Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay

Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Chapter 11 – Learning Objectives: What Is Social Psychology’s Focus? 11-1. Identify the three main focuses of social psychology. Social Thinking 11-2. Explain how the fundamental attribution error describes how we tend to explain others’ behavior compared with our own. 11-3. Define attitude, and discuss how attitudes and actions affect each other. 11-4. Explain the difference between peripheral route persuasion and central route persuasion. 11-5. Describe how we can share our views more effectively. Social Influence 11-6. Explain what experiments on conformity and obedience reveal about the power of social influence. 11-7. Describe what the social influence studies teach us about ourselves, and discuss how much power we have as individuals. 11-8. Describe how the presence of others influences our actions, via social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation. 11-9. Explain how group interaction can enable group polarization. 11-10. Describe the role the internet plays in group polarization. 11-11. Explain how group interaction enables groupthink. Social Relations 11-12. Identify the three parts of prejudice, and differentiate between explicit and implicit prejudice. 11-13. Identify the groups that are frequent targets of prejudice. 11-14. Describe some social, emotional, and cognitive roots of prejudice, and discuss some ways to combat prejudice. 11-15. Describe the biological factors that make us more likely to be aggressive. 11-16. Discuss psychological and social-cultural factors that may trigger aggressive behavior. 11-17. Explain why we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others. 11-18. Describe how romantic love typically changes as time passes. 11-19. Define altruism, and identify the times when we are most—and least—likely to help. 11-20. Discuss how social norms explain helping behavior. 11-21. Identify the social processes that fuel social conflict, and discuss how we can transform feelings of prejudice and conflict into behaviors that promote peace. Chapter 11 – Summary: Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. In thinking about others’ behavior and its possible causes, we tend to underestimate the influence of the situation, thus committing the fundamental attribution error. Attitudes affect behavior when external influences are minimal, especially when the attitude is stable, specific to the behavior, and easily recalled. Our actions can also modify our attitudes, especially when we feel responsible for those actions. Research on social influence indicates that behavior is contagious. When we are unsure about our judgments, we are likely to adjust them toward the group standard. Sometimes, social influences are even strong enough to make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty. A minority committed to a position can, however, influence a majority. The presence of others can arouse individuals, boosting their performance on easy tasks but hindering it on difficult ones. When people pool their efforts toward a group goal, individuals may free-ride on others’ efforts. Sometimes, group experiences arouse people and make them anonymous, and thus less self-aware and self-restrained. Within groups, discussions can enhance members’ prevailing attitudes and produce group polarization or, when the desire for group harmony is strong, groupthink. Prejudice can be both overt and subtle. As overt prejudice wanes, subtle prejudice lingers. Social barriers and biases are often unconscious. Some groups are more likely targets of prejudice than other groups. Prejudice arises from social inequalities and divisions, emotional scapegoating, and cognitive shortcuts, such as the availability heuristic and victim blaming. Aggression is a product of nature and nurture. In addition to genetic, neural, and biochemical influences, aversive events heighten people’s hostilities. Aggressive behavior is also learned through rewards and by observing role models and media violence. Geographical proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity of attitudes and interests influence our liking for one another. Passionate love is an aroused state we cognitively label as love. Companionate love often emerges as a relationship matures and is enhanced by equity and self-disclosure. Altruism is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others. The presence of others at an emergency can inhibit helping. Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay The bystander effect is most apparent in situations where the presence of others inhibits one’s noticing an event, interpreting it as an emergency, or assuming responsibility for offering help. Many factors influence our willingness to help someone in distress, including social norms or expectations. Conflicts are fueled by enemies forming mirror-image perceptions of one another, for example. Enemies become friends when they work toward superordinate goals. Chapter 12 – Learning Objectives: What Is Personality? 12-1. Define personality, and identify the theories that inform our understanding of personality. Psychodynamic Theories 12-2. Explain how Sigmund Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders led to his view of the unconscious mind. 12-3. Describe Freud’s view of personality. 12-4. Identify the developmental stages proposed by Freud. 12-5. Describe how Freud thought people defended themselves against anxiety. 12-6. Identify which of Freud’s ideas were accepted or rejected by his followers. 12-7. Describe projective tests and how they are used, and discuss the criticisms they have faced. 12-8. Discuss how today’s psychologists view Freud’s psychoanalysis. 12-9. Discuss how modern research has developed our understanding of the unconscious. Humanistic Theories 12-10. Describe how humanistic psychologists viewed personality, and explain their goal in studying personality. 12-11. Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed a person’s sense of self. 12-12. Describe how humanistic theories have influenced psychology, and discuss the criticisms they have faced. Trait Theories 12-13. Explain how psychologists use traits to describe personality. 12-14. Identify some common misunderstandings about introversion. 12-15. Describe personality inventories. 12-16. Identify the traits that seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation. 