Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak

Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak from the professor (Here are comments to work on – keep writing and adding depth. SHow us the plan we are creating. Look at each comment and let us know any questions). Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak alharthi_seventh_draft_jb.docx Running head: EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN Emergency Operations Plan for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of an Epidemic Outbreak Waleed Alharthi Jefferson University Dr. Jean B. Bail, Ed.D., RN, MSN, CEN, EMT-P (Program Director) 1 EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 2 Certification This is to certify that: Waleed Hussain Alharthi has carried out this study entitled: Emergency Operations Plan for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of an Epidemic Outbreak In summer 2020 for Thomas Jefferson University, College of Health Professions, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, as a partial fulfillment of the core courses required for completion of the Master of Science in Disaster Medicine and Management Program. This work was conducted under the direct supervision of Dr. Jean B. Bail, (Program Director) and Dr. Steven J. Parrillo (Medical Director). I certify that this project is my own work. Name Date Waleed Hussain Alharthi August 11th,2020 Jean B. Bail, Ed.D., RN, MSN, CEN, EMT-P Program Director MS in Disaster Medicine and Management Thomas Jefferson University, East Falls 4201 Henry Ave Philadelphia, PA 19144 215-951-2871 Signature Date Jean B. Bail EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 3 Table of Contents Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Aspects of the Project ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Purpose of the Project …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Need for the Project ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Differences between MERS and COVID-19 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Similarities between MERS and COVID-19 ……………………………………………………………………………… 11 Major Steps Applied in Disaster Management …………………………………………………………………………… 12 Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 Participants……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak 16 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Final Product …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 Qualitative Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Discussion and Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Sample Questionnaire …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Interview Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Results ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24 COVID-19 and MERS Mortality Rate in Taif City Hospitals ………………………………………………………. 25 Incidence among Healthcare Providers……………………………………………………………………………………… 26 Number of Recoveries ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 4 Abstract Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are among the most severe infections ever witnessed across the world. These two infections have spread at a high rate to various countries, causing a large number of deaths among the infected people. MERS originated from Saudi Arabia and is believed to have contracted from a camel. Besides, COVID-19 originated from Wuhan City in China. The first person to contract COVID19 is believed to have got the virus from infected bats meat. The first MERS case was recorded in 2012 while that of COVID-19 was identified in 2019. Since then, the two diseases have infected hundreds of thousands of people with thousands of deaths.Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak Taif city in Saudi Arabia is one of the regions that have been affected by the two diseases. The city has 15 hospitals with 117 isolated rooms that have been set aside for any infectious disease that might attack the region. In this case, the Taif City Emergency Operations Center (TEOC) has taken the responsibility of protecting the city by developing various measures to reduce the spread of infections within the region. However, for the spread of the infections to be reduced, the center needs to develop an emergency operation plan involving the 15 facilities within Taif City. This has led to the creation of a project regarding the Emergency Operations Plan for Taif City health sectors in case of an epidemic outbreak. The project has been made possible through literature review, methods, and discussion of the results. Questionnaires and interviews were used as methods for data collection. The results obtained from the collected data indicated that COVID-19 and MERS are prevalent in Taif City, and therefore, other cities needs to provide support to Taif City on how to handle the situation. Besides, a field hospital is needed to accommodate and provide various services to the increased number of patients. EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 5 Emergency Operations Plan for Taif City Health Sectors In Case Of an Epidemic Outbreak Infectious diseases are common in the whole world, including in Saudi Arabia. Infectious diseases are more severe compared to non-infectious diseases. An infectious disease refers to an infection that can be transmitted from one person to the other through direct contact with the infected individual or the contaminated surfaces (Giesecke, 2017). COVID-19 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are among the most severe infectious diseases in the world (Zumla et al., 2020). In this case, MERS refers to a viral respiratory condition brought about by a coronavirus that was discovered for the first time in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The disease is often fatal with almost 35% deaths (Park et al., 2018).Besides, COVID-19, an abbreviation for Corona Virus Disease 2019, is a severe contagious infection that was first diagnosed in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. To date, the disease has caused the death of over 571,000 people across the world (Roser et al., 2020). Based on the information available regarding the two diseases, healthcare centers must develop an emergency plan to address the conditions in case of their emergence. The National Health for Emergency Operation Center (NHEOC) is under the Ministry of Health, there are 20 centers in Saudi Arabia. There is one in Taif city and it is called Taif EOC and it is an administrative unit that is responsible for coordinating the efforts between Taif’s hospitals and other stakeholders in case of disease outbreaks. Several emergency operations centers have been established to address the infectious disease that emerges. Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak In this case, the Taif Emergency Operations Center is one of the centers in Saudi Arabia that protects the people of Taif City from contracting various infectious diseases like MERS and COVID 19. The Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia has approved the center to carry out various practices to ensure that the people of the region are protected from any contagious disease when it takes place. In this case, the Ministry of Health develops health EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 6 related policies based of the findings obtained from various emergency operations centers. Through the support provided by the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, the center has set a plan involving designing 117 isolation rooms within 15 healthcare facilities in the city to keep individuals who have been infected by infectious diseases to reduce their spread to uninfected people. Aspects of the Project Purpose of the Project The project aims to prepare an emergency operations plan that can be used to prevent the spread of an infectious disease in Taif City in case of an occurrence of an outbreak. The plan will serve as a preparation for addressing MERS and COVID-19, which have become a threat for a long period. By developing the plan, the people who reside within Taif City might be protected and prevented from the outbreak of any of the two infections. The plan will also involve an educational program and guidelines for the employees of the 15 hospitals found in Taif City to protect them from contracting such diseases when handling patients. These employees will be trained on how to handle the infected people as well as providing the necessary services to them. Training the employees ensures that both the workers and the uninfected people are protected from the spread of the viruses. Need for the Project Based on the information obtained from the rest of the Saudi Arabia regions and the world at large, people have greatly suffered from both MERS and COVID-19. These diseases have spread to the rest of the world at a high rate leading to the death of thousands of people (Petrosillo et al., 2020). The two diseases infect any individual regardless of their body EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 7 conditions, age, gender, and social class. The severity of the conditions can be evidenced by the number of countries whose residents have been infected by these diseases. For example, since the emergence of MERS in Saudi Arabia in 2012, several countries have reported many cases. Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak The countries that have been recorded to have reported MERS cases as of July 2020 are 27 in number. These countries include Saudi Arabia, United States, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Thailand, Malaysia, Lebanon, Italy, Iran, Austria, Algeria, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Korea, Oman, Jordan, Turkey, Qatar, Philippines, Greece, Germany, France, Egypt, China, Netherlands, and Bahrain (WHO, 2020). Though all these countries have presented several cases regarding MERS, 80% of the cases have been found in Saudi Arabia. This implies that Saudi Arabia is the leading nation with MERS infection. Individuals who have been diagnosed with the condition in Saudi Arabia come from different regions. Approximately one thousand cases are diagnosed from various regions in Saudi Arabia within duration of two months between 1st April and May 31st 2020. According to the number of cases reported within the country between April 2020 to May 2020, the region that had the highest number of infections was Riyadh. The youngest person who had the infection was 40 years, and the oldest had 96 years (WHO, 2020). Most of the individuals diagnosed with the condition had other types of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. This implies that MERS is most prevalent among individuals suffering from other conditions. The fact that some cases of the infection have been reported in Taif is an indication that the city is at risk of the MERS outbreak, though only a few people are aware of this. Besides, according to the rate in which the condition is spreading to various people, there is a great need to reduce the transmission of the infection through the EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 8 development of various measures. One of the practices that is critical to address MERS is the development of an emergency operations plan. When considering COVID-19 infection, the spread of the disease has been high to the extent that its effect has been felt globally. The virus that causes the disease originated in Wuhan, China, but currently, all the countries in the world have reported cases. However, some regions have not been affected by the infection in various countries, depending on the measures developed after the emergence of the virus. So far, there are 87,142 COVID-19 confirmed cases in Saudi Arabia (Cascella et al., 2020). Among the individuals who have been affected by the condition, 64,810 have recovered, while 700 people have died from the infection as of July 10, 2020. Saudi Arabia reported the first case in January 2020. However, within the period in which the country has experienced the outbreak of the infection, almost all people in the country have been affected financially, psychologically, and physically. However, the rates of spread of the condition can be reduced in various regions within the country, if appropriate measures are developed (World Health Organization, 2020). Taif Emergency Operations Center is among the centers in Saudi Arabia that is in a good position to develop an emergency operation plan to avoid the effect of the outbreak of COVID-19 in the nation. However, Taif Emergency Operation Center only has the potential to protect the people who live within the Taif City. Based on the information obtained so far regarding COVID-19, development of an emergency operations plan is critical to protect the people who reside in Taif City. Literature Review Based on the information obtained from different sources, it is evident that MERS and COVID-19 are related in some aspects and differ in other ways (Petrosillo et al., 2020).Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak The differences displayed between the two diseases are critical since they enable healthcare providers EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 9 and other professionals to distinguish between a person suffering from MERS and the one with COVID-19. In this case, the differences between the two infections are based on the virus that causes the disease, the country of origin of the virus, the source of the virus, the countries affected by the virus, as well as the measures adopted to prevent the infection. Besides, the similarities between the two conditions are based on the signs and symptoms displayed by the two diseases, the mode of transmission, as well as the family of the virus (Nascimento Junior et al., 2020). Differences between MERS and COVID-19 The Virus Causing the Disease. MERS is an abbreviation that stands for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Zumla et al., 2020). COVID-19 refers to a Corona Virus Disease of 2019. One of the differences between these infections is based on the virus that causes infections. MERS is caused by a virus known as MERS Coronavirus that is abbreviated as MERS-CoV (Cascella et al., 2020). COVID-19 developed from a new type of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019, known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, which is abbreviated as SARS-CoV-2. Though the infections caused by these viruses appear to be the same in some aspects, the viruses are different. The Country of Origin of the Virus. The country of origin of the viruses causing MERS and COVID-19 also serves as a significant difference between the two infections. MERS originated from Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, which is the reason why the condition is given the name Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. COVID-19 rose from Wuhan in China, where the first case of the infection was identified (Sullivan et al., 2020). After the two diseases were discovered in their country of origin, they spread to other countries through the movement of the infected people (World Health Organization, 2020). EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 10 The Source of the Virus. Though the viruses are almost the same in some aspects, they originated from different types of animals (Lee & Cleghorn, 2020). It is believed that the first persons to be infected by these conditions came in contact with the animal that contained the virus or consumed its products (Mohd et al., 2016). MERS is believed to have originated from camels since the first person to be diagnosed with the condition had close contact with camels. Besides, most of the individuals who had severe MERS had consumed camel products such as meat or milk or were in contact with the animal’s skin (Alshukairi et al., 2018). COVID-19 originated from pangolins or bats, after which they infected the first person to be diagnosed with the condition (Velavan& Meyer, 2020). Discussion: Emergency Operations for Taif City Health Sectors in Case of Epidemic Outbreak The first person to be infected by COVID-19 is believed to have purchased an infected pangolin from the market and consumed it. After developing the disease, he spread the virus to other people. The Countries Affected by the Virus. MERS virus infects people from different countries as per the information obtained from different sources, (Lee & Cleghorn, 2020). MERS affected the Middle East and the nations in the northern part of Africa. However, as the infected people move to other countries, they spread it to such nations. To date, only 27 countries have reported cases of MERS (Liu et al., 2020). These countries include Saudi Arabia, United States, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Thailand, Malaysia, Lebanon, Italy, Iran, Austria, Algeria, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Korea, Oman, Jordan, Turkey, Qatar, Philippines, Greece, Germany, France, Egypt, China, Netherlands, and Bahrain. COVID-19 has affected all countries across the world (Zu et al., 2020). Even though the disease developed in late 2019, it has ended up covering the entire world contrary to the case of MERS (Sullivan et al., 2020). MERS is believed to have existed for several years but affected only a few countries (Donnelly et al., 2019). EMERGENCY OPERATION PLAN 11 Measures Adopted To Prevent The Infection. Several measures have been adopted to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (Sullivan et al., 2020). Though some of the measures appear to be the same due to the mode of transmission of the conditions, other practices adopted to prevent one from contracting the disease are different. For example, for one to be free from MERS, he or she needs to practice some precautions when visiting various farms and marketplaces associated with dromedary camels and their products (Lee & Cleghorn, 2020). Such an individual is expected to avoid touching infected animals and their products, avoid consuming undercooked or raw animal products, and practice a high level of hygiene when handling dromedary camels. However, to protect individuals from COVID-19 people must avoid coming in contact with the infected person or contaminated surfaces (Sullivan et al., 2020). Similarities between MERS and COVID-19 Signs and Symptoms. It is challenging for one to distinguish between MERS and COVID-19 based on the signs and symptoms displayed by an infected person. Tests are the best way to determine the infected that one experiences (Velavan & Meyer, 2020). Some of the signs and symptoms displayed by the two infections include shortness of breath, coughing, and high fever. Individuals infected by MERS and COVID-19 usual e … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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