Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia

Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia Milien, Cassandre Iron Deficiency Anemia Worldwide woman in their child bearing age are affected by iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Statistics show that in the United States approximately 16% of pregnant women have iron deficiency anemia. Fortunately, IDA is easily treated by the consumption of dietary supplements (Marcewicz, et al., 2017). Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia The Patient in This Case Study Has Seven Potential Contributing Factors For The Development of Iron Deficiency Anemia. What are they? In the case study of Ms. J.D she presents a symptomatology and a past medical history that explain potential contribution factors for the development of iron deficiency anemia. Her recent pregnancy is one of the reasons. According to the case study, she is multiparty which is a risk factor for the development of iron-deficiency anemia. The patient is G5P5 and the span of delivery is short leading to the increased susceptibility to iron-deficiency anemia. The patient complains of 2-month history of intermenstrual bleeding and menorrhagia that are possible causes of iron-deficiency anemia (DeLoughery 2014). Chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis can be another risk factor associated with the development of iron-deficiency anemia. There is a disturbance of the stem-cells in the bone-marrow and therefore red-blood cells are not actively generated resulting in the iron-deficiency anemia. Due to her chronic pain she is taking ibuprofen beyond the required prescriptions. Gastrointestinal bleeding is often attributed to the use of pain relievers such as ibuprofen and naproxen (Goldstein & Cryer, 2015). To avoid the side effects of the ibuprofen she started taking OTC omeprazole to control gastrointestinal bleeding. Although omeprazole alleviates the GI bleeding, it can also cause malabsorption of aliments and supplements with iron, leading to anemia (Camaschella 2017). Why Did The Gynecologist Question The Patient About Constipation? The gynecologist may have asked about constipation to rule out problems such as uterine fibroid since it can present with constipation. Also, having an iron-deficiency anemia is associated with dehydration and constipation. Typically, patients with IDA are treated by prescribing them an iron supplement, but the most common side effect of iron supplement is constipation. (DeLoughery 2014). If the patient is already suffering from constipation unrelated to her reproductive system, the gynecologist has to be careful with the treatment that should be prescribed. Why Would You Check on Serum Vitamin B12 And Folic Acid Concentrations Tested? I would check on serum vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations because is a precise diagnosis of anemia. In this case the patient had lost of blood through heavy menstrual bleeding and other challenges associated with the excessive blood loss. Lack of vitamin B12 can lead to the production of abnormally large red blood cells that fail to produce hemoglobin to carry the oxygen in blood. Anemia is a general term used to refer to either fewer red blood cells or a very low amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Lack of vitamin B12 or Folate are typical conditions of IDA (Camaschella, 2017). Identify Clinical Symptoms and Clinical Signs in This Case Study That Are Consistent with a Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia A patient experiencing IDA may feel a variety of subjective symptoms. Some of those symptoms include muscle weakness, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, coldness, lack of sleep, or even difficulty concentrating (Peate & Jones, 2014). Additionally, a patient experiencing IDA may also experience may objective symptoms. Those symptoms include an increased heart rate, low blood pressure, paleness, low oxygen saturation, low body temperature, splenomegaly, dark colored stool and loss of consciousness (Peate & Jones, 2014). Other objective symptoms may include brittle nails, pica, heart attack, low hemoglobin levels, low vitamin B12 level, low folic acid level, yellow colored eyes, confusion, forgetfulness, menorrhea, restless leg syndrome and swelling of the tongue (Peate & Jones, 2014). Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia Treatment Modalities That Will Help Resolve Iron Deficiency Anemia in This Patient. Treatment for IDA depends on the cause and severity of the condition. A patient with IDA can be treated prescribing iron supplements. Receiving blood transfusions is also an option. Another simpler treatment would be to encourage the patient eat an iron rich diet. A patient could also increase their intake of vitamin C to improve their absorption of iron and reduce consumption of foods that would decrease their iron absorption (Peate & Jones, 2014). Another approach to treat the anemia would be with the treatment of the underlying causes of iron-deficiency anemia such as disorders of menstrual flow that increases the chances of develop IDA. (Camaschella 2017). Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia Reference Camaschella, C. (2017). New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Blood reviews, 31 (4), 225-233. DeLoughery, T. G. (2014). Microcytic anemia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 371 (14), 1324-1331. Retrieved from https://proxy.stu.edu:2442/docview/1567524497?accountid=14129 (Links to an external site.) Goldstein, J. L., & Cryer, B. (2015). Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies. Drug, healthcare and patient safety , 7, 31–41. