Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health.

Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? Please see the attached below for the Templates and instruction to do the power point I added 2 articles reading and work cited already. Just summary the research article. Work cited: Riebschleger, J., Grové, C., Cavanaugh, D., & Costello, S. (2017). Mental Health Literacy Content for Children of Parents with a Mental Illness: Thematic Analysis of a Literature Review. Brain Sciences (2076-3425) , 7 (11), 1–19.… Wearden, A. (2014). Health behaviour interventions should not neglect people with serious mental health problems. British Journal of Health Psychology , 19 (4), 683–687.… powerpoint_template_health_ed.pptx .pdf .pdf instruction.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Title Course & Student Name Goals & Objectives Introduction/Description Content/Topics Treatments Prevention 2 research articles on your topic Evaluation Methods Classroom Set-Up Conclusion References • Use bullets • Include speaker notes under slides • Use graphics (pictures, graph, etc.) where appropriate • Check spelling, grammar, punctuation • Do not exceed 15 slides (total of 15) • Do not use copyrighted pictures • Make presentation visually appealing Grading Rubric Content Possible Points Introduction/Description 5 Goals & Objectives 10 Content/Topics 15 Treatments 10 Prevention 10 2 Research Articles 10 Evaluation of Goals/Objectives 15 Classroom Set-Up/Location 5 Conclusion 5 References 5 Speaker Notes 5 Graphics 5 Total 100 Points Earned Comments 683 British Journal of Health Psychology (2014), 19, 683–687 © 2014 The British Psychological Society Editorial Health behaviour interventions should not neglect people with serious mental health problems People with serious mental health problems are more likely than the general population to suffer from a range of physical health problems and yet are often excluded from health behaviour intervention studies and other research by health psychologists. After outlining the scope of the problem, this editorial will consider some of the particular physical health-related issues that people with mental health problems face and will suggest some factors which need to be taken into account when designing or adapting interventions for these populations. The risk of premature death is greatly increased in people with psychosis and other serious mental health problems, including those with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar disorder. A recent 25-year follow-up of a community cohort of people with schizophrenia in a UK city reported an all-cause standardized mortality ratio of 289, meaning that, compared to the general population, the sample had an almost threefold increase in risk of dying over the 25-year period under study. Further analysis revealed that these excess deaths were mostly from the common causes of death in the population, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While there was a welcome drop in deaths from accidents, suicides, and homicides, there was evidence of a possible increase in deaths from cardiovascular disease (Brown, Kim, Mitchell, & Inskip, 2010). These health inequalities are seen in many countries (Saha, Chant, & McGrath, 2007) and are not confined to cardiovascular health. For example, people with schizophrenia have higher lifetime incidences than are seen in the general population of infections and dental problems (Leucht, Burkard, Henderson, Maj, & Sartorius, 2007). A recent report by the Schizophrenia Commission in the United Kingdom (Schizophrenia Commission, 2012) described the early mortality and health inequalities suffered by people with schizophrenia and psychosis as ‘a scandal’ and made a series of recommendations to address the Government’s avowed intention to reduce health inequalities associated with mental health problems (Department of Health, 2011). Various reasons have been advanced for the rates of early death in these populations. Numerous institutional barriers to good health care provision, including poor access to services, fragmentation of services and lack of continuity of care, inadequate monitoring, and stigmatization of people with mental health problems have been described in studies emanating from many countries (De Hert et al., 2011). In relation to death from cardiovascular disease, the role of the side effects of antipsychotic medication, particularly that class of medication known as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), has been widely debated. While some have argued that the use of antipsychotic medication, including SGAs, is not associated with increased risk of death overall, and may DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12117 684 Editorial in fact save lives (Tiihonen et al., 2009)Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. , Foley and Morley (2011) showed that during the first few months of treatment with SGAs, users may gain up to 8 kg in weight. This weight gain is associated with numerous indicators of cardiometabolic disturbance including insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. It has been suggested that, at the very least, rigorous programmes of screening and monitoring should be put in place to safeguard the health of those