compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice

compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice For this discussion, you will be defining research in nursing and evidence-based practice in nursing. Along with your definitions, provide one example of each. Provide a sample research question and a sample clinical question. You may use questions you found in reviewing the literature as a guide, but may not use them as your own example. You must provide an original example of a research question and clinical question. Examples from the readings cannot be used as the example for clinical/research questions. compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice Your initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) references, in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic. The goal is to make your post interesting and engaging so others will want to read/respond to it. Synthesize and summarize from your resources in order to avoid the use of direct quotes, which can often be dry and boring. No direct quotes are allowed in the discussion board posts. Objectives Compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice References: Initial Post: Minimum of two (2) total references: one (1) from required course materials and one (1) from peer-reviewed references. Response posts: Minimum of one (1) total reference: one (1) from peer-reviewed or course materials reference per response. Words Limits Initial Post: Minimum 200 words excluding references (approximately one (1) page ing Research Title Nursing Research Author Geri LoBiondo-Wood; Judith Haber ISBN 978-0-323-43131-6 Publisher Elsevier – Health Sciences Division Publication Date July 26, 2017 Binding Trade Paper Type Print Price attachment_1 attachment_2 attachment_3 attachment_4 CHAPTER 1 Integrating Research, Evidence-Based Practice, and Quality Improvement Processes Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 WHAT IS NURSING RESEARCH? ?Research is the systematic, rigorous, critical investigation that aims to answer questions about nursing phenomena. ?Researchers follow the steps of the scientific process. ?There are two types of research — quantitative and qualitative. ?The methods used by nurse researchers are the same methods used by other disciplines; the difference is that nurses study questions relevant to nursing practice. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 RESEARCH VS. EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE ? Research is systematic, rigorous, logical investigation that aims to answer questions about nursing phenomena. ? Evidence-based practice is the collection, interpretation, and integration of valid research evidence, combined with clinical expertise and an understanding of patient and family values and preferences to inform clinical decision making. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ? QI is the systematic use of data to monitor the outcomes of care processes as well as the use of improvement methods to design and test changes in practice, the aim of which is to continuously improve the quality and safety of health care systems. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 NURSE AS “KNOWLEDGEABLE CONSUMER” ?Nurses must be knowledgeable consumers of research and should be able to appraise research evidence and use existing standards to determine the merit and readiness of research for use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 TYPES OF NURSING RESEARCH ?Qualitative ? Seeks to understand the meaning of human experience ? Usually conducted in natural settings ? Seeks to DESCRIBE experiences ? Subjective approach ? Theory generating ?Quantitative ? Seeks to test relationships or answer a question ? Explains cause-andeffect relationships ? Seeks to DESCRIBE phenomena ? Objectivity is important ? Theory testing Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 CRITICAL READING ?A critical reader actively looks for assumptions, key concepts and ideas, reasons, justifications, supporting examples, implications and consequences, and any other structural features of the written text, to interpret and assess it accurately and fairly. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 CRITICAL READING STRATEGIES Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 WHAT IS A RESEARCH CRITIQUE? ?A research critique is the process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report’s content for scientific merit and application to practice. compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ?A research critique requires some knowledge of the subject matter and knowledge of how to critically read and use critiquing criteria. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND RESEARCH ?Evidence-based practice allows one to systematically use the best available evidence from research with the integration of individual clinical expertise, as well as the patient’s values and preferences, to make clinical decisions. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: STUDY DESIGN Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 GRADING THE STRENGTH OF A BODY OF EVIDENCE ?Quality: the extent to which a study’s design, implementation, and analysis minimizes bias ?Quantity: the number of studies that have evaluated the research question, including overall sample size across studies, as well as the strength of the findings from data analyses ?Consistency: the degree to which other studies, with similar or different designs, investigating the same research question report similar findings Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 RESEARCH ARTICLES: FORMAT AND STYLE ?Abstract ?Introduction ?Definition of purpose ?Literature review and theoretical framework ?Hypothesis/research question ?Research design ?Sampling Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 RESEARCH ARTICLES: FORMAT AND STYLE ?Reliability and validity ?Procedures and data collection measures ?Data analysis results ?Discussion ?Recommendations and implications ?References ?Communicating results Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 TYPES OF JOURNAL ARTICLES ?Research: qualitative, quantitative, or mixed ?Systematic review: summation and assessment of a group of