Discussion: Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design

Discussion: Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design Discussion: Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design i have a 2000 words paper . i just need it revised according to the instructions, and remove plagiarism, or rephrase sentences so that it makes sense please read sentence by sentence to check if it flows and makes sense (don’t use weird words) instructions.docx project_assignmen Project Assignment, 4 single-line about( AREA of research: Transmission & prevention ) first write a 190 words abstract, then after confirmation write 4 pages single-spacing paper about COVID-19 Transmission & Prevention ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS please find attached the PDF file regarding the instructions. The PDF file will give an over review about the subject the last 2 slides are task requirements and instructions. AREA of research: Transmission & prevention. Purdue University Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design Discussion Here are one source regarding the research. Please provide other two sources that support the area of research. SUBJECT: Successful Elimination of Covid-19 Transmission in New Zealand LITRATURE RIVEWER SOURCE: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2025203 it’s gonna be 2 part part 1 Abstract (not more than 200 words) with not more than 5 key words (10 points): should include sentence(s) on background/problem of the project, project objective, summary sentence (s) of the proposed approach/design to address the problem and expected outcome (s). Discussion: Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design The deadline for the abstract is Friday, Nov 14 – midnight Pacific Time but before you start with the second part I have to review it and I’m gonna give you my review at Monday 16th part 2 the rest of the research is expected to be have 4 full pages single-spaced Project Assignment, 4 single-line about( AREA of research: Transmission & prevention ) first write a 190 words abstract, then after confirmation write 4 pages single-spacing paper about COVID-19 Transmission & Prevention please find attached the PDF file regarding the instructions. The PDF file will give an over review about the subject the last 2 slides are task requirements and instructions. AREA of research: Transmission & prevention Here are one source regarding the research. Please provide other two sources that support the area of research. SUBJECT: Successful Elimination of Covid-19 Transmission in New Zealand LITRATURE RIVEWER SOURCE: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2025203 it’s gonna be 2 part part 1 Abstract (not more than 200 words) with not more than 5 key words (10 points): should include sentence(s) on background/problem of the project, project objective, summary sentence (s) of the proposed approach/design to address the problem and expected outcome (s) The deadline for the abstract is Friday, Nov 14 – midnight Pacific Time but before you start with the second part I have to review it and I’m gonna give you my review at Monday 16th part 2 the rest of the research is expected to be have 4 full pages single-spaced Project Assignment Propose a Design to Mitigate Covid-19 Pandemics through Literature Searches • • • • Introduction Covid-19 is member of coronaviruses that can cause illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Covid-19 is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Signs and symptoms of Covid-19 may appear two to 14 days after exposure. This time after exposure and before having symptoms is called the incubation period. Common signs and symptoms can include: • Fever • Cough • Tiredness • Early symptoms of COVID-19 may include a loss of taste or smell. Other symptoms can include: • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing • Muscle aches • Chills • Sore throat • Runny nose • Headache • Chest pain Structure of Covid-19 Virus Structure of Covid-19 Virus Structure of Covid-19 Virus Molecular Mechanism of Covid-19 Viral Infection and viral duplication Molecular Mechanism of Covid-19 Viral Infection Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is an enzyme. This protein facilitates entry of viruses (include Influenza virus and MERS?CoV, SARS?CoV and SARS?CoV?2) into host cells by proteolytically cleaving and activating viral envelope glycoproteins. and viral duplication Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme attached to the cell membranes of cells in the lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, and intestines. ACE2 lowers blood pressure by catalysing the hydrolysis of angiotensin II into angiotensin. What is the immune system and how does it work? • Immune system, the complex group of defense responses found in humans and other advanced vertebrates that helps repel disease-causing organisms (pathogens). • Immunity from disease is actually conferred by two cooperative defense systems, called nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. • Nonspecific protective mechanisms repel all microorganisms equally, • while the specific immune responses are tailored to particular types of invaders. • Both systems work together to thwart organisms from entering and proliferating within the body. • For example, these immune mechanisms also help eliminate abnormal cells of the body that can develop into cancer. What is the immune system and how does it work? • Nonspecific protective mechanisms (innate immunity ) repel all microorganisms equally. • Most microorganisms encountered in daily life are repelled before they cause detectable signs and symptoms of disease. Purdue University Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design Discussion. • These potential pathogens, which include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and worms, are quite diverse, and therefore an innate immune