Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences

Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences I’m studying for my Academic class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Read the Introduction and Literature Review sections of the attached article Diversity Management: An Organisational Culture Audit to Determine Individual Differences , and offer a critique of the author’s literature review. Specifically, your short paper must address the following: Identify the theories that ground the problem. Cite examples from the literature review. Discuss any biases and limitations you identify in the literature review. Does the author present these biases and limitations? Does the literature review follow the guidelines presented in Chapter 4 of your textbook? What elements from the text are present, and what elements are lacking? To complete this assignment, review the Module Two Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric document. diversity_managment.pdf module_two_short_paper_guidelines_and_rubric.pdf chapter_4.pdf Unformatted Attachment Preview The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 Diversity Management: An Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Prof Ophillia Ledimo, University of South Africa, South Africa ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to conduct an organisational culture audit to determine individual differences of employees within the South African army. A quantitative study was conducted with a random sample size n=238. The participants completed the biographical questionnaire and the Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI) which was used to measure organisational culture. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify the existing culture type in this organisation and the statistically significant individual differences of the employees regarding their perception of the organisational culture. The findings of this study are valuable for organisational development practitioners and managers who are responsible to manage diversity in their organisation because it enables organisations to understand the culture of their diverse workforce and to propose relevant measures for improving employee performance using individual differences. These findings also provide opportunity for future research. This study also adds knowledge regarding organisational culture diagnosis and the nature of individual differences, especially within the South African work context. Keywords: Organisational Culture; Diversity; Individual Differences; Demographic INTRODUCTION A diverse workforce is a reflection of a changing world and marketplace (Mazur, 2010). Thus, managing diversity is an important aspect of leadership in today’s multi-cultural work context. Organisations are becoming diverse because of the increasing globalization that requires more interaction among people from diverse cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds than ever before (Wrech, 2005; Mazur, 2010; Werner, 2007). Thomas (1996) also highlighted that diversity in organisations has for too long been associated with multicultural, multiethnic and multiracial aspects of the workforce. An increasing number of organisations are attempting to enhance inclusiveness of under represented individuals through proactive efforts to manage their diversity (Gilbert, Stead and Ivancevich, 1999). Preissing and Loennies (2011) indicate that the culture of an organisation tends to view the individual employee as an important component as there is a dynamic and reciprocity of its development within and outside the organisational context and the development of an organisational culture. Studies conducted on organisational culture found that culture is important in understanding employee behaviour and performance (Brown, 1998; Robbins, 1996; Werner, 2007). Hence organisations that are faced with the challenge of managing a diverse workforce would need to assess their organisational culture in order to develop knowledge of the existing organisational culture differences among their employees. Failure to manage diversity in the organisation might become an obstacle for achieving organisational goals. Managing and valuing diversity is a key component of effective people management, which can improve the productivity of the organisation (Gilbert et al, 1999; Mazur, 2010). Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences As a result maximizing and capitalizing on workplace diversity has become an important issue for management today. In the search to find strategies to manage a diverse workforce in organisations, it would be beneficial to gain insight into the relationship between individual differences and organisational culture; with a specific focus on Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1747 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 how race, job levels and age groups differ. Therefore, the current research study examined how individual differences influence employees’ perceptions of their organisational culture. LITERATURE REVIEW The following literature reviews described the variables individual difference, organisational culture and the theoretical relationship between these variables. Individual Differences Individuals differ from each other in some way or the other; hence such a similarity or difference between persons reveals individual differences. This suggests that a group of employees is diverse if it is composed of individuals who differ on a characteristic on which they base their own social identity (Robbins, 2005; Werner, 2007; O’Reilly, Williams and Barsade, 1998). Hence diversity is described as any mixture of items characterised by differences and similarities (Thomas 1996). Individual differences refer to the extent and kind of variations or similarities among people on some aspects such as demographic factors. They are essential in understanding employees within