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310346/ (Links to an external site.) Marcewicz, L., Anderson, B., Byams, V., Grant, A., & Schulkin, J. (2017). Screening and Treatment for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Women: Results of a Survey of Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 21(8), 1627–1633 . Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2252-1 (Links to an external site.) Peate, I., & Jones, N. (2014). Pathophysiology series 1: Iron Deficiency Anemia. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 8(4), 164–169. Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Myocardial Infarction (MI) is, together with Angina Pectoris, a type of Ischemic Heart Disease. This disease is caused by a coronary arteriosclerosis, which is the deterioration and obstruction of the arteries of the heart. It occurs due to the accumulation of cholesterol plaques, lipids and inflammatory cells in the walls of these arteries, that prevent the heart receive enough blood. The MI, differs of Angina Pectoris, because it appears abruptly and as a consequence of complete obstruction of any of the arteries of the heart. The cardiac cells in the affected area die as a result of lack of blood supply, causing usually an irreversible damage (McCance & Huether, 2019). Risk Factors for Acute MI The case study of Mr. W.G presents some clearly defined risk factors for MI and others that are not mentioned but can’t be discarded because also contribute to the development of MI. The gender is the first factor for MI of Mr. W.G. More men than women develop acute myocardial infarction at some stage in their lives (McCance & Huether, 2019). The second risk factor is the age. Generally, men from the age of 45 and older are at high risk of getting severe heart attacks than those who are younger than the age of 45 years (Mihatov, Januzz, & Gaggin, 2017). A third indicator that Mr. W.G is at risk of suffering an MI is that he had a large breakfast. Usually, large meals may be containing high level of cholesterol that is linked to dyslipidemia that is one of the main cause of CAD. Also, large meals ingestion can be linked to obesity and as per McCance & Hunther (2019) “two-thirds of adults in United States are overweight or obese resulting in a much increased risk of CAD”. Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia Clinical Signs of Left Ventricular MI Mr. W.G is presenting an acute myocardial infarction in the left ventricle. Patient refers a crushing sensation in the sternal area and the pain seemed to spread upward into his neck and lower jaw. He Also is breathing deep and feels nauseated. It is the left ventricle that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and in this case, the patient experienced breathing problems which was an indicator that there was less circulation of oxygen in the body. The experiencing of the pain in the sternal area also indicated that it was the left ventricle that was effected. The sternum which is also useful in the support of breathing organs supports the flow of the blood in the pulmonary artery from the lungs and the fact that Mr. W.G experienced the pain around the sternal area justifies the failure of the left ventricle and not the right ventricle. In addition, the patient experienced pain in the neck and lower jaws which are sign of failure of the pulmonary artery. The failure of the pulmonary artery to take blood to the left ventricle, which in turns pushes it to the left atrium for pumping, demonstrates that the patient had his left ventricle affected (Ignatavicius, Workman, Rebar & Heimgartner, 2018). Discussion: Iron Deficiency Anemia Single Laboratory Test that Provides the Clearest Evidence of an AMI According to McCance & Hunther (2019) the Troponin I (cTn1) is the most specific laboratory test that provides the clearest evidence that the patient has suffered acute myocardial infarction. It is effective because it can detect the condition within 2-4 hours after its onset. Even if the test result is negative at first the test should be repeated within 6 to 9 hours and again at 12 to 24 hour if patient is clinical suspicious. Also, the (cTn1) level can estimate the size of the infarct and therefore the likelihood of its complications. Pathophysiologic Mechanism for Elevated Temperature Several Days After the Onset of AMI The pathophysiologic mechanism for the elevated temperature that occurred several days after the onset of the symptoms is an inflammatory response to myocardial tissues necrosis. The inflammatory reaction appears to be essential to initiate wound healing or repair as it is mentioned in McCance & Hunther (2019). After invasion into the myocardial tissues, leukocytes play a big role in the healing process. Inflammation has to develop as a way to get rid of the dead tissue and enable healing. Fever may result when the white blood cells count increase in number due to more cells being released from the bone marrow and discharge interleukins as a chemical (McCance & Huether, 2019).References Ignatavicius, D. D., Workman, M. L., Rebar, C. R., & Heimgartner, N. M. (2018). Medical- surgical nursing: concepts for interprofessional collaborative care . St. Louis: Elsevier. McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology-E-book: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children . Elsevier Health Sciences Mihatov, N., Januzz Jr., J.L. and Gaggin, H.K. (2017). Type 2 Myocardial Infarction due to Supply-Demand Mismatch. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine , 27, pp. 408-417. Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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