Discussion: Psychology Question

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February 5, 2013 University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing New research has found that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily ba? sis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores. a b e g d RELATED TOPICS FULL STORY Health & Medicine New research from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing has found that children who regu? larly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had signifi? cantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores. & Children’s Health & Diet and Weight Loss & Public Health Education & Infant’s Health Mind & Brain & Intelligence & Child Psychology & Child Development & K-12 Education ADVERTISEMENT HelloFresh™ Huge Savings New season, new dinner routine. Get $100 off across your first 4 boxes! HelloFresh™ Open In one of the first studies to examine IQ and breakfast consump? tion, researchers examined data from 1,269 children six years old in China, where breakfast is highly valued, and concluded that children who did not eat breakfast regularly had 5.58 points lower verbal, 2.50 points lower performance, and 4.6 points lower total IQ scores than children who often or always ate breakfast after adjusting for seven sociodemographic confounders. “Childhood is a critical period in which dietary and lifestyle pat? terns are initiated, and these habits can have important immediate and long-term implications,” said lead author Jianghong-Liu, PhD, RN, FAAN, associate professor at Penn Nursing. “Breakfast habits appear to be no exception, and irregular breakfast eating has al? ready been associated with a number of unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, frequent alcohol use, and infrequent exercise.” At age 6, a child’s cognitive ability as both the verbal and perfor? mance levels is rapidly developing. Discussion: Psychology Question Both the nutritional and social aspects of breakfast play a role. After a whole night of fasting, breakfast serves as a means to supply “fuel” to the brain. Mean? while, social interaction at breakfast time with parents may pro? mote brain development. Mealtime discussions may facilitate cognitive development by o?ering children the opportunity to ex? pand their vocabulary, practice synthesizing and comprehending stories, and acquire general knowledge, noted the authors. The researchers suggest that schools play a role in stressing the importance of eating breakfast by delaying start times and/or pro? viding breakfast to allow students to profit from the cognitive ben? efits of eating before a morning curriculum. “Because adequate nutrition in early childhood has been linked to increased IQ through childhood, which is related to decreased childhood behavioral disorders, better career satisfaction, and so? cioeconomic success in adults, breakfast consumption could ulti? mately benefit long-term physical and mental health outcomes as well a quality of life,” said Dr. Liu. “These findings may reflect nu? tritional as well as social benefits of breakfast consumption on children and hold important public health implications regarding regular breakfast consumption in early young children. This study was based on data collected from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study, led by Dr. Liu, an on-going prospective longi? tudinal study with the main aim of assessing the early health risk factors for the development of child neurobehavioral outcomes. The study was funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. RELATED TERMS Legal Explore ELANTRA Most Popular this week HEALTH & MEDICINE The Right ‘5-a-Day’ Mix Is 2 Fruit and 3 Vegetable Servings for Longer Life Study Estimates Two-Thirds of COVID-19 Hospitalizations Due to Four Conditions Study of Coronavirus Variants Predicts Virus Evolving to Escape Current Vaccines MIND & BRAIN Neanderthals Had the Capacity to Perceive and Produce Human Speech Astrocytes Derived from Patients With Bipolar Disorder Malfunction A Memory Without a Brain LIVING & WELL Could Catnip Become the New Insect Repellent? Belly Fat Resistant to Every-Other-Day Fasting Boy or Girl? 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Discussion: Psychology Question EHD-03742; No of Pages 6 Early Human Development xxx (2013) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Early Human Development journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/earlhumdev Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children Jianghong Liu a,?, Wei-Ting Hwang b, Barbra Dickerman a, Charlene Compher a a b School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 June 2012 Received in revised form 7 January 2013 Accepted 8 January 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Nutrition Breakfast IQ Cognitive ability Intelligence Children a b s t r a c t Background: Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized speci?c measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence — Revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Results: Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had signi?cantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pb 0.001) compared to children who “sometimes” have breakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Conclusion: Findings may re?ect nutritional as well as social bene?ts of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Breakfast is often regarded as the most important meal of the day, and increasing evidence suggests that eating breakfast can yield many health bene?ts for growing children, ranging from improved overall dietary quality [1] to enhanced classroom performance [2]. Observational [3] and intervention [4] studies have also established a strong link between breakfast consumption and children’s cognitive abilities. As Gibson & Green outlined in a review, it has long been suggested that manipulations of blood glucose levels result in alterations in cognitive processing ef?ciency, while more recent evidence calls attention to the neuro-hormonal perturbations linked to meal intake which leads to cognitive outcomes [5]. Much research has demonstrated that breakfast in?uences speci?c components of cognitive function, including concentration level [6], school performance [7–9], attention [4,10–13], and memory [14,15]. Discussion: Psychology Question Very recently, Taki et al. found that the type of breakfast consumed by Japanese children and adolescents can be linked to brain gray and white matter volumes and IQ [16]. However, whether ? Corresponding author at: University