using these medications (De Hert, Detraux, van Winkel, Yu, & Correll, 2012). Over and above the effects of medication, we have known for some time that certain health damaging behaviours (particularly those associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, such as smoking and low levels of physical activity) are generally more prevalent in people with mental health problems (see Vancampfort et al., 2010; for a review). A large US study by Kilbourne et al. (2009) showed that both smoking and reduced physical activity contributed independently to the risk of mortality from heart disease. Even if non-pharmacological therapies can be shown to be an effective and less dangerous option in terms of effects on physical health (see for example, Morrison et al., 2014), it is likely that the prescription of SGAs will continue to be an important aspect of treatment for some time to come (Lancet, 2011). There is a need to ensure that people with serious mental health problems are able to benefit from interventions that may help to alleviate the impact of medication, or improve their health in other ways (McNamee, Mead, MacGillivray, & Lawrie, 2013). It is therefore essential that health psychologists do not exclude people who happen to have mental health problems from their studies – and that, if necessary, they adapt their protocols to the specific context and needs of these populations. Special consideration may need to be given to issues of consent and distress in potentially vulnerable populations, and early engagement with ethics committees may be helpful in this regard. Staff delivering interventions may require additional training in motivational techniques and support in overcoming the difficulties (e.g., disrupted circadian rhythms) that may be associated with mental health problems. Smoking is known to be more prevalent in people with mental health problems, especially those with schizophrenia who may be more vulnerable to both starting smoking and to the addictive effects of nicotine (De Leon & Diaz, 2005). This suggests the need for more research into the particular motivations and behavioural characteristics of smokers with schizophrenia or psychosis and for interventions to prevent smoking initiation or assist cessation in high-risk populations. The topic of smoking cessation in these populations can be controversial, with some staff for example believing that instituting smoking bans in in-patient units may be counter-productive, difficult to enforce, or may even constitute an infringement of service-users’ human rights. However, given that smoking cessation interventions which are effective in the general population are equally effective in people with serious mental health problems (Banham & Gilbody, 2010), a good case can be made for more research into the flexible and sensitive use of a variety of smoking cessation interventions with these populations. We have some idea of which psychological interventions are effective in increasing physical activity and improving diet, behaviours which underpin weight control, in general populations (e.g., Michie et al., 2009). With respect to populations with serious mental health problems, we have emerging evidence on the correlates of and barriers to physical inactivity in people with schizophrenia (Vancampfort et al., 2012). For example, willingness to be physically active, especially in public, may be affected by low self-esteem and poor body image related to recent rapid weight gain (De Hert et al., 2006). Similarly, there are particular issues to face when designing dietary interventions. Those who are taking SGA medication may experience an increase in appetite and especially a craving for sweet, carbohydrate-rich foods (Zimmerman, Kraus, Himmerich, Schuld, & Pollm€acher, Editorial 685 2003) and so may require tailored guidance on selecting lower carbohydrate but hunger-satisfying foods and on environmental control. The support and involvement of family members is likely to be important both in the initiation and maintenance of physical activity programmes, particularly when access to facilities, and the social environment in general is impoverished(Aschbrenner et al., 2013).Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. Similarly, familymembers may helpfully be involved in creating the environment for and supporting attempts to eat a healthy balanced diet. In some cases, cognitive difficulties may have to be taken into account. These may include attentional and information processing problems when reading or engaging in discussions which form part of the intervention. While contextual factors such as those mentioned above may vary, it is probable that behaviour change techniques which are effective in the general population will be effective in populations of people with mental health problems. We now need studies which draw on the theoretical and methodological expertise of health psychologists to explicitly test which techniques to use to best help people with schizophrenia, psychosis, and other serious mental health problems. We recently tested an intervention to prevent or reduce weight gain in people recovering from recent onset psychosis (Lovell et al., 2014). Prior to designing the intervention, a systematic review of existing randomized controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions for weight management in people with psychosis revealed that few of these were explicitly informed by psychological theory (Bradshaw et al., 2012), and while most aimed to bring about both healthier eating and increased levels of physical activity, the reports contained littleornodescription ofhow thiswas actuallyperformed.Fuller reporting of intervention contents (e.g., using guidelines like the recently published TIDieR checklist; Hoffmann et al., 2014) would therefore be helpful in guiding future research. When designing our intervention, interviews with service users gave us insight into their beliefs about weight gain and its consequences. We also asked service users, carers, and other stakeholders about their preferences for format and mode of delivery of an intervention. Our intervention, described in manuals and accompanied by a website, was informed by the framework of Leventhal’s Common-Sense Model (McAndrew et al., 2008). The intervention involved a motivational phase in which individual participants’ beliefs about weight gain and its consequences were elicited and a regulation phase involving the setting and reviewing of behavioural goals (e.g., to eat X portions of vegetables each day, or to swim for 30 min three times per week) with action plans. It seems particularly important to explore service-users’ beliefs about their weight gain, as some of these may be erroneous (Bradshaw et al., 2012), may be associated with less than helpful dieting practices (Strassnig, Brar, & Ganguli, 2005), and may impact on motivations to change. Where unhelpful beliefs were identified, we provided information to address them both verbally and in written materials and discussed these with participants. The selection of goals and development of action plans could then be based on a more adaptive ‘common-sense model’. We trained support-time recovery workers in techniques of belief elicitation, goal setting, review and feedback, and involved volunteer service users in the training. Our intervention was designed with the specific needs of the target population in mind, was well received, and had excellent retention, but was not effective in bringing about either major changes in dietary behaviour or increased activity levels, and consequently the effect on BMI was not significant. While goals, actions, and progress were reviewed as specified at each intervention session, goal planning records suggest that in some cases more specific behavioural goals might have been set, and post-intervention interviews indicated that more regular and more objective monitoring of weight, dietary intake, and activity (e.g., using actigraphy) would have been acceptable 686 Editorial to many participants. Given the importance of self-monitoring in weight loss and possibly in weight loss maintenance (Sniehotta, Simpson, & Greaves, 2014), this might have improved the efficacy of the intervention. Over recent years, health psychologists have been engaged in the development of effective evidence-based psychological interventions to address pressing public health problems such as obesity, lack of exercise, and smoking. We should take care to include all sections of the population in our studies, working together with colleagues from other disciplines to adapt and refine our interventions to meet the needs of some of the most neglected members of our society. Acknowledgements I would like to thank two anonymous reviewers and my co-editor, David French, for their helpful suggestions for improvement of a previous version of this editorial. Alison Wearden (School of Psychological Sciences and Manchester Centre for Health Psychology, University of Manchester, UK) References Aschbrenner, K., Carpenter-Song, E., Mueser, K., Kinney, A., Pratt, S., & Bartels, S. (2013). A qualitative study of social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change among persons with serious mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 48, 207–212. doi:10.1007/ s10597-012-9552-8 Banham, L., & Gilbody, S. (2010). Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. Smoking cessation in severe mental illness. What works? Addiction, 105, 1176–1189. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02946.x Bradshaw, T., Wearden, A., Marshall, M., Warburton, J., Husain, N., Pedley, R., . . . Lovell, K. (2012). Developing a healthy living intervention for people with early psychosis using the Medical Research Council’s guidelines on complex interventions: Phase 1 of the HELPER – InterACT programme. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49, 398–406. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.10.008 Brown, S., Kim, M., Mitchell, C., & Inskip, H. (2010). Twenty-five year mortality of a community cohort with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 116–121. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp. 109.067512 De Hert, M., Cohen, D., Bobes, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M., Leucht, S., Ndetei, D. M., . . . Correll, C. U. (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level. World Psychiatry, 10, 138–151. doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2011.tb00036.x De Hert, M., Detraux, J., van Winkel, R., Yu, W., & Correll, C. U. (2012). Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with antipsychotic drugs. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8, 114– 126. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2011.156 De Hert, M., Peuskens, B., van Winkel, R., Kalnicka, D., Hanssens, L., Van Eyck, D., . . . Peuskens, J. (2006). Body weight and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia evaluated with B-WISE. Schizophrenia Research, 88, 222–226. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.07.025 De Leon, J., & Diaz, F. J. (2005). A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates and association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophrenia Research, 76, 135–157. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.010 Department of Health, Health Inequalties National Support Team (2011). Improving the physical health and wellbeing of people with mental health problems: Reducing the gaps in premature mortality and healthy life expectancy. London, UK: Department of Health. Foley, D. L., & Morley, K. I. (2011). Systematic review of early cardiometabolic outcomes of the first treated episode of psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 609–616. Editorial 687 Hoffmann, T. C., Glasziou, P. P., Boutron, I., Milne, R., Perera, R., Altman, D. G., . . . Michie, S. (2014). Better reporting of interventions: Template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. British Medical Journal, 348, g1687. doi:10.1136/bmj.g 1687 Kilbourne, A. M., Morden, N. E., Austin, K., Ilgen, M., McCarthy, J. F., Dalack, G., & Blow, F. C. (2009). Excess heart-disease-related mortality in a national study of patients with mental disorders: identifying modifiable risk factors. General Hospital Psychiatry, 31, 555–563. doi:10.1016/j. genhosppsych.2009.07.008 Lancet (2011). Editorial. No mental health without physical health. Lancet, 377, 611. doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(11)60211-0 Leucht, S., Burkard, T., Henderson, J., Maj, M., & Sartorius, N. (2007). Physical illness and schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116, 317–333. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01095.x Lovell, K., Wearden, A., Bradshaw, T., Tomenson, B., Pedley, R., Davies, L. M., . . . Marshall, M. (2014). An exploratory randomized controlled study of a healthy living intervention in early intervention services for psychosis: The INTERvention to encourage ACTivity, improve diet and reduce weight gain (INTERACT) study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75, 498–505. doi:10. 4088/JCP13m08503 McAndrew, L. M., Musumeci-Szabo, T. J., Mora, P. A., Vileikyte, L., Burns, E., Halm, E. A., . . . Leventhal, H. (2008). Using the common sense model to design interventions for the prevention and management of chronic illness threats: From description to process. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 195–204. doi:10.1348/135910708X295604 McNamee, L., Mead, G., MacGillivray, S., & Lawrie, S. M. (2013). Schizophrenia, poor physical health and physical activity: Evidence-based interventions are required to reduce major health inequalities. British Journal of Psychiatry, 203, 239–241. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.125070 Michie, S., Abraham, C., Whittington, C., McAteer, J., & Gupta, S. (2009). Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: A meta-regression. Health Psychology, 28, 690–701. doi:10.1037/a0016136 Morrison, A. P., Turkington, D., Pyle, M., Spencer, H., Brabban, A., Dunn, G., . . . Hutton, P. (2014). Cognitive therapy for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders not taking antipsychotic drugs: A single-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 383, 1395–1403. doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(13)62246-1 Saha, S., Chant, D., & McGrath, J. (2007). A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia. Is the differential mortality gap worsening over time? Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 1124–1131. Schizophrenia Commission (2012). The abandoned illness. A report by the Schizophrenia Commission. London, UK: Rethink Mental Illness. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1123 Sniehotta, F. F., Simpson, S. A., & Greaves, C. J. (2014). Weight loss maintenance. An agenda for health psychology. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19, 459–464. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12107 Strassnig, M., Brar, J. S., & Ganguli, R. (2005). Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 425–432. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.04.007 Tiihonen, J., L€ onnqvist, J., Wahlbeck, K., Klaukka, T., Niskanen, L., Tanskanen, A., & Haukka, J. (2009). 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: A population-based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet, 374, 620–627. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61072-2 Vancampfort, D., Knapen, J., Probst, M., Scheewe, T., Remans, S., & De Hert, M. (2012). A systematic review of correlates of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125, 352–362. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01814.x Vancampfort, D., Knapen, J. …Do a power point for the topic: Mental illness/behavior health. 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