12-17. Discuss whether research supports the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations. Social-Cognitive Theories 12-18. Describe how social-cognitive theorists view personality development, and explain how they explore behavior. 12-19. Discuss the criticisms social-cognitive theorists have faced. Exploring the Self 12-20. Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self, and discuss the importance of self-esteem to our well-being. 12-21. Identify the evidence that reveals self-serving bias, and explain how defensive and secure self-esteem differ. 12-22. Describe how individualist and collectivist cultures differ in their values and goals. Chapter 12 – Summary: Personality is one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Psychodynamic theories focus on the unconscious and early childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud, in his psychoanalytic perspective, proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motives influenced personality. For Sigmund Freud, conflict between pleasure-seeking biological impulses and social restraints centered on three interacting systems: id, ego, and superego. Freud believed that children develop through psychosexual stages and that people’s later problems are rooted in how they resolve conflicts associated with these stages. The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud’s basic ideas but placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and on social influences. Today, psychodynamic theorists agree that recent research contradicts many of Freud’s ideas. However, some of his ideas are enduring. Contemporary research confirms that, more than most of us realize, our lives are guided by unconscious information processing. The humanistic perspective emphasizes human growth potential. Abraham Maslow believed that if basic human needs are met, people will strive to actualize their highest potential and then strive for purpose beyond the self. From his person-centered perspective, Carl Rogers suggested that being genuine, accepting, and empathic helps others to develop a positive self-concept. The trait perspective attempts to describe the characteristic patterns of behavior. Researchers have isolated five distinct dimensions of personality that seem to apply to most cultures. People’s specific behaviors vary across situations as their inner traits interact with particular environments. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes how internal personal factors combine with the environment to influence behavior. Researchers assess how people’s behaviors and beliefs both affect and are affected by their situations. Psychology has generated so much research on the self because it is the center of personality—the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. Studies confirm the benefits of positive self-esteem but also point to the possible hazards of unrealistically high self-esteem. Compared with defensive self-esteem, secure self-esteem depends less on external evaluations and enables us to lose ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self. The meaning of self varies from culture to culture with individualists being more independent and collectivists emphasizing interdependence. … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay

Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Chapter 11 – Learning Objectives: What Is Social Psychology’s Focus? 11-1. Identify the three main focuses of social psychology. Social Thinking 11-2. Explain how the fundamental attribution error describes how we tend to explain others’ behavior compared with our own. 11-3. Define attitude, and discuss how attitudes and actions affect each other. 11-4. Explain the difference between peripheral route persuasion and central route persuasion. 11-5. Describe how we can share our views more effectively. Social Influence 11-6. Explain what experiments on conformity and obedience reveal about the power of social influence. 11-7. Describe what the social influence studies teach us about ourselves, and discuss how much power we have as individuals. 11-8. Describe how the presence of others influences our actions, via social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation. 11-9. Explain how group interaction can enable group polarization. 11-10. Describe the role the internet plays in group polarization. 11-11. Explain how group interaction enables groupthink. Social Relations 11-12. Identify the three parts of prejudice, and differentiate between explicit and implicit prejudice. 11-13. Identify the groups that are frequent targets of prejudice. 11-14. Describe some social, emotional, and cognitive roots of prejudice, and discuss some ways to combat prejudice. 11-15. Describe the biological factors that make us more likely to be aggressive. 11-16. Discuss psychological and social-cultural factors that may trigger aggressive behavior. 11-17. Explain why we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others. 11-18. Describe how romantic love typically changes as time passes. 11-19. Define altruism, and identify the times when we are most—and least—likely to help. 11-20. Discuss how social norms explain helping behavior. 11-21. Identify the social processes that fuel social conflict, and discuss how we can transform feelings of prejudice and conflict into behaviors that promote peace. Chapter 11 – Summary: Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. In thinking about others’ behavior and its possible causes, we tend to underestimate the influence of the situation, thus committing the fundamental attribution error. Attitudes affect behavior when external influences are minimal, especially when the attitude is stable, specific to the behavior, and easily recalled. Our actions can also modify our attitudes, especially when we feel responsible for those actions. Research on social influence indicates that behavior is contagious. When we are unsure about our judgments, we are likely to adjust them toward the group standard. Sometimes, social influences are even strong enough to make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty. A minority committed to a position can, however, influence a majority. The presence of others can arouse individuals, boosting their performance on easy tasks but hindering it on difficult ones. When people pool their efforts toward a group goal, individuals may free-ride on others’ efforts. Sometimes, group experiences arouse people and make them anonymous, and thus less self-aware and self-restrained. Within groups, discussions