defense system that diverts all types of this varied microscopic horde equally is quite useful to an organism. • The innate immune system provides this kind of nonspecific protection through a number of defense mechanisms, which include physical barriers such as the skin, chemical barriers such as antimicrobial proteins that harm or destroy invaders, and various white blood cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) that attack foreign cells and body cells harboring infectious agents. What is the immune system and how does it work? • If an infectious agent/pathogen is not successfully repelled by the innate immune defense barriers, it will encounter another defense system: adopative/acquired immune system, which is formed by various lymphocyte cells including natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells. • These lymphocytes work together to eliminate foreign substances that enter the body. • For examples, natural killer cells, which attack cells of the body that harbor infectious organisms. • Some of these cells destroy infectious agents by engulfing and destroying them through the process of phagocytosis. Human Immunological System against Covid-19 Virus White blood cells (leukocytes): the white blood cells clean up cellular debris and fight pathogens that have entered the body. Non-Specific Defense (Innate Immune) System • The neutrophils and the monocytes defend against bacterial and viral infections • Eosinophils defend against parasitic infection allergies. • Basophils involve in inflammatory and allergic reactions Human Immunological System against Covid-19 Virus White blood cells (leukocytes): the white blood cells clean up cellular debris and fight pathogens that have entered the body. • Lymphocytes provide defense against specific foreign objects. They include natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells. Purdue University Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design Discussion. • The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific “non-self” antigens, during an immune response; is a part of the Adaptive/Acquired Immune System) • Nature killer cells (a part of innate immune system) distinguish infected cells or tumors from normal and uninfected cells by recognizing changes of a surface molecule called MHC (major histocompatibility complex). How the human immune system recognize these invaders/targets? Antibody-Antigen interaction How the human immune system recognize these invaders/targets? Antibody-Antigen interaction Function of Nature Killer Cells Normal Cell (MHC: major histocompatibility complex) Cancer Cell The function of T cells and B cells (APC: antigenpresenting cell) SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted via droplets and aerosols Small droplets (<5 ?m), sometimes called aerosols, are responsible for the short?range airborne route, long?range airborne route, and indirect contact route. Large droplets are responsible for the direct spray route and indirect contact route. Fomite route refers to contaminated surfaces. (Adapted from https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196?6553(16)30531?4/pdf) Possible Approaches to Mitigate Covid-19 Pandemic • Detection ??? Virus and Antibodies • Treatment ??? Inhibition viral binding to host cells • Vaccine ??? immunologically removing viruses from body • Elimination ??? from environment and airdrops • Prevention ??? early monitoring virus/infection and preventing viral spreading Lou B. et al. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.23.20041707 Analytes RNA Ab (IgG) + + – + + Clinical Significance Incubation/early stage of infection Active infection Past infection, recovered and likely immunized Lateral Flow Assay Lateral Flow Assay serological test Project Assignment Propose a design to mitigate Covid-19 Pandemics through literature reading Objective: Proposal a design that could be an assay/technology/approach targeting at either 1) Detection, 2) Treatment, 3) Vaccine, 4) Elimination, or 5) Prevention, i.e. the proposed technology can either detect virus/viral infection, or eliminate virus from our living environment to prevent viral infection or minimize the impact of the viral infection; therefore, the detrimental effect of the virus transmission can be mitigated and our live and economy can back to normal. Project Requirements Final project description should be 4 single-line printing pages plus not more than 2-page illustration drawings. Using Arial 11 font or Times New Roman 12 font in writing. The final group project report should include: • Project title, • Your name and teammates (if you have, each team should be not more than 5 people), • Group statement on contribution and percentage efforts of each team number on the project development. (Total 5-point worth of above) Project Assignment Propose a design to mitigate Covid-19 Pandemics through literature reading • Abstract (not more than 200 words) with not more than 5 key words (10 points): should include sentence(s) on background/problem of the project, project objective, summary sentence (s) of the proposed approach/design to address the problem and expected outcome (s). • Introduction and objective section (20 points): 1. A brief introduction of Covid-19 virus and its structural feature and transmission pathway; 2. Current problem to curb viral transmission; 3. Rationale of your design, e.g. which feature of functional component of virus you are targeting at; 4. Outline the goal/objective that you try to achieve. • Design description (35 points). • Discussion and Conclusion (25 points): Discuss expected outcomes, potential applications and potential problems/future directions of the technology development. • Reference Citation (5 point) …Purdue University Covid 19 Transmission & Prevention Design Discussion Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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