Discussion: Healthcare as a basic right

Discussion: Healthcare as a basic right ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Healthcare as a basic right In your view, Is access to healthcare a basic right? Discussion: Healthcare as a basic right Should any basic healthcare services be provided to all US citizens? What about healthcare for US residents who are not citizens? Who should pay for basic healthcare services? Provide rationales for your responses. Topic 2 Based on the IOM Report Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing: Examine the eight recommendations formulated to direct the future of nursing in Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report the Future of Nursing (pages 4–16) SEE ATTACHMENT Select one recommendation and discuss its contribution to improving the health of the US population. APA format, add reference page attachment_1 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS This PDF is available at http://www.nap.edu/21838 SHARE ?? ? ? Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing DETAILS 190 pages | 6 x 9 | PAPERBACK ISBN 978-0-309-38031-7 | DOI: 10.17226/21838 AUTHORS BUY THIS BOOK FIND RELATED TITLES Stuart H. Altman, Adrienne Stith Butler, and Lauren Shern, Editors; Committee for Assessing Progress on Implementing the Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health; Institute of Medicine; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Visit the National Academies Press at NAP.edu and login or register to get: – Access to free PDF downloads of thousands of scienti?c reports – 10% off the price of print titles – Email or social media noti?cations of new titles related to your interests – Special offers and discounts ?? ? Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the National Academies Press. (Request Permission) Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Committee for Assessing Progress on Implementing the Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health Stuart H. Altman, Adrienne Stith Butler, Lauren Shern, Editors Institute of Medicine PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 72309 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Library of Congress Control Number: Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. 2015. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing COMMITTEE FOR ASSESSING PROGRESS ON IMPLEMENTING THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE REPORT THE FUTURE OF NURSING: LEADING CHANGE, ADVANCING HEALTH STUART H. ALTMAN (Chair), Sol C. Chaikin Professor of National Health Policy, Heller Graduate School of Social Policy, Brandeis University, Weston, Massachusetts CARMEN ALVAREZ, Assistant Professor, Department of Community-Public Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland CYNTHIA C. BARGINERE, Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Rush University Hospital, Chicago, Illinois RICHARD A. BERMAN, Interim Director, Patel College of Global Sustainability; Visiting Professor of Social Entrepreneurship, Muma College of Business; Professor, Institute for Innovation & Advanced Discovery, University of South Florida, Tampa KAREN DONELAN, Senior Scientist in Health Policy, Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston SUZANNE FFOLKES, Vice President of Communications, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia PAULA GUBRUD, Associate Professor, Oregon Health & Science University School of Nursing, Portland JACK NEEDLEMAN, Professor and Chair, Department of Health Policy and Management, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles MICHELE J. ORZA, Senior Advisor to the Executive Director, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Washington, DC ROBERT L. PHILLIPS, Vice President for Research and Policy, American Board of Family Medicine, Washington, DC EDWARD SALSBERG, Director, Health Workforce Studies, George Washington University Health Workforce Institute and School of Nursing, Washington, DC GEORGE E. THIBAULT, President, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, New York, NY Study Staff ADRIENNE STITH BUTLER, Senior Program Officer LAUREN SHERN, Program Officer THELMA COX, Administrative Assistant Consultants ERIN HAMMERS FORSTAG, Consultant Writer RONA BRIERE, Consultant Editor PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS v Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing REVIEWERS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David Auerbach, Massachusetts Health Policy Commission Elizabeth H. Bradley, Yale School of Public Health Patrick H. DeLeon, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Catherine Dower, Kaiser Permanente Kathleen Gallo, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System Ann Hubbard, Indian River State College Salimah H. Meghani, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Wayne J. Riley, Vanderbilt University John W. Rowe, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health William M. Sage, University of Texas at Austin Richard Sorian, FleishmanHillard Antonia M. Villarruel, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Bobbie Berkowitz, Columbia University School of Nursing and Columbia University Medical Center, and Mark R. Cullen, Stanford University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Preface In 2010, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a landmark report titled The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. In the preface to the report, the chair and vice chair of the committee, Donna Shalala and Linda Burnes Bolton, stated that the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also in 2010, would require that the U.S. health care system expand to accommodate a significant increase in demand for services, particularly those needed to manage patients with chronic conditions or mental health illnesses or for basic primary care. They noted that nurses were in a unique position to take on a leadership role in helping the nation attain these goals. They stated that “nurses have a key role to play as team members and leaders for a reformed and better integrated patient-centered health care system.” The Future of Nursing was sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), and senior staff of RWJF helped the IOM gather material for the 2-year study. Following the publication of the report, RWJF supported the creation of the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action (the Campaign) and its 51 state Action Coalitions. The efforts of outside groups devoted to the implementation of the IOM report’s recommendations have been extraordinary. It has now been 5 years since The Future of Nursing report was issued, and RWJF asked the IOM to assess the progress made toward implementing the report’s recommendations and to identify areas that should be emphasized over the next 5 years to help the Campaign fulfill the recommendations. The committee convened to carry out this study was not asked to reexamine the merits of or amend the recommendations of The Future of Nursing report. I was delighted when the new president of the now National Academy of Medicine, Dr. Victor Dzau, asked me to chair the committee and take on this task. The field of nursing has been of special interest to me since I published my first book—Present and Future Supply of Registered Nurses—in the early 1970s. After reviewing The Future of Nursing report and analyzing the information collected as part of the present study, it is clear to