Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion

Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion Based on your readings and/or experience, pick the three most important competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager (EMPM) and describe why you identified them as “most important.” Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style. The answer should be at least 400 words. Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion barbera.pdf Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies Appendix C Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies: Competency Framework Final Report 1 Joseph A. Barbera, MD, Anthony G. Macintyre, MD, Greg Shaw, DSc, Valerie Seefried, MPH, Lissa Westerman, RN, Sergio de Cosmo, MS Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management The George Washington University October 11, 2007 Introduction In December 2004, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Emergency Management Strategic Healthcare Group awarded the Institute for Crisis Disaster & Risk Management (ICDRM) a contract to participate in establishing innovative training and personal development curricula for the VHA Emergency Management Academy (VHA-EMA). The objective of the project was to develop a nationally peer-reviewed, National Incident Management System (NIMS) compliant, competency-based instructional outline and curriculum content upon which to base education and training courses. The curriculum is intended to educate VHA personnel for response and recovery in healthcare emergencies and disasters, to provide a resource for future VHA training programs, and to be placed in the public domain for use by other healthcare personnel. The initial phase of the EMA project consisted of developing a competency framework (competency definition, structure and format, and critical elements) followed by development of peer-reviewed emergency response and recovery competencies for VHAselected healthcare system job groups. The competencies describe knowledge, skills, and abilities essential for adequate job performance during the emergency response and recovery phases of an incident. Peer review was accomplished through a web-based survey of the proposed competencies, which was distributed to a select, nationwide sampling of emergency management personnel who were identified as having extensive experience or advanced expertise in healthcare emergency response. The survey process was designed to obtain a balanced expert opinion as to whether the project team’s written competencies were valid, and to assess the appropriate level of proficiency for each primary competency (i.e., awareness, operations, or expert). The competencies developed during this initial phase were then used to guide the development of learning objectives for the instructional curriculum. 1 This report was supported by Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration contract “Emergency Management Academy Development,” CCN20350A. The report is the work of the authors and does not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or any of its employees. Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 33 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies An extensive research effort was conducted to understand the historical use of competencies, and to establish objective criteria for competency development. Historical development of competencies Competency modeling originated in business management research, and has evolved extensively over the past 25 years as other disciplines began adopting the practice. 2 The original intent of competency development was to enhance the then common “job analysis” by relating a position’s requisite knowledge, skills and abilities to the overall objectives of the organization in which the position existed. This approach aligns the objectives (i.e., desired outputs) of individual jobs with the overall objectives of the organization, such that organizational objectives are achieved through effective individual job performance. While this was the original intent of competencies, their definition varied widely as time progressed. Competency definitions range from emphasizing underlying characteristics of an employee (e.g., a motive, trait, skill, aspects of one’s self-image, social role, or a body of knowledge) that produce effective and/or superior performance 3 to performance characteristics (i.e., how an employee conducted their job in relation to the organization’s objectives). 4 The application of competencies across the many organizations that use them has also varied widely. Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion The private sector has commonly employed competencies to define “superior performers” 5 and therefore, as a selection tool for hiring, promotion, and/or salary enhancement. In other organizations, competencies have been used for job-specific performance feedback and improvement. Still others have used competencies to guide future program training and development. Because of this variation in definition and application, it becomes critically important to address these vagaries at the outset of any competency development project. This concept was well-described by one competency research team: “The first step in the implementation of any competency-based management framework must be the organizational consensus on how to define ‘competency.’ This agreed upon definition will drive the methodology used to identify and assess the competencies within the organization.” 6 The GWU-ICDRM project team strongly agreed with this concept, and started the project by defining how the competencies within this initiative would be applied: 2 Newsome, Shaun, Victor M Catano, and Arla L. Day. Leader Competencies: Proposing a Research Framework. 2003. available at http://www.cleleadership.ca/paper/leader_competenciesproposing_a_research_framework.pdf 3 Boyatzis, Richard. The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance New York: Wiley, 1982. 4 US Office of Personnel Management. Executive Core Qualifications (ECQ’s), accessed at http://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp 5 Klein AL. Validity and Reliability for Competency-based Systems: Reducing Litigation Risks. Compensation Benefits and Review, 28, 31-37, 1996. cited in “Newsome, Shaun, Victor M Catano, and Arla L. Day. Leader Competencies: Proposing a Research Framework. 2003. 6 Newsome, Shaun, Victor M Catano, and Arla L. Day. Leader Competencies: Proposing a Research Framework. 