an organisation. Studies have been conducted to indicate the role of individual differences such as gender, age and race group in relation to organisational variables; namely, culture, commitment, retention, career development, work engagement, job satisfaction, performance and job embeddedness (Manetje and Martins 2009; Tanova and Holtom, 2008; Lumley, 2009; Martin and Roodt, 2008; Muteswa and Ortlepp, 2011). These studies reported that there are statistically significant individual differences based on the variables gender, age and race group. There are primary and secondary dimensions of individual differences. According to Mazur (2010) the primary dimensions of individual differences that exert primary influences on employees’ identities, are gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, age and mental or physical abilities and characteristics. These primary dimensions shape employees’ basic self-image as well as their fundamental world views (Thomas, 1996; Wrech, 2005; Mazur, 2010). The secondary dimensions of individual differences are less visible; they exert a more variable influence on personal identity and add a more subtle richness to the primary dimensions of diversity (Wee, Jonason and Li, 2014; Mazur, 2010). These dimensions include; namely, educational background, geographic location, religion, first language, family status, work style, work experience, military experience, organisational role and level, income and communication style. The primary and secondary dimensions of individual differences occur due to interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This implies that employees have inherited certain characteristics through genetic codes, such as race. Both the primary and secondary dimensions may intertwine to produce unique syntheses of human profiles, made up of both differences and similarities (Mazur, 2010). Hence it is important to identify and understand this uniqueness in individuals because they are important for diversity management. According to Wrech (2005) diversity management stresses the necessity of recognizing individual and cultural differences between groups of employees, and making practical allowances for such differences in organisational policies. Organisations need diversity to become more creative and open to change (Martin and Roodt, 2008; Mazur, 2010). Encouraging a diverse workplace where individual differences are valued enables employees to work to their full potential in a more creative and productive work environment (DeNisi and Griffin, 2008; Wrech, 2005). This is seen as an inclusive approach of diversity management; the one which therefore encompasses the interests of all employees in the organisation. Mazur (2010) indicated that organisations need to focus on diversity and look for ways to become totally inclusive organisations because diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages. Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Ivancevich and Gilbert (2000) argued that diversity management leads to an increased understanding of diverse customers, increased creativity and commitment to the organisation, and better retention and attendance. According to Mazur (2010) respecting individual differences will benefit the organisation by creating a competitive edge and increasing work productivity. Organisational Culture The concept organisational culture has various definitions, predominantly in the context of psychology and management theory (Struwig and Smith, 2002; Robbins, 2005; Hampden-Turner, 1990). Bagraim (2001) states that Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1748 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 there is no single universally accepted definition of the term organisational culture, hence there is a variety of definitions. A basic definition of organisational culture is necessary to provide a point of departure in the quest for an understanding of the phenomenon. Martins and Martins (2003) define organisational culture as a system of shared meaning held by members, distinguishing the organisation from other organisations. This implies that culture is an integrated pattern of human bevahoir which is unique to a particular organisation. Organisational culture also refers to a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems (Schein, 1985; Hofstede, 1991; Harris and Ogbonna, 1998; Manetje and Martins, 2009). Culture includes distinctive norms, beliefs, principles and ways of behaving that are combined to give each organisation its distinct character (Arnold, 2005; Johnson, 1990; Cummings and Worley, 2005). This suggests that organisational culture distinguishes one organisation from another organisation; it is therefore to an organisation what personality is to an individual. The literature is abundant regarding the types and dimensions of organisational culture. Deal and Kennedy (1982) identified four generic types of cultures to describe organisational culture; namely, the tough-guy/macho culture, the work-hard/play-hard culture, the bet-your company culture and the process culture. Handy (1985) described organisational culture by using four types of classification; namely, power, role, task and person cultures. Schein (1985) used three levels to explain organisational culture; namely, artefacts, values and basic underlying assumptions. Scholtz (1987) identified five primary culture typologies; namely, stable, reactive, anticipating, exploring and creative. Hampden-Turner (1990) used four types of culture to describe organisational culture; namely, role, power, task and atomistic cultures. Hofstede (1991) highlighted that cultures differ based on five dimensions, namely power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity and confusion dynamism. O’Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell (1991) presented seven primary characteristics to describe organisational culture; namely, innovation and