Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review

Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone project change proposal, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project. Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections: Title page Introduction section A comparison of research questions A comparison of sample populations A comparison of the limitations of the study A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research This week you will be developing a literature review. The literature review is a paper that you will be writing and comparing articles that you have collected to support your project. Please remember the articles cannot be greater than 5 years old. If you are having difficulty with a literature review, utilize your resources such as the library. A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Statement Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop your assignment (you can go over the word count) Title page Introduction section A comparison of research questions A comparison of sample populations A comparison of the limitations of the study A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research This literature review is asking you to compare the exact same articles when completing the research questions, populations and limitations. You cannot have a comparison unless you use two or more articles in a literature review. Do not use all 8 articles A sample literature review paper is attached Those who are having difficulty with APA format, please utilize your resources which can be found in the success center. Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review There is a Rubric for this assignment. Please review the rubric. And use it to write your paper. literature_review_example.docx literature__evaluation__table.docx picot_question___hypertension.docx rubric__literature_review.xlsx Literature Review: Plant-based Studies and Cardiovascular Disease Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review Literature Review: Plant-base Studies and Cardiovascular Disease Recent research has questioned the recommendations of a standard diet incorporating animal proteins as a means of reducing cardiac disease, and it is thought that a plant-based diet is more beneficial and protective to the heart and cardiac functions, among other health advantages. Doyle and colleagues (2014) identified that the present cardiovascular medicine approach can neither cure heart disease nor end the epidemic and is financially unsustainable, noting that a whole food plant-based approach offers a paradigm shift from existing practice. This literature review paper will compare two studies that look at plant-based nutrition and its effect on the health of participants regarding cardiovascular disease and risk. Likewise, it will review limitations of both studies, conclusions, and recommendations for future research. Comparison of Research Questions The purpose of the research completed in the Barbillon et al. (2018) study looked at the differing types of protein intake, whether animal or plant protein, and how this effected cardiovascular health in the participants over a period, of time. According to Miller & Weaver (2017), one of the major issues in nutrition research is the lack of ability to intervene for a sufficient length of time to investigate chronic disease outcomes. Luckily, this study was conducted over greater than five years, which was a generous amount of time to provide substantial final data as compared to the initial assessment of participants. Research completed in the Duncan et al. (2017) study served a different purpose, to investigate the effectiveness of a community-based whole foods plant-based dietary program in reducing elevated body mass index and dyslipidemia. Similar to the previously mentioned study, Duncan and colleagues wanted to evaluate how diet, particularly a plant-based diet, could effect cardiovascular health. The aim of this study also incorporated a hope for long-term behavioral changes that succeeded far beyond the study length itself.Discussion: Hypertension Literature Review Comparison of Sample Populations Sample populations in the Barbillon et al. (2018) study included a total of 81.337 Seventh-day Adventist church men and women among US and Canada who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2, of whom were recruited and assessed between 2002 and 2007. The participants in this study were over 25 years old, body mass index greater than 14 or less than 60, and no reported history of cardiovascular events at baseline. The sample population for the Duncan et al. (2017) study was considerably smaller, including 65 participants ages 35-70 from a general practice in New Zealand who participated in a randomized control trial dietary program over a six month period, with follow-up at twelve months. The requirement to participate in this study were that participants needed to have a diagnosis of obesity or overweight with at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, or hypercholesteremia. The population used in the Barbillon et al. (2018) study were using diet choice alone to assess for decreasing cardiovascular risk, where Duncan et al (2017) used a mix of both diet and exercise for their population, however diet was heavily considered for the success in this study. Both studies support the research proposal for a plant-based dietary tool to reduce cardiovascular disease, as the sample populations who were adhering to a plant-based diet in these studies were shown to have significantly lowered their risk of cardiovascular disease. Comparison of Study Limitations While both studies appeared to prove their claims of reducing cardiovascular disease risk in participants through plant-based diet, there were limitations in both studies in various areas. First, self-reported data appeared to be a potential issue for the Barbillon et al. (2018) study, although self-reporting was inevitable given the structure of the study, bias could have altered the strength of the study if answers to the dietary assessment and other lifestyle-related data were not factual by the participant, potentially leading to unknown and unmeasured confounders in the study. Another limitation here is that a dietary assessment was only completed once at the beginning of the trial and may have changed over time with no follow-up assessment. The same was true for the Duncan and colleagues (2017), where participants were followed closely during the 12-week program, however food intake was not directly monitored. The questions for exercise and dietary indiscretions involved self-reporting and recall, which could have introduced error. Participants were given a list of plant-based foods to eat as well as foods to avoid, and participants attended 2 hour evening sessions twice weekly for 12 weeks. Although results were in favor of plant-based nutrition as a tool for cardiovascular disease reduction, sample size of the Duncan and colleagues study was rather small, with a total of 65 participants after 693 candidates were screened. A larger sample size would have provided more accurate mean values and allowed researchers to identify outliers in the study. Conclusion and Recommendations for Future Research The results of the two trials provide sufficient evidence that adhering to a plant-based diet is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk for adults. Plant-based protein as compared to animal protein was strongly associated with cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the Barbillon et al. (2018) study, proving that plant proteins were protective as opposed to foods like meat products and other animal proteins such as milk and cheese. A whole foods plant-based diet proved as a safe and effective option for losing weight and reducing cholesterol, without necessarily increasing exercise in the Duncan et al. (2017) study, showing several improvements with chronic disease risk and quality of life through adherence to the program. Therefore, it is logical that plant-based diets and the reduction of animal protein intake be taken into consideration as a dietary tool for cardiovascular disease reduction and prevention, and could be suitable for consumption in hospitals as well as future guidance in dietary public health recommendations. Still, further research could include a monitored dietary intake tool rather than relying solely on questionnaire and verbal reporting, to strengthen the research and reduce self-reporting bias. Future whole foods plant-based programs used for research should incorporate a larger amount of participants to provide sufficient data and identify outliers, also reducing the impact of participants who drop out of the program prematurely. Practitioners should be aware of the benefits of using plant-based nutrition to reduce disease and chronic illness for adults in their practice, while considering their preferences and willingness to do so. References Barbillon, P., Delattre, M., Fraser, G., Mariotti, F., Mashchak, A., & Tharrey, M. (2018). Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality: The Adventist Health Study-2 cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47 (5), 1603-1612. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy030 Doyle, J., Esselstyn Jr., C., Gendy, G., Golubic, M., Roizen, M. (July 2014). A way to reverse CAD? The Journal of Family Practice, 63 (7), 356-364. doi: Duncan, B., McHugh, P., Smith, M., Wilson, L., & Wright, N. (2017). The BROAD study: A randomised controlled trial using a whole food plant-based diet in the community for obesity, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes. Nutrition & Diabetes, 7 , e256. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2017.3 Miller, J. & Weaver, C. (2017). Challenges in conducting clinical nutrition research. Nutrition Reviews, 75 (7), 491-499. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux026 Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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