research studies that test a similar research question. If statistical techniques are used to summarize and assess the studies, the systematic review is labeled meta-analysis. ?Meta-analysis: summary of a number of studies focused on a question/topic using a specific statistical methodology to synthesize the findings in order to draw conclusions about the area of focus Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 TYPES OF JOURNAL ARTICLES ?Integrative review: a focused review and synthesis of either research or theoretical literature on a particular area that follows specific steps of literature integration and synthesis without statistical analysis and can include both quantitative and qualitative articles. ?Meta-synthesis and meta-summary: synthesis of a number of qualitative research studies on a focused topic using specific qualitative methodology Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 CLINICAL GUIDELINES ?Consensus or expert-based guidelines are developed by expert panels. compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ?Evidence-based guidelines are those developed using research findings. ?Guidelines have been developed to assist in bridging practice and research. Guidelines provide clinicians with an algorithm for clinical management, or decision making, for specific diseases (e.g., colon cancer) or treatments (e.g., pain management). Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ?Conducting an assessment ?Setting specific goals for improvement ?Identifying ideas for changing current practice ?Deciding how improvements in care will be measured ?Rapidly testing practice changes ?Measuring improvements in care ?Adopting the practice change as a new standard of care Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. CRITICAL READING REQUIRES FOUR STAGES OF UNDERSTANDING. WHAT IS THE LAST STAGE? 19 A. Analysis B. Preliminary (skimming) C. Synthesis D. Comprehensive Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON FIRST STEP IN THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Deciding how improvements will be PROCESS? measured 20 A. B. Adopting the practice change as a new standard of care C. Conducting an assessment D. Measuring improvements in care Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. WHAT IS AN ASSESSMENT OF A GROUP OF RESEARCH STUDIES THAT TEST A SIMILAR RESEARCH QUESTION? 21 A. Systematic review B. Meta-analysis C. Integrative review D. Meta-synthesis Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. CHAPTER 2 Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. The Research Question ? Presents the idea that will be studied ? Also called the problem statement ? ? ? ? Research questions focus on: Describing variables Specifying the population being studied Examining testable relationships among variables ? The hypothesis attempts to answer the research question Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 Research Questions Should ? Define specific question area ? Reflect a review of the literature ? Identify the potential significance to nursing ? Reflect the feasibility of studying the research question Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Defining the Research Question Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Literature Review ? Critical examination of individual studies and systematic reviews to refine and focus the research question ? Important variables can be identified Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Significance of the Research Question ? Will patients, nurses, the medical community in general, and society potentially benefit from the knowledge derived from the study? ? Will the results be applicable for nursing practice, education, or administration? ? Will the results be theoretically relevant? Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Significance of the Research Question compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ? Will the findings lend support to untested theoretical assumptions, extend or challenge an existing theory, fill a gap, or clarify a conflict in the literature? ? Will the findings potentially provide evidence that supports developing, retaining, or revising nursing practices or policies? Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Feasibility of the Research Question ? Is there time? ? Is the population of interest available? ? Are facilities, equipment, and money adequate? ? Does the researcher have the experience and skills necessary? ? Are there ethical difficulties? Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Fully Developed Research Question ? ? ? ? Three characteristics should be evident: The variables being considered are clearly identified. The population being studied is specified. The possibility of empirical testing is implied. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Variables ? Something that varies ? Examples: Age, weight, height, religion, ethnicity ? Do differences in one variable relate to differences in another variable? ? Is X related to Y? ? What is the effect of X on Y? Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Variables ? Independent variable—X ? Presumed to have the effect on Y ? Manipulated ? ? ? ? Dependent variable—Y Varies depending on X Not manipulated but observed This is the variable we are interested in understanding ? **Remember the dependent variable is DEPENDENT on the Independent variable** Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 Variables ? A variable could be the independent variable in one study and the dependent variable in another study. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 Variables EXAMPLE ? In an article about sexual behaviors that are predictive of risk for HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS is the dependent variable. ? In an article about the relationship between HIV/AIDS and maternal parenting practices, HIV/AIDS status is the independent variable. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 Important Concept: Causal Relationships ? Changes in X do not necessarily CAUSE changes in Y. ? Changes in X are said to be RELATED to changes in Y. ? It cannot be assumed that changes in X CAUSED changes in Y. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Population ? Must be clearly specified ? ? ? ? The setting is also usually clearly described Breast cancer survivors who have completed treatment Adolescents in substance abuse treatment Nursing students in the first year of nursing school Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 Testability ? Can the research question be tested by measuring the relationship between the independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables? ? The variables can be observed, measured, and analyzed. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Study Purpose, Aims, or Objectives ? What the investigator hopes to achieve ? Suggests the level of evidence to be obtained Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 Study Purpose, Aims, or Objectives Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Research Hypothesis ? Flows from the research question, literature review, and theoretical framework ? Predicts the expected outcome compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ? Formulated before the study is started because it determines how data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Research Hypothesis Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 What Is a “Good” Hypothesis? ? A declarative statement that identifies a predicted relationship between X and Y ? The nature of the relationship is implied ? Causal relationship: X causes a change in Y ? Associative relationship: X and Y are systematically related Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21 What Is a ‘Good’ Hypothesis? ? Testable: variables can be observed or measured ? Theory base: consistent with existing theory and research findings Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22 Wording of the Hypothesis ? The variables of the hypothesis: ? The population being studied ? The predicted outcome of the hypothesis Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23 Research Hypothesis vs. Statistical Hypothesis ? ? ? ? Research hypothesis Also known as scientific hypothesis Predicts the expected outcome May be directional or nondirectional Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24 Research Hypothesis vs. Statistical Hypothesis ? Statistical hypothesis ? Also known as null hypothesis ? States there is NO relationship between X (independent) and Y (dependent) variables Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25 Directional vs. Nondirectional ? A directional research hypothesis predicts the expected direction of the relationship between X and Y. ? A nondirectional research hypothesis does not predict the anticipated direction of the relationship between X and Y. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26 Hypotheses ? Most hypotheses are RESEARCH hypotheses and DIRECTIONAL because they PREDICT the DIRECTION of the outcome. ? That is, they state in what way and in what direction X will influence Y. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27 Hypotheses ? Some hypotheses are TWO-TAILED hypotheses and NONDIRECTIONAL because they PREDICT that there will be a difference between the groups but not the DIRECTION of the difference. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28 Developing a Clinical Question ? ? ? ? ? Clinical questions have four components, or PICO: Population Intervention Comparison Outcome Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29 Developing a Clinical Question Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30 Critiquing the Research Question ? Is there an implied relationship between two or more variables? Between an independent (X) and dependent (Y) variable? ? Is the population being studied described? ? Can the implied relationships be tested? Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31 Critiquing the Hypothesis ? The hypothesis might not be explicitly stated; it may be inferred. ? Even when stated, the hypothesis should be reexamined in the Results or Discussion section. compare and contrast research and evidence-based practice ? Data analysis should answer the hypothesis. ? The hypothesis should logically follow from the literature review and theoretical framework. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32 Critiquing the Hypothesis ? If hypothesis is directional, determine whether it is the appropriate direction. ? The hypothesis should be stated in such a way that it can be clearly supported or not supported. ? REMEMBER: Hypotheses are NEVER PROVEN. The findings either support or do not support the hypothesis. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33 Critiquing the Hypothesis ? The hypothesis should be stated objectively without value-laden words. ? The way the hypothesis is stated suggests the type of research design that should be used and the level of the evidence. ? If the study is exploratory, it is appropriate to pose research questions rather than hypotheses. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34 Which is a ‘good’ hypothesis when X is independent and Y is dependent? A. X will significantly improve Y. B. Y will significantly improve X in population B. C. X will significantly improve Y only if Z exists. D. X will significantly improve Y in population B. Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35 Which must be explicitly identified in a research article? A. Research question B. Hypothesis C. Intervention D. Testability E. Population Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36 Quarterly publication direct mailed to approximately 237,000 Registered Nurses & Licensed Practical Nurses in Ohio. VOLUME 8 | NUMBER 4 | SEPTEMBER 2015 Evidence-Based Practice: Why Does It Matter? This independent study was developed by: Pamela S. Dickerson, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN. Updates and revisions were made by Terry Pope, MS, BSN, RN This independent study has been designed to empower nurses to engage in evidence-based practice to strengthen their own professional roles. 1.6 contact hours will be awarded for successful completion of this independent study. The authors and planning committee members have declared no conflict of interest. This … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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