FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report

FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report ***Please copy the questions from the “A Poisoning” case study, answer the questions using a different color font or print. Answer the questions using the vocabulary you learned in chapter 4 ( photo picture attached). This vocabulary is also found in the video. FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report Video link: Out of what material are cell membranes made? Describe why methylmercury and dimethylmercury are far more toxic than elemental mercury? Does dimethylmercury enter the body by active or passive diffusion? Which type of active or passive diffusion? Would it be facilitated or simple? What kind of gloves are now required when handling dimethylmercury? Why do you think they are made of two different material rather than just double gloving? Hint: It relates to the same principles for #1 & 2, but with gloves rather than the body. Testosterone and estrogen are available as patches. What does this tell you about these hormones? In general, does it make sense to deliver water soluble drugs via transdermal patches? Why or why not? ALSO: Please complete the Endocrine Lab document attached with this post! Thanks attachment_1 attachment_2 attachment_3 BIOL 202 Endocrine Lab The organs of the body communicate with each other in order to coordinate their activities. People use telephones and the postal service; our bodies use the nervous and endocrine systems. The endocrine system is made up of hormones, their releasing organs and their target organs. Hormones are chemical produced by specific tissue in the body and released into the blood stream. Biochemically, hormones may be proteins (Insulin, Growth Hormone), amines (Thyroxine and Epinephrine) or steroids (Estradiol and Testosterone). The body’s nervous system is comparable to the telephone system because it sends fast, direct messages. The endocrine system is comparable to our mail system because the delivery of the message is slower. Similar to bulk mail, the message is more diffuse (reaches a greater area) and affects many organs. A hormone travels through the body via the blood but affects only the cells with receptors for that specific hormone. Hormones are a slower method of communication, but their effects are long lasting. The hypothalamus is a small penny-sized portion of the brain. The hypothalamus acts as the command center for the endocrine system. It can act either as a regulator of the anterior pituitary gland or as an endocrine organ that releases oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. For this experiment, we will focus on the hypothalamus as a regulator of the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases hormones such a thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) among others, which travel through a special blood vessel system connected to the pituitary gland. When the hormones reach the pituitary gland, they stimulate the pituitary gland to release hormones that then travel to their target organ. For example, the hypothalamus releases TRH, which travels to the pituitary gland and stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); TSH travels to the thyroid (the target organ) and stimulates the release of thyroid hormone. Hypothalamus CRH, TRH, GnRH Pituitary Gland ACTH, TSH, LH & FSH Thyroid Thyroxine Adrenal Cortisol Gonads Estradiol ? Testosterone? 1 The endocrine system keeps itself in check through feedback systems. The negative feedback system is similar to a thermostat. An increase in temperature stimulates the air conditioner to blow out cold air. When the air conditioner forces out so much cold air that the room is below the desired temperature, the thermostat detects the condition and turns off the air conditioner. In order to keep the room temperature fairly constant, the thermostat assesses the situation and turns the air conditioner on and off accordingly. The endocrine system regulates the levels of hormone released from an organ “feedback” or communicates with the organ to stop the release of any more hormones because a sufficient amount hormone has already been released. It is important to remember that negative feedback also inhibits organs higher up in the chain of command. For example, an excess of cortisol released from the adrenal glands will inhibit the further production and secretion of cortisol as well as inhibiting the pituitary gland from releasing adrenocroticotropin hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol. Excess cortisol will also inhibit the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which stimulates the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland, in other words, the gland has released enough hormone to fulfill its function; this is sensed by the body and production of the hormone ceases.FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report There is also positive feedback, in which the end product further stimulates the releasing organ. This from is feedback is less common. For the purpose of this experiment, we will look at only one of the hypothalamic releasing hormones, thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). This hormone travels to the anterior pituitary gland via the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system to stimulate production and release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It is important to know that the hypothalamus secretes a releasing hormone to regulate each of the hormones released from the anterior pituitary gland. In this way, the hypothalamus is like a command center. If the hypothalamus is not simulated, hypothalamic releasing hormones will not stimulate the anterior pituitary to release its hormones. The glands of the body increase in size much like muscle when they are excessively stimulated. This condition is called hypertrophy. For example, the lymph nodes become enlarged when we are sick, thus release more lymphocytes to fight the infection; lymphocytes are cells that protect the body against foreign infections. In a corresponding manner, if a gland is continuously inhibited, it will shrink in size or atrophy. For example, increase levels of cortisol in the blood over an extended period of time will inhibit the adrenal glands (through negative feedback), causing the glands to decrease in size. In addition to TSH and ACTH, the anterior pituitary gland also releases the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin. Each of these hormones is released into the blood stream to affect a specific target organ. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) travels to the thyroid gland and stimulates the production and release of thyroid hormone (TH). TH influences the growth rates of many body tissues and is necessary for proper central nervous system development. Its main function is to increase a person’s basal metabolic rate (BMR) and to increase heat production. Hyperthyroidism is the excessive production of thyroid hormone. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Grave’s disease; the symptoms include increased BMR, a constant feeling of warmth, nervousness, and goiter. Goiter is the term used to 2 describe an enlarged thyroid gland. The enlargement of the thyroid may be due to a defect anywhere in the pathway from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland and to the thyroid gland. Decreased levels of thyroid hormone, or hypothyroidism, may also occur. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are low BMR, decreased appetite, abnormal central nervous system development, and intolerance to cold. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released in response to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). The release of CRH is regulated by negative feedback, circadian rhythms, and stress. ACTH released from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol. Under normal conditions, excess cortisol in the bloodstream will inhibit this pathway by negative feedback to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary, as visually represented in Figure 1. By using a negative feedback system, the body produces only the amount of hormone it needs without wasting its resources. Cortisol promotes the breakdown of proteins and fats and helps the body adapt to stress. Cortisol also acts as an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drug. If cortisol is administered in large doses, its immunosuppressive properties will cause the organs of the immune system (Thymus) to shrink. Cushing’s syndrome is a condition of excess secretion of cortisol, or hypercortisolism. FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report The symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include personality changes, hypertension, osteoporosis, and weight loss. The protein degradation caused by cortisol leads to a “wasting” effect if an excess level of cortisol remains in the body. Hyposecretion of cortisol is characterized by symptoms such as defective metabolism, mental confusion, and a decrease ability to adapt to stress. 3 Hypothalamus Hypothalamus (-) Ant. pituitary Testes (-) (-) Ant. pituitary Adrenal gland Hypothalamus (-) (-) Ant. pituitary (-) Thyroid T Male sex organs Inhibit immune system Decreased Body weight Increased BMR Figure 1: Diagram of hormone control systems for testosterone, cortisol and thyroid hormone; including negative feedback relationships. Fill in the names of the hormones in the blank arrows. The anterior pituitary gland releases luteinizing hormone (LH), which travels to the Leydig cells of the testes in the male. Leydig cells are found in the connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Upon stimulation with LH, the Leydig cell release testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the male sex drive and secondary sex characteristics, such as increased body hair and deep voice. Negative effects of testosterone are male pattern baldness and increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, which can lead to acne. Decreased amounts of testosterone in the body primarily affect the sexual organs. If testosterone levels are low, males will not develop normally and will have sperm counts too low to fertilize an egg. The condition of excess levels of testosterone is rare but causes in premature sexual development. In the female, LH causes the follicle (developing egg) in the ovary to secrete estrogen. The estrogen participates in either a positive or negative feedback loop. LH causes ovulation (release of egg from the ovary) in the female; there is a large rise in levels of LH prior to ovulation due to positive feedback from estrogen; the secretion of estrogen from the follicle stimulates the release of even more LH. Estrogen causes the development of female secondary sexual characteristics and sustains the female reproductive track. A woman who lacks ovaries (and therefore follicles) will not produce estrogen. However, the pituitary gland will secrete excess LH because there is no mechanism to turn off the release of LH from the pituitary. Estrogen regulates the release of LH by negative feedback 4 during pre- and post-ovulatory phases. Excess levels of estrogen cause early sexual development in females. Where are each of the hormones produced? TRH ______________ TSH ______________ Testosterone _________ ACTH ______________ Cortisol ______________ LH ______________ T3 ______________ GnRH____________ FSH ______________ Experiment The data for this laboratory were compiled from seven sets of male laboratory rats, two rats per set; one set was the control group and the remaining six were experimental groups. The rats were ALL male in order to study the relationship between the reproductive and endocrine system. In each set of rats there was an “intact” and “castrated” rat. The castration involved removal of the testes to eliminate testosterone production. The two rats were treated alike in all other ways. All rats, except controls, were injected with a hormone on a daily basis for two weeks. Autopsies were preformed on the animals at that time. The group of physiology students performing this exercise were very disorganized and rushed through the work. They made errors in labeling the bottles of hormones. The students obtain the following results for organ weights after the autopsies were performed. It is your job to determine which hormones were given to which rats. The only hormones administered were ACTH, cortisol, LH, TRH, testosterone, and TSH. 5 Intact Castrated Control Group Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Group One Castrated Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Weight (mg) 12.9 250 480 40 450 387 N/A 270 grams 12.9 250 475 40 500 425 3200 300 grams Weight (mg) FSU BIO 100 Cell Membrane Elemental Dimethyl & Organic Mercuries Lab Report 12.9 250 150 95 410 380 N/A 195 grams 12.8 245 150 100 490 430 3000 200 grams 6 Group Two Castrated Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Group Three Castrated Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Weight (mg) 13 250 480 42 412 375 N/A 275 grams 13 250 480 40 900 800 5700 310 grams Weight (mg) 12.3 250 470 41 1200 800 N/A 370 grams 13.2 252 470 38 1400 900 3000 400 grams 7 Castrated Group Four Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Group Five Castrated Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Weight (mg) 25.7 495 420 32 450 375 N/A 144 grams 25 490 442 35 450 400 1650 160 grams Weight (mg) 12.9 247 240 32 440 380 N/A 135 grams 13 245 250 30 475 410 3200 150 grams 8 Group Six Castrated Notes: Intact Notes: Organ Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Pituitary Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Seminal vesicles Prostate Testes Body weight Weight (mg) 7.8 505 461 37 445 375 N/A 135 grams 8 500 455 37 480 800 1600 152grams 9 Table to compare the effect of hormones on the weights of different organs Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Thymus Testes Prostate Seminal Vesicles Body Weight Use ++ to indicate an increase , — to indicate decrease and NC to indicate no change. 10 Which hormone was injected into which group of rats? How did you decide this? Group one was injected with ________________ because Group two was injected with ________________ because Group three was injected with ________________ because Group four was injected with ________________ because Group five was injected with ________________ because Group six was injected with ________________ because Why do you think that TRH causes an increase in both thyroid and pituitary size and a decrease in body size? Why do you think the administration of LH causes changes in the intact rat but not the castrated rat? (Be specific) 11 …d to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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