risk-taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation aggressiveness and stability. These various typologies of organisational culture indicate that culture is described and conceptualised differently in the literature. According to Wee et al (2014) the types of organisational culture have a distinct system of shared meaning; which is a common way of interpreting actions and events that does not always hold across individuals and groups. Cooke and Lafferty (1998) also identified the following three types of culture that are relevant for this study because the typologies have corresponding sets of behavioural norms. Firstly, constructive culture dimension implies that employees are encouraged to interact with others and approach tasks in the manner that will help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs, and are characterised by achievements, selfactualising, humanistic-encouraging and affiliation. Secondly, passive/defensive culture dimension means that employees believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security, and are characterised by the approval, conventional, dependent and avoidance styles. Lastly, aggressive/defensive culture indicates that employees are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security, and are characterised by the oppositional, power, competitive and perfectionist styles. Organisational culture is important in organisations because it refers to created assumptions, which are accepted as a way of doing things and are passed on to new members of an organisation. For new employees this would mean adaptive behaviour within the organisation that leads to new belief systems.Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences This new and adaptive behaviour is instilled through organisational values and beliefs that are associated with rituals, myths and symbols to reinforce the core assumptions of organisational culture (Hofstede, 1991; Martins and Martins, 2003). Brown (1998) highlighted that culture as the pattern of beliefs, values and learned ways of coping with experience that have developed during the course of an organisation’s history; it tends to be manifested in its material arrangements and in the behaviours of its members. This suggests that organisational culture is articulated in the organisation, in order to shape the way in which organisational members should behave. However, this pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes, principles and assumptions may be unwritten or non-verbalised behaviour that describe the way in which things get done; to give the organisation its unique character (Williams and Barsade, 1998; Robbins, 2005; Brown, 1998; Arnold, 2005). Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1749 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 The benefits of culture in organisations are that it directs the organisation towards goal attainment, organisational success, enhances organisational citizenship, loyalty, customer satisfaction, motivation and it increases the consistency of employees’ behaviour (Martins and Von der Ohe, 2006; Martins and Martins, 2003; Robbins, 2005; Struwig and Smith, 2002; Pressing and Loennies, 2011). Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matterson (2005) argued that culture influences employees to be good citizens and cooperate in the organisation. Culture is able to create a unifying force that increases organisational performance and it is able to positively affect employee behaviour and the financial performance of the organisation (Davidson, 2003; Manetje and Martins, 2009; Ivancevich et al, 2005; Werner, 2007; Mazur, 2010). Martins, Martins and Terblanche (2004) highlighted that organisational culture complements rational managerial tools such as strategy, goals, tasks, technology, organisational structure, information systems and performance appraisal; by playing an indirect role in influencing employee behaviour. Some of the studies conducted in various South African organisations indicate that organisational culture contributes towards employees` job satisfaction and organisational commitment (Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002; Manetje and Martins, 2009). Theoretical Relationship Between Organisational Culture and Individual Differences Organisations are consistently focussing on their systematic and planned commitment to recruit, retain, reward, and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000; Cummings and Worley, 2005). According to Wee et al (2014) different interpretations of organisational culture become increasingly likely as the work context becomes increasingly multi-cultural, more ethnically diverse workforces within organisations. The different interpretations of culture by employees tend to lead to the development of dominant and sub-cultures in the organisation. Hence individual differences are considered to be the source of sub-cultures. A sub-culture emerges as a result of a subgroup’s collective functionality in a specific unit of the organisation (Robbins, 2005). It occurs as a result of individual experiences concerning certain aspects in organisations. The sub-culture could be efficient and appropriate if it is not contradicting the dominant or ideal organisational culture. While large organisations have a dominant organisational culture, they are at risk of developing a number of sub-cultures. Sub-cultures tend to develop in large organisation to reflect common problems, situations and experiences faced by employees in the organisation (Martins and Von der Ohe, 2006). Organisations develop subcultures because of functional differences, gender, socio-economic and educational backgrounds (Deal and Kennedy, 1982). Sub-cultures exist independently of organisational culture and a small group may have its own distinct set of values, beliefs and attitudes (Lok and Crawford, 1999). Martins and Von der Ohe (2006) argued that variables that play a role in the formation of sub-cultures are departmental groupings, race groups, geographical distribution, occupational categories or the influence of a specific manager. This implies that individual differences have an influence in the creation or development of sub-cultures within the organisation. Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Military organisations are large in nature and they are at the risk of having sub-cultures. The challenge of having sub-cultures in the organisation is due to the different effects a subculture have on individuals in the organisation. Hence this study is motivated by the need to gain a better insight into the effects of demographic factors or individual differences (race, age and job level) on the three dimensions of organisational culture; in order to indicate to policymakers and managers where improvements can be made, and to helps them to develop strategies and policies that could create an ideal organisational culture and to manage diversity. There is therefore a perceived need to augment the South African literature base regarding individual differences, diversity management and organisational culture in particular. Based on the above motivation and the literature review, the main purpose of this study is to determine individual differences that influence employees’ perceptions of their organisational culture in the South African Army. The following hypothesis was formulated for this study. Hypothesis: There are statistically significant individual differences regarding the participants’ perception of the organisational culture. Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1750 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD Research Approach A quantitative design was followed in this study in order to achieve the research objectives of the empirical study (Kerlinger, 1986). Survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a random sample of participants. Participants and Sampling Strategy The total population of the study comprised of 4 350 employees of the military organisation. Simple random sampling technique was used to ensure that all employees within the department had an equal chance to be included in the sample (Keller and Warrack, 2000). The 238 participants of this study who are employed at managerial and staff level, were randomly selected by means of a computerised program. They were from various divisions and directorates within the army. All participants received the questionnaire with a covering letter from the researchers which introduced the study and explained its purpose. It also included instructions for completing and returning the questionnaire upon completion, the method for participant’s selection, anonymity and confidential nature of the research process. Measuring Instruments Section A of the questionnaire comprised of th …Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences

Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences I’m studying for my Academic class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Read the Introduction and Literature Review sections of the attached article Diversity Management: An Organisational Culture Audit to Determine Individual Differences , and offer a critique of the author’s literature review. Specifically, your short paper must address the following: Identify the theories that ground the problem. Cite examples from the literature review. Discuss any biases and limitations you identify in the literature review. Does the author present these biases and limitations? Does the literature review follow the guidelines presented in Chapter 4 of your textbook? What elements from the text are present, and what elements are lacking? To complete this assignment, review the Module Two Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric document. diversity_managment.pdf module_two_short_paper_guidelines_and_rubric.pdf chapter_4.pdf Unformatted Attachment Preview The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 Diversity Management: An Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Prof Ophillia Ledimo, University of South Africa, South Africa ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to conduct an organisational culture audit to determine individual differences of employees within the South African army. A quantitative study was conducted with a random sample size n=238. The participants completed the biographical questionnaire and the Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI) which was used to measure organisational culture. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify the existing culture type in this organisation and the statistically significant individual differences of the employees regarding their perception of the organisational culture. The findings of this study are valuable for organisational development practitioners and managers who are responsible to manage diversity in their organisation because it enables organisations to understand the culture of their diverse workforce and to propose relevant measures for improving employee performance using individual differences. These findings also provide opportunity for future research. This study also adds knowledge regarding organisational culture diagnosis and the nature of individual differences, especially within the South African work context. Keywords: Organisational Culture; Diversity; Individual Differences; Demographic INTRODUCTION A diverse workforce is a reflection of a changing world and marketplace (Mazur, 2010). Thus, managing diversity is an important aspect of leadership in today’s multi-cultural work context. Organisations are becoming diverse because of the increasing globalization that requires more interaction among people from diverse cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds than ever before (Wrech, 2005; Mazur, 2010; Werner, 2007). Thomas (1996) also highlighted that diversity in organisations has for too long been