of Pennsylvania, Schools of Nursing and Medicine, 418 Curie Blvd., Room 426, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6096. Tel.: +1 215 898 8293. E-mail address: [email protected] (J. Liu). breakfast consumption frequency has a particular impact on broad cognitive performance, such as verbal and performance IQ, is unknown. Childhood is a critical period in which dietary and lifestyle patterns are initiated [17], and these habits can have important immediate and long-term implications. Breakfast habits appear to be no exception [1,18], and irregular breakfast eating has already been associated with a number of unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, frequent alcohol use, and infrequent exercise [19–22]. Chen and colleagues [23] have even reported that maintaining the frequency of breakfast eating at “seldom” and changing the frequency from “often” to “seldom” were both associated with lower quality of life among Japanese schoolchildren. Since early childhood is a time of rapid neurological development, additional research on the effects of breakfast-eating habits on cognitive performance in young children would be bene?cial. Early identi?cation of the cognitive effects of breakfast on young children could help guide future interventions during this time of rapid brain and health behavior development. Much of the current literature has been limited to school-age adolescents and young adults, or small, Western samples of elementary school to college students [24,25]. We aim to extend the body of research on breakfast and cognition by exploring the importance of regular breakfast eating in Chinese kindergarten-age children using a comprehensive indicator of cognitive ability (verbal and performance IQ). Breakfast is highly valued in 0378-3782/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.01.006 Please cite this article as: Liu J, et al, Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children, Early Hum Dev (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.01.006 2 J. Liu et al. / Early Human Development xxx (2013) xxx–xxx China, and Chinese adolescents are less likely to skip this meal when compared to those in Western countries [1,26–30]. This high incidence of stable breakfast habits in China makes it an appropriate sample for testing the potential bene?ts of habitual breakfast consumption on cognition. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to test our hypothesis that consistent breakfast consumption in a homogenous population of Chinese kindergarten children is associated with increased verbal and performance IQ scores, independent of parental and familial sociodemographic factors. IQ test was performed on 32 ?ve-year old children in the sample to determine the reliability of testing prior to conducting a large scale IQ test. Two approaches to reliability have been taken: (1) test-retest reliability (across time) within three weeks and (2) the inter-rater reliability (across two examiners) were tested by the correlation between assessments of the two raters. We reported that IQ test procedures were adequately reliable with a test-retest reliability of 0.87 and inter-rater reliability of 0.91 before we conducted the large-sample testing [32]. The IQ test was conducted in a quiet classroom within each kindergarten during various times of the day. 2. Methods 2.1. Subjects In this cross-sectional study, subjects were drawn from The Jintan Child Study, which includes a cohort of 1656 pre-school children (55.5% boys, 4.5% girls), accounting for 24.3% of all children age 5 and 6 years in Jintan city. Discussion: Psychology Question They were initially recruited in the spring of 2005 in the city of Jintan, located in the southeastern coastal region of mainland China [26,31]. Detailed sampling and research procedures of this larger cohort study have been described elsewhere [26,32,33]. Brie?y, the China Jintan Child Cohort Study is an ongoing prospective longitudinal study with the main aim of assessing the early health risk factors for the development of child neurobehavioral outcomes. The pre-schools in the cohort were chosen to be representative of the geographic, social, and economic pro?les of Jintan [26,32,34]. The initial recruitment response rate was 97%; among these initial respondents, 98% agreed to participate [26]. It was not possible to perform analyses on the non-respondents due to a very limited number (3%). In the last year of pre-school (in China, this is called “kindergarten”), parents were asked to complete a questionnaire including health and sociodemographic data. Children were tested on their IQ. This study sample consisted of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) for whom IQ data were available. Approval from Institutional Review Boards was obtained from the University of Pennsylvania and the ethical committee for research at Jintan Hospital in China. 2.2. Measures 2.2.1. Breakfast habits Parental reports on children’s breakfast consumption habits were obtained through the following question: “In a typical week, how often do your children have breakfast? 1 = Always (6–7 days a week), 2 = Often (4–5 days a week), 3 = Sometimes (2–3 days a week), 4 = Rarely (0–1 days a week).” Categories 3 and 4 were combined due to very few “Rarely” responses. Our preliminary analysis showed that the magnitude, direction, and signi?cance of the effect of breakfast on PIQ, VIQ, and FIQ are very similar for the “always” and “often” groups. Additionally, by testing contrasts from a linear regression that included each of the three breakfast groups separately, we did not ?nd any dose– response relationship in IQ when comparing “always” vs. “often” breakfast groups. These results indicate that the two groups can be reasonably combined. The combination of these variables also allows for a more straightforward interpretation of the results. Therefore, our analysis used dichotomized breakfast habit variable of “always” and “often” versus “sometimes” and “rarely”. 2.2.2. Cognition (IQ) At the age of 6 years when the children were in kindergarten, we assessed their IQ using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence — Revised [35]. Details on the IQ assessment procedure can be found in Liu and Lynn [32]. The Chinese version of the WPPSI-R has established reliability and validity among Chinese children [36–38]. Two bachelor’s-prepared pediatric nurses, who participated in an intensive, three-week training course on administering IQ tests, perfor …b Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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