can enhance members’ prevailing attitudes and produce group polarization or, when the desire for group harmony is strong, groupthink. Prejudice can be both overt and subtle. As overt prejudice wanes, subtle prejudice lingers. Social barriers and biases are often unconscious. Some groups are more likely targets of prejudice than other groups. Prejudice arises from social inequalities and divisions, emotional scapegoating, and cognitive shortcuts, such as the availability heuristic and victim blaming. Aggression is a product of nature and nurture. In addition to genetic, neural, and biochemical influences, aversive events heighten people’s hostilities. Aggressive behavior is also learned through rewards and by observing role models and media violence. Geographical proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity of attitudes and interests influence our liking for one another. Passionate love is an aroused state we cognitively label as love. Companionate love often emerges as a relationship matures and is enhanced by equity and self-disclosure. Altruism is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others. The presence of others at an emergency can inhibit helping. Everglades University Orlando Social Psychology & Deindividuation Experiments Essay The bystander effect is most apparent in situations where the presence of others inhibits one’s noticing an event, interpreting it as an emergency, or assuming responsibility for offering help. Many factors influence our willingness to help someone in distress, including social norms or expectations. Conflicts are fueled by enemies forming mirror-image perceptions of one another, for example. Enemies become friends when they work toward superordinate goals. Chapter 12 – Learning Objectives: What Is Personality? 12-1. Define personality, and identify the theories that inform our understanding of personality. Psychodynamic Theories 12-2. Explain how Sigmund Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders led to his view of the unconscious mind. 12-3. Describe Freud’s view of personality. 12-4. Identify the developmental stages proposed by Freud. 12-5. Describe how Freud thought people defended themselves against anxiety. 12-6. Identify which of Freud’s ideas were accepted or rejected by his followers. 12-7. Describe projective tests and how they are used, and discuss the criticisms they have faced. 12-8. Discuss how today’s psychologists view Freud’s psychoanalysis. 12-9. Discuss how modern research has developed our understanding of the unconscious. Humanistic Theories 12-10. Describe how humanistic psychologists viewed personality, and explain their goal in studying personality. 12-11. Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed a person’s sense of self. 12-12. Describe how humanistic theories have influenced psychology, and discuss the criticisms they have faced. Trait Theories 12-13. Explain how psychologists use traits to describe personality. 12-14. Identify some common misunderstandings about introversion. 12-15. Describe personality inventories. 12-16. Identify the traits that seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation. 12-17. Discuss whether research supports the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations. Social-Cognitive Theories 12-18. Describe how social-cognitive theorists view personality development, and explain how they explore behavior. 12-19. Discuss the criticisms social-cognitive theorists have faced. Exploring the Self 12-20. Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self, and discuss the importance of self-esteem to our well-being. 12-21. Identify the evidence that reveals self-serving bias, and explain how defensive and secure self-esteem differ. 12-22. Describe how individualist and collectivist cultures differ in their values and goals. Chapter 12 – Summary: Personality is one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Psychodynamic theories focus on the unconscious and early childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud, in his psychoanalytic perspective, proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motives influenced personality. For Sigmund Freud, conflict between pleasure-seeking biological impulses and social restraints centered on three interacting systems: id, ego, and superego. Freud believed that children develop through psychosexual stages and that people’s later problems are rooted in how they resolve conflicts associated with these stages. The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud’s basic ideas but placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and on social influences. Today, psychodynamic theorists agree that recent research contradicts many of Freud’s ideas. However, some of his ideas are enduring. Contemporary research confirms that, more than most of us realize, our lives are guided by unconscious information processing. The humanistic perspective emphasizes human growth potential. Abraham Maslow believed that if basic human needs are met, people will strive to actualize their highest potential and then strive for purpose beyond the self. From his person-centered perspective, Carl Rogers suggested that being genuine, accepting, and empathic helps others to develop a positive self-concept. The trait perspective attempts to describe the characteristic patterns of behavior. Researchers have isolated five distinct dimensions of personality that seem to apply to most cultures. People’s specific behaviors vary across situations as their inner traits interact with particular environments. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes how internal personal factors combine with the environment to influence behavior. Researchers assess how people’s behaviors and beliefs both affect and are affected by their situations. Psychology has generated so much research on the self because it is the center of personality—the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. Studies confirm the benefits of positive self-esteem but also point to the possible hazards of unrealistically high self-esteem. Compared with defensive self-esteem, secure self-esteem depends less on external evaluations and enables us to lose ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self. The meaning of self varies from culture to culture with individualists being more independent and collectivists emphasizing interdependence. … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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