2003. available at http://www.cleleadership.ca/paper/leader_competenciesproposing_a_research_framework.pdf Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 34 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies The project competencies are intended to serve as formative tools to guide healthcare system personnel in developing knowledge, skills and abilities for effective performance during emergency response and recovery. These competencies are also intended to serve as a guide for developing preparedness education and training, and therefore, to serve as a basis for the healthcare emergency management curriculum. Finally, the competencies may be employed as a tool for assessing the performance of individual healthcare personnel performance during emergency response and recovery operations. Defining a competency framework Despite an extensive search of published articles related to competencies, the GWUICDRM project team determined that no single authoritative source presented a consistent competency definition and competency framework to adequately support the VHA-EMA project needs. A framework was therefore developed, analyzed through pilot competency development, refined and completed before establishing the individual emergency response and recovery competencies for this project. The competency framework was therefore used to impose a strict methodological consistency when developing and defining all competencies developed in this program. Central to this framework is the critical importance of competencies being objective and measurable, internally and externally consistent, and tightly described within the context of the organization’s specific objectives. Within this framework, the project team defined a “competency” as a specific knowledge element, skill, and/or ability that is objective and measurable (i.e., demonstrable) on the job. It is required for effective performance within the context of a job’s responsibilities, and leads to achieving the objectives of the organization.Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion Competencies are ideally qualified by an accompanying proficiency level. 7 The GWU-ICDRM project team recognized the need to adapt the methods for competency development, since the usual business approach to establishing competencies is problematic for emergency management. Business management models establish competencies by observing performance and relating it to individual and organizational outputs. Because emergencies are rare events, and therefore emergency response and recovery outputs occur very infrequently, the related competency framework and definitions for this project are based less upon observed outputs. Instead, the basis is a healthcare system’s emergency response and recovery objectives, together with the NIMS-consistent incident command system 8 structure and processes mandated for use by all emergency response organizations in the U.S. 9,10 7 GWU Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management. Emergency Management Glossary of Terms (October 2007) available at www.gwu.edu/~icdrm/ 8 Fedral Emergency Management Agency. National Incident Management System (NIMS) (March 1, 2004), available at: http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/index.shtm. 9 Bush GW. Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) -5: Management of Domestic Incidents (February 28, 2003) accessed at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 35 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies Response competencies in systems using the Incident Command System (ICS), therefore, should be based upon the general incident objectives an organization has during incident response, and upon the organizational structures, processes, and relationships with other organizations that are used during response rather than those used during everyday experience. Emergency competencies are commonly developed without this relationship to a defined response system, 11 making it difficult to define how scientific or medical knowledge is to be implemented in an emergency response. In contrast, the GWUICDRM project team specifically incorporated the NIMS mandate to use ICS by including reference to the NIMS/Incident Command System structure and processes throughout the project’s emergency response and recovery project competencies. Because of the anticipated large number of competencies, the project team also established a “primary versus supporting competency” hierarchy to categorize the individual competencies as they were developed. Designating “primary” and “supporting” competencies helps to maintain a priority in the framework when listing a large number of individual competencies. Supporting competencies are also a means to more fully define and clarify the primary competencies. Preparedness versus response and recovery competencies Published articles describing emergency management competencies commonly do not differentiate between preparedness and response competencies, and list them in an intermixed fashion. 12,13 The GWU-ICDRM project team sought to maintain a separation between these categories. Preparedness competencies are commonly based upon everyday organizational objectives, structure, processes, and relationships to other organizations. Preparedness is unquestionably important, but for it to be accurate, comprehensive and successful in establishing an effective emergency response capability, a thorough understanding of the response system must be established first, and preparedness guided by this. It was therefore reasoned by the project team that specific competencies for emergency response should be established and validated first, and then used as the “end state” to guide the development of valid preparedness competencies. 10 Barbera JA, Macintyre AG, et al. Emergency Management Principles and Practices for Healthcare Systems, Unit 3, Lesson 3.1.1, accessed at http://www1.va.gov/emshg/page.cfm?pg=122 11 ATPM (Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine) in collaboration with Center for Health policy, Columbia University School of Nursing.Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion Emergency Response Clinician Competencies in Initial Assessment and Management, 2003, accessed at http://www.atpm.org/education/Clinical_Compt.html 12 INCMCE (International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education). Educational Competencies for Registered Nurses Responding to Mass Casualty Incidents, 2003. Available at: http://www.nursing.hs.columbia.edu/institutes-centers/chphsr/hospcomps.pdf 13 ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians) and the U.S Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Emergency Preparedness. Developing Objectives, Content, and Competencies for the Training of Emergency Medical Technicians, Emergency Physicians, and Emergency Nurses to Care for Casualties Resulting From Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical (NBC) Incidents, Final Report April 23, 2001. American College of Emergency Physicians, Irving, Texas. Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 36 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies Because of these considerations, the initial project focus was response and recovery competencies. Emergency management program competencies related to mitigation and preparedness were developed later for the two job groups that are the initial focus of the certification project. Establishing appropriate levels of proficiency Concurring with other authors that “competency” is not an all-or-none phenomenon, the GWU-ICDRM project team established “proficiency levels” to address this issue in a graduated fashion. Proficiency levels delineate the “The degree of understanding of the subject matter and its practical application through training and performance…” 14 In emergency management, proficiency indicates the level of mastery of knowledge, skills and abilities (i.e., competencies) that are demonstrable on the job and lead to the organization achieving its objectives. Levels of proficiency may therefore also be used to describe the level of mastery that is the objective of and specific training or education program. The final proficiency levels defined for this project are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Definition of the Levels of Proficiency Represents an understanding of the knowledge/skills/abilities Awareness encompassed by the competency, but not to a level of capability to adequately perform the competency actions within the organization’s system. Operations Expert Represents the knowledge/skills/abilities to safely and effectively perform the assigned tasks and activities, including equipment use as necessary Represents operations-level proficiency plus the additional knowledge/skills/abilities to apply expert judgment to solve problems and make complex decisions. As core and job group competencies were developed, the project team qualified each primary competency with an indicated level of proficiency (awareness, operations, expert). 14 EMA. Urban Search & Rescue Incident Support Team Training: Student Manual. Module 1, Unit 4, Page 6: Planning Process Overview. n/a:40. 4/16/2004, accessed at: http://www.fema.gov/emergency/usr/usrist2.shtm Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 37 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies Developing emergency response and recovery competencies Using the competency framework established in this project, response and recovery “core” competencies were developed for all personnel within a healthcare system that may have a role in the emergency response, regardless of their specific emergency response and recovery function. Additional competencies were then established for three functionally based job groups within a healthcare. Competencies in the Emergency Management Program Manager discussion The original designation for these job groups were (1) healthcare facility leaders, (2) patient care providers, and (3) emergency management program managers. The titles and definitions evolved with outside input as the project tasks were accomplished (see Table 2 for final titles and descriptions). Initial competency identification and development was accomplished through an analysis of ICS as presented in NIMS, an extensive literature review, and an evaluation of the VHA system and processes for emergency response. 15 Additionally, the GWU-ICDRM project team relied upon their extensive emergency management and disaster response experience, and upon related previous research efforts. 16,17,18 The emergency response and recovery competencies for the initially designated three job groups were then fully developed, studied through a web-based survey, revised based upon input and completed. 19 Identification of additional job groups and their associated competencies Early in the competency development process, it became apparent that there were additional important healthcare emergency management job groups beyond the three that were initially described. These groups have distinct response and recovery responsibilities (and therefore associated competencies) for the healthcare organization’s resiliency and medical surge. After extensive research during the latest phase of the project, the additional groups were identified as: Facilities and Engineering Services (FES), Police and Security Services (PSS), and Clinical Support Services (CSS). Their descriptions are presented in Table 2. Using the previously defined methodology (including web-based peer review), the follow-on project allowed for the development of emergency response and recovery competencies for these remaining job groups. 15 Veterans Health Administration. VHA Emergency Management Program Guidebook, 2005, accessed at: http://www1.va.gov/emshg/page.cfm?pg=114 16 Barbera, Joseph A and Anthony G. Macintyre. Medical and Health Incident Management System: A Comprehensive Functional Description for Mass Casualty Medical and Health Incident Management. Institute for Crisis, Disaster & Risk Management. The George Washington University, Washington DC, October 2002, accessed at www.gwu.edu/~icdrm/ 17 Barbera, Joseph A and Anthony G. Macintyre. Mass Casualty Handbook: Hospital Emergency Preparedness and Response, First Edition. Jane’s Information Group, 2003. 18 CNA Corporation. Medical Surge Capacity & Capability: The Management System for Integrating Medical and Health Resources During large-Scale Emergencies. August 2004, accessed at: http://www.hhs.gov/ophep/mscc_handbook.html 19 Barbera JA, Macintyre AG, et al. VHA-EMA Emergency Response and Recovery Competencies: Competency Survey, Analysis, and Report (June 16, 2005), available at www.gwu.edu/~icdrm/ Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management The George Washington University 38 Appendix C – Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies Development of preparedness and mitigation (program) competencies for Emergency Management Program Managers and Healthcare System Leaders The methodology utilized in this project focused first on the development and validation of response and recovery competencies as an “end state” for healthcare system personnel in their emergency management activities. The second phase of the project allowed for the development of program competencies for Emergency Program Managers and Healthcare System Leaders, which focused upon preparedness and mitigation activities necessary to reach this “end state.” These two job groups maintain primary responsibility for the emergency management program within a healthcare system, and thus have extensive primary competencies that relate to program development and maintenance required for successful response to emergencies and disasters. The program competencies were developed using the earlier methods, with identical criteria that the competencies be objective and measu … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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