associated with multicultural, multiethnic and multiracial aspects of the workforce. An increasing number of organisations are attempting to enhance inclusiveness of under represented individuals through proactive efforts to manage their diversity (Gilbert, Stead and Ivancevich, 1999). Preissing and Loennies (2011) indicate that the culture of an organisation tends to view the individual employee as an important component as there is a dynamic and reciprocity of its development within and outside the organisational context and the development of an organisational culture. Studies conducted on organisational culture found that culture is important in understanding employee behaviour and performance (Brown, 1998; Robbins, 1996; Werner, 2007). Hence organisations that are faced with the challenge of managing a diverse workforce would need to assess their organisational culture in order to develop knowledge of the existing organisational culture differences among their employees. Failure to manage diversity in the organisation might become an obstacle for achieving organisational goals. Managing and valuing diversity is a key component of effective people management, which can improve the productivity of the organisation (Gilbert et al, 1999; Mazur, 2010). Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences As a result maximizing and capitalizing on workplace diversity has become an important issue for management today. In the search to find strategies to manage a diverse workforce in organisations, it would be beneficial to gain insight into the relationship between individual differences and organisational culture; with a specific focus on Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1747 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 how race, job levels and age groups differ. Therefore, the current research study examined how individual differences influence employees’ perceptions of their organisational culture. LITERATURE REVIEW The following literature reviews described the variables individual difference, organisational culture and the theoretical relationship between these variables. Individual Differences Individuals differ from each other in some way or the other; hence such a similarity or difference between persons reveals individual differences. This suggests that a group of employees is diverse if it is composed of individuals who differ on a characteristic on which they base their own social identity (Robbins, 2005; Werner, 2007; O’Reilly, Williams and Barsade, 1998). Hence diversity is described as any mixture of items characterised by differences and similarities (Thomas 1996). Individual differences refer to the extent and kind of variations or similarities among people on some aspects such as demographic factors. They are essential in understanding employees within an organisation. Studies have been conducted to indicate the role of individual differences such as gender, age and race group in relation to organisational variables; namely, culture, commitment, retention, career development, work engagement, job satisfaction, performance and job embeddedness (Manetje and Martins 2009; Tanova and Holtom, 2008; Lumley, 2009; Martin and Roodt, 2008; Muteswa and Ortlepp, 2011). These studies reported that there are statistically significant individual differences based on the variables gender, age and race group. There are primary and secondary dimensions of individual differences. According to Mazur (2010) the primary dimensions of individual differences that exert primary influences on employees’ identities, are gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, age and mental or physical abilities and characteristics. These primary dimensions shape employees’ basic self-image as well as their fundamental world views (Thomas, 1996; Wrech, 2005; Mazur, 2010). The secondary dimensions of individual differences are less visible; they exert a more variable influence on personal identity and add a more subtle richness to the primary dimensions of diversity (Wee, Jonason and Li, 2014; Mazur, 2010). These dimensions include; namely, educational background, geographic location, religion, first language, family status, work style, work experience, military experience, organisational role and level, income and communication style. The primary and secondary dimensions of individual differences occur due to interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This implies that employees have inherited certain characteristics through genetic codes, such as race. Both the primary and secondary dimensions may intertwine to produce unique syntheses of human profiles, made up of both differences and similarities (Mazur, 2010). Hence it is important to identify and understand this uniqueness in individuals because they are important for diversity management. According to Wrech (2005) diversity management stresses the necessity of recognizing individual and cultural differences between groups of employees, and making practical allowances for such differences in organisational policies. Organisations need diversity to become more creative and open to change (Martin and Roodt, 2008; Mazur, 2010). Encouraging a diverse workplace where individual differences are valued enables employees to work to their full potential in a more creative and productive work environment (DeNisi and Griffin, 2008; Wrech, 2005). This is seen as an inclusive approach of diversity management; the one which therefore encompasses the interests of all employees in the organisation. Mazur (2010) indicated that organisations need to focus on diversity and look for ways to become totally inclusive organisations because diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages. Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Ivancevich and Gilbert (2000) argued that diversity management leads to an increased understanding of diverse customers, increased creativity and commitment to the organisation, and better retention and attendance. According to Mazur (2010) respecting individual differences will benefit the organisation by creating a competitive edge and increasing work productivity. Organisational Culture The concept organisational culture has various definitions, predominantly in the context of psychology and management theory (Struwig and Smith, 2002; Robbins, 2005; Hampden-Turner, 1990). Bagraim (2001) states that Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1748 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 there is no single universally accepted definition of the term organisational culture, hence there is a variety of definitions. A basic definition of organisational culture is necessary to provide a point of departure in the quest for an understanding of the phenomenon. Martins and Martins (2003) define organisational culture as a system of shared meaning held by members, distinguishing the organisation from other organisations. This implies that culture is an integrated pattern of human bevahoir which is unique to a particular organisation. Organisational culture also refers to a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems (Schein, 1985; Hofstede, 1991; Harris and Ogbonna, 1998; Manetje and Martins, 2009). Culture includes distinctive norms, beliefs, principles and ways of behaving that are combined to give each organisation its distinct character (Arnold, 2005; Johnson, 1990; Cummings and Worley, 2005). This suggests that organisational culture distinguishes one organisation from another organisation; it is therefore to an organisation what personality is to an individual. The literature is abundant regarding the types and dimensions of organisational culture. Deal and Kennedy (1982) identified four generic types of cultures to describe organisational culture; namely, the tough-guy/macho culture, the work-hard/play-hard culture, the bet-your company culture and the process culture. Handy (1985) described organisational culture by using four types of classification; namely, power, role, task and person cultures. Schein (1985) used three levels to explain organisational culture; namely, artefacts, values and basic underlying assumptions. Scholtz (1987) identified five primary culture typologies; namely, stable, reactive, anticipating, exploring and creative. Hampden-Turner (1990) used four types of culture to describe organisational culture; namely, role, power, task and atomistic cultures. Hofstede (1991) highlighted that cultures differ based on five dimensions, namely power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity and confusion dynamism. O’Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell (1991) presented seven primary characteristics to describe organisational culture; namely, innovation and risk-taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation aggressiveness and stability. These various typologies of organisational culture indicate that culture is described and conceptualised differently in the literature. According to Wee et al (2014) the types of organisational culture have a distinct system of shared meaning; which is a common way of interpreting actions and events that does not always hold across individuals and groups. Cooke and Lafferty (1998) also identified the following three types of culture that are relevant for this study because the typologies have corresponding sets of behavioural norms. Firstly, constructive culture dimension implies that employees are encouraged to interact with others and approach tasks in the manner that will help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs, and are characterised by achievements, selfactualising, humanistic-encouraging and affiliation. Secondly, passive/defensive culture dimension means that employees believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security, and are characterised by the approval, conventional, dependent and avoidance styles. Lastly, aggressive/defensive culture indicates that employees are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security, and are characterised by the oppositional, power, competitive and perfectionist styles. Organisational culture is important in organisations because it refers to created assumptions, which are accepted as a way of doing things and are passed on to new members of an organisation. For new employees this would mean adaptive behaviour within the organisation that leads to new belief systems.Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences This new and adaptive behaviour is instilled through organisational values and beliefs that are associated with rituals, myths and symbols to reinforce the core assumptions of organisational culture (Hofstede, 1991; Martins and Martins, 2003). Brown (1998) highlighted that culture as the pattern of beliefs, values and learned ways of coping with experience that have developed during the course of an organisation’s history; it tends to be manifested in its material arrangements and in the behaviours of its members. This suggests that organisational culture is articulated in the organisation, in order to shape the way in which organisational members should behave. However, this pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes, principles and assumptions may be unwritten or non-verbalised behaviour that describe the way in which things get done; to give the organisation its unique character (Williams and Barsade, 1998; Robbins, 2005; Brown, 1998; Arnold, 2005). Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1749 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 The benefits of culture in organisations are that it directs the organisation towards goal attainment, organisational success, enhances organisational citizenship, loyalty, customer satisfaction, motivation and it increases the consistency of employees’ behaviour (Martins and Von der Ohe, 2006; Martins and Martins, 2003; Robbins, 2005; Struwig and Smith, 2002; Pressing and Loennies, 2011). Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matterson (2005) argued that culture influences employees to be good citizens and cooperate in the organisation. Culture is able to create a unifying force that increases organisational performance and it is able to positively affect employee behaviour and the financial performance of the organisation (Davidson, 2003; Manetje and Martins, 2009; Ivancevich et al, 2005; Werner, 2007; Mazur, 2010). Martins, Martins and Terblanche (2004) highlighted that organisational culture complements rational managerial tools such as strategy, goals, tasks, technology, organisational structure, information systems and performance appraisal; by playing an indirect role in influencing employee behaviour. Some of the studies conducted in various South African organisations indicate that organisational culture contributes towards employees` job satisfaction and organisational commitment (Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002; Manetje and Martins, 2009). Theoretical Relationship Between Organisational Culture and Individual Differences Organisations are consistently focussing on their systematic and planned commitment to recruit, retain, reward, and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees (Ivancevich and Gilbert, 2000; Cummings and Worley, 2005). According to Wee et al (2014) different interpretations of organisational culture become increasingly likely as the work context becomes increasingly multi-cultural, more ethnically diverse workforces within organisations. The different interpretations of culture by employees tend to lead to the development of dominant and sub-cultures in the organisation. Hence individual differences are considered to be the source of sub-cultures. A sub-culture emerges as a result of a subgroup’s collective functionality in a specific unit of the organisation (Robbins, 2005). It occurs as a result of individual experiences concerning certain aspects in organisations. The sub-culture could be efficient and appropriate if it is not contradicting the dominant or ideal organisational culture. While large organisations have a dominant organisational culture, they are at risk of developing a number of sub-cultures. Sub-cultures tend to develop in large organisation to reflect common problems, situations and experiences faced by employees in the organisation (Martins and Von der Ohe, 2006). Organisations develop subcultures because of functional differences, gender, socio-economic and educational backgrounds (Deal and Kennedy, 1982). Sub-cultures exist independently of organisational culture and a small group may have its own distinct set of values, beliefs and attitudes (Lok and Crawford, 1999). Martins and Von der Ohe (2006) argued that variables that play a role in the formation of sub-cultures are departmental groupings, race groups, geographical distribution, occupational categories or the influence of a specific manager. This implies that individual differences have an influence in the creation or development of sub-cultures within the organisation. Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Military organisations are large in nature and they are at the risk of having sub-cultures. The challenge of having sub-cultures in the organisation is due to the different effects a subculture have on individuals in the organisation. Hence this study is motivated by the need to gain a better insight into the effects of demographic factors or individual differences (race, age and job level) on the three dimensions of organisational culture; in order to indicate to policymakers and managers where improvements can be made, and to helps them to develop strategies and policies that could create an ideal organisational culture and to manage diversity. There is therefore a perceived need to augment the South African literature base regarding individual differences, diversity management and organisational culture in particular. Based on the above motivation and the literature review, the main purpose of this study is to determine individual differences that influence employees’ perceptions of their organisational culture in the South African Army. The following hypothesis was formulated for this study. Hypothesis: There are statistically significant individual differences regarding the participants’ perception of the organisational culture. Copyright by author(s); CC-BY 1750 The Clute Institute The Journal of Applied Business Research – September/October 2015 Volume 31, Number 5 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD Research Approach A quantitative design was followed in this study in order to achieve the research objectives of the empirical study (Kerlinger, 1986). Survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a random sample of participants. Participants and Sampling Strategy The total population of the study comprised of 4 350 employees of the military organisation. Simple random sampling technique was used to ensure that all employees within the department had an equal chance to be included in the sample (Keller and Warrack, 2000). The 238 participants of this study who are employed at managerial and staff level, were randomly selected by means of a computerised program. They were from various divisions and directorates within the army. All participants received the questionnaire with a covering letter from the researchers which introduced the study and explained its purpose. It also included instructions for completing and returning the questionnaire upon completion, the method for participant’s selection, anonymity and confidential nature of the research process. Measuring Instruments Section A of the questionnaire comprised of th …Discussion: Organisational Culture Audit To Determine Individual Differences Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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