me that the nursing profession is a far more important component of the U.S. health care system than it was 45 years ago. The committee conducted three public workshops and met as a group four times. In addition, it held three full-committee and several smaller subcommittee phone meetings. I am especially appreciative of the time commitment and pursuit of excellence of the 11 other members of our committee. Without their expertise, their experience, and their knowledge of the information that could be used to assess the changes that have occurred in the health care system, this report could not have been completed. We also are indebted to the staff of RWJF for their help in assembling this information. We appreciate as well the efforts of the three IOM staff members and the consultant writer who guided us through the study and the writing of this report. In particular, the dedication and drive of our study director, Adrienne Stith Butler, was irreplaceable. Clearly much has been accomplished by the Campaign and other stakeholders, and it is readily apparent that The Future of Nursing report was a catalyst for a number of new activities and accelerated several trends that had begun before the report was completed. The present report is timely in that it allows for reflection on the progress that has been achieved over the last 5 years in implementing the recommendations of The Future of Nursing report, while leaving time for the Campaign and others to adjust to the many changes occurring in nursing and the health care system. The committee worked PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing diligently over a short period of time to assemble and review the available data and evidence to help in understanding the changes that have occurred in the field of nursing—the structure of its education system, who is entering the field and in which programs, where nurses are employed, the attitudes of others about the appropriate role of nurses, and where possible how the expanded use of nurses has impacted the quality of patient care. With the help of this assessment, the committee generated a number of recommendations, which we hope will assist the Campaign, its state Action Coalitions, and other groups and stakeholders in positively impacting the field of nursing and improving the U.S. health care system. Stuart H. Altman, Chair Committee for Assessing Progress on Implementing the Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Report The Future Of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS x Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Acknowledgments Many individuals and organizations made important contributions to the study committee’s process and to this report. The committee wishes to thank these individuals, but recognizes that attempts to identify all and acknowledge their contributions would require more space than is available in this brief section. To begin, the committee would like to thank the sponsor of this study; funds for the committee’s work were provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The committee also gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the many individuals and organizations that assisted in the conduct of the study. Their perspectives were valuable in understanding the work undertaken to implement the recommendations from the 2010 Institute of Medicine report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. The committee thanks those individuals who provided important presentations and oral testimony at its open workshops. Appendix A lists these individuals and their affiliations. Written testimony received from nearly 100 individuals and organizations also helped the committee understand the status of implementation of the recommendations. The committee is grateful for the time, effort, and valuable information provided by all of these dedicated individuals and organizations. We are immensely grateful for the organizations that provided the committee with data and other inputs: the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN), American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE), the National League for Nursing (NLN), the Center to Champion Nursing in America and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and TCC Group. Finally, many within the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine were helpful to the study staff. We would like to thank Clyde Behney, Laura DeStefano, Chelsea Frakes, Greta Gorman, Nicole Joy, Ellen Kimmel, Fariha Mahmud, Rebecca Morgan, Jennifer Walsh, and Colleen Willis for their invaluable assistance. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION Context Study Scope Overview of The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health The Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action RWJF Activities Outside of the Campaign Organization of the Report References 1-1 1-1 1-3 1-5 1-7 1-15 1-17 1-17 2 REMOVING BARRRIERS TO PRACTICE AND CARE Activity and Progress Discussion Findings and Conclusions Recommendation References 2-1 2-3 2-5 2-10 2-11 2-11 3 ACHIEVING HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION Increase the Proportion of Nurses with a Baccalaureate Degree to 80 Percent by 2020 Implement Nurse Residency Programs Double the Number of Nurses with a Doctorate by 2020 Ensure that Nurses Engage in Lifelong Learning Recommendations References 3-15 3-23 3-30 3-34 3-36 PROMOTING DIVERSITY Introduction Activity Progress Discussion Findings and Conclusions Recommendation References 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-6 4-15 4-17 4-18 4-19 4 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 3-1 3-1 Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing xiv 5 6 CONTENTS COLLABORATING AND LEADING IN CARE DELIVERY AND REDESIGN Interprofessional Collaboration Preparing Nurses to Lead Nurses in Leadership Positions The Campaign for Action’s Communication Efforts to Support Collaboration and Leadership Recommendations References IMPROVING WORKFORCE DATA INFRASTRUCTURE Activity and Progress Discussion Findings and Conclusions Recommendation References 5-1 5-1 5-9 5-12 5-14 5-18 5-19 6-1 6-1 6-5 6-9 6-10 6-11 APPENDIXES A B C Data Sources and Methods Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Reports The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health Committee Biographies PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. A-1 B-1 C-1 Assessing Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report The Future of Nursing Acronyms AACN AAMC AAN AANP ACA ACCME ACEN ACP ACPE ACS ADN AMA ANA ANCC AONE APIN APRN American Association of Colleges of Nursing Association of American Medical Colleges American Academy of Nursing American Association of Nurse Practitioners Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing American College of Physicians Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education American Community Survey associate’s degree in nursing American Medical Association American Nurses Association American Nurses Credentialing Center American Organization of Nurse Executives Academic Progression in Nursing advanced practice registered nurse BSN bachelor’s of science in nursing Campaign CCNA CCNE CDC CHC CMA CMMI CMS CNO CPS Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action Center to Champion Nursing in America Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Community Health Center, Inc. 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