Competencies for Professional Nursing Practice Jill Rushing and Kathleen Masters Overview Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies Critical Thinking, Clinical Judgment, and Clinical Reasoning in Nursing Practice Conclusion References 5 Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Kathleen Masters and Melanie Gilmore Professional Nursing Roles and Values The Socialization (or Formation) Process Facilitating the Transition to Professional Practice Conclusion References 6 Advancing and Managing Your Professional Nursing Career Mary Louise Coyne and Cynthia Chatham Nursing: A Job or a Career? Trends That Affect Nursing Career Decisions Showcasing Your Professional Self Mentoring Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Engagement Expectations for Your Performance Taking Care of Self Conclusion References 7 Social Context and the Future of Professional Nursing Mary W. Stewart, Katherine E. Nugent, and Kathleen Masters Nursing’s Social Contract with Society Public Image of Nursing The Gender Gap Changing Demographics and Cultural Competence Access to Health Care Societal Trends Trends in Nursing Conclusion References UNIT II PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE AND THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT CARE 8 Safety and Quality Improvement in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Patient Safety Quality Improvement in Health Care Quality Improvement Measurement and Process The Role of the Nurse in Quality Improvement Conclusion References 9 Evidence-Based Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Evidence-Based Practice: What Is It? Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Searching for Evidence Evaluating the Evidence Implementation Models for Evidence-Based Practice Conclusion References 10 Patient Education and Patient-Centered Care in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Dimensions of Patient-Centered Care Communication as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Patient Education as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care Conclusion References 11 Informatics in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters and Cathy K. Hughes Informatics: W … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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