Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time

Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time Hello, I need someone to write me a lab report about this experiment. This requires various equipment. You must be able do PERL programming. please pick the question if you can help. I have attached everything from notes to date and sample lab report in the bottom of this question. Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time attachment_1 attachment_2 attachment_3 attachment_4 attachment_5 42 Aero Camino, Goleta, CA 93117 Biopac Student Lab® Lesson 11 REACTION TIME I Procedure www.biopac.com II. Richard Pflanzer, Ph.D. Associate Professor Emeritus Indiana University School of Medicine Purdue University School of Science William McMullen Rev. 01152013 Vice President, BIOPAC Systems, Inc. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. Observe the effect of learning and the effect of anticipating the stimulus delivery on reaction time. Compare reaction times in four stimulus-response situations: a) Fixed interval stimulus presentation using the dominant hand for the response. b) Random interval stimulus presentation using the dominant hand for the response. c) Fixed interval stimulus presentation using the nondominant hand for the response. d) Random interval stimulus presentation using the nondominant hand for the response. 3. Compare the reaction times for groups of subjects by calculating the statistics of group mean, variance, and standard deviation in each of the four stimulus-response situations. III. MATERIALS ? BIOPAC Hand Switch (SS10L) ? BIOPAC Headphones (OUT1 or OUT1A*) ? Biopac Student Lab System: BSL 4 software, MP36 or MP35 hardware ? Computer System (Windows 8, 7, Vista, XP, Mac OS X 10.5 – 10.8) IV. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS A. SETUP FAST TRACK Setup Detailed Explanation of Setup Steps 1. Turn your computer ON. 2. Turn OFF MP36/35 unit. 3. Plug the equipment in as follows: Hand Switch (SS10L) — CH 1 Headphones (OUT1 or OUT1A*) — back of unit *OUT1A is compatible with MP36 only. 4. Turn ON the MP36/35 unit. 5. Start the BIOPAC Student Lab Program. Fig. 11.3 Equipment Connections 6. Choose lesson “L11 – Reaction Time I” and click OK. 7. Type in a unique filename and click OK. Start Biopac Student Lab by double-clicking the Desktop shortcut. No two people can have the same filename, so use a unique identifier, such as Subject’s nickname or student ID#. A folder will be created using the filename. This same filename can be used in other lessons to place the Subject’s data in a common folder. Setup continues… Page P-1 ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Page P-2 8. L11 – Reaction Time I Optional: Set Preferences. ? Choose File > Lesson Preferences. ? Select Headphone Volume. Biopac Student Lab 4 This lesson has an optional Preferences setting for headphone volume: Headphone Volume: Increase or decrease volume as desired. ? Set the desired volume and click Apply. Lesson Recordings: Specific recordings may be omitted based on END OF SETUP instructor’s preferences. B. CALIBRATION This calibration procedure will check that the headphones and SS10L are properly connected. Pay close attention to Calibration. FAST TRACK Calibration Detailed Explanation of Calibration Steps 1. Prepare the Subject for the calibration recording. ? Put headphones on. ? Get in a seated and relaxed position, with eyes closed. ? Hold hand switch in dominant hand, with thumb is ready to press the button. Fig. 11.4 2. Click Calibrate. 3. Subject must press hand switch button after click is heard, and then release. The click will be heard approximately four seconds into the recording. 4. Wait for Calibration to stop. Calibration lasts eight seconds. 5. Verify recording resembles example data. The switch response should be clearly seen near the middle of the screen. ? If similar, click Continue and proceed to Data Recording. ? If necessary, click Redo Calibration. Fig. 11.5 Example Calibration data END OF CALIBRATION If recording does not resemble Example Data… ? If no switch response is detected, check all connections. ? If the baseline signal is excessively noisy (greater than 5 mV peakto-peak,) there may be a computer grounding problem. Make sure the computer power cord and outlet uses all 3 prongs. If using a laptop, try disconnecting the power supply.Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time ? If no click was heard, check headphone connections and volume level. ? If the Calibrate button reappears in the window, the switch response was not detected. Check connections and repeat the calibration procedure, making sure to press the button firmly. ? If multiple responses are present, redo and be sure to press hand switch button only once during Calibration. ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. L11 – Reaction Time I Page P-3 C. DATA RECORDING FAST TRACK Recording 1. Prepare for the recordings. ? Subject is seated with eyes closed. ? Subject holds switch in dominant hand, with thumb ready to press the button. Detailed Explanation of Recording Steps Four data recordings will be acquired*, each requiring Subject to press the button (response) as soon as possible after hearing a click (stimulus): a. Recordings 1 and 3 present the stimuli at random (1 – 10 second) intervals, alternating between dominant and nondominant hand. b. Recordings 2 and 4 present the stimuli at fixed intervals (every 4 seconds,) alternating between dominant and nondominant hand. Notes: ? If the Subject is right-handed, the right hand is generally dominant; if the subject is left-handed, the left hand is generally dominant. ? This lesson measures reaction time, so pressing the hand switch immediately after a click is heard is important. ? This procedure assumes that all lesson recordings are enabled in Lesson Preferences, which may not be the case for your lab. Always match the recording title to the recording reference in the journal and disregard any references to excluded recordings. ? The reaction time summaries will be calculated and placed in the journal automatically at the end of the lesson. The software looks for one response per stimulus, and ignores responses that occur before the stimulus or more than one second after the stimulus. The threshold the program uses to calculate reaction time is 1.5 mV. ? DO NOT manually insert event markers during this lesson as this could cause incorrect reaction time calculations. Random interval – dominant hand 2. Click Record. 3. Subject must press hand switch button immediately after each click is heard, and then release. The recording will stop after ten clicks. 4. Wait for recording to stop. 5. Verify recording resembles example data. ? If similar, click Continue and proceed to the next recording. A pulse should be displayed after each event marker if the switch was pressed correctly. Use the horizontal scroll bar to look back on earlier portions of the recording. Fig. 11.6 Example Random interval data Recording continues… Page P-4 L11 – Reaction Time I ? If necessary, click Redo. ? If all required recordings have been completed, click Done. Biopac Student Lab 4 The data might be different for the following reasons: ? If data is flatline, check all connection to MP unit. ? The recording did not detect a switch response for each click. Make sure the switch is pressed firmly. You can miss some responses, but if you miss more than two, you should consider redoing the recording. ? The switch response (pulse) occurs before the event marker, indicating the Subject responded prematurely. If necessary, click Redo and repeat Steps 2 – 5. Note that once Redo is clicked, the most recent recording will be erased. Fixed interval – dominant hand 6. Prepare for the recording. ? Subject is seated with eyes closed. ? Subject holds switch in dominant hand, with thumb ready to press the button. 7. Click Record. 8. Press hand switch button immediately every time a click is heard. 9. Wait for recording to stop. The recording will stop after ten clicks. 10. Review the data on the screen. See details in Step 5. Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time ? If similar to Fig. 11.6, click Continue and proceed to the next recording. ? If necessary, click Redo. ? If all required recordings have been completed, click Done. If necessary, click Redo and repeat Steps 7 – 10. Note that once Redo is clicked, the most recent recording will be erased. Random interval –nondominant hand 11. Prepare for the recording. ? Subject is seated with eyes closed. ? Subject holds switch in nondominant hand, with thumb ready to press the button. 12. Click Record. 13. Press hand switch button immediately every time a click is heard. 14. Wait for recording to stop. 15. Review the data on the screen. See details in Step 5. ? If similar to Fig. 11.6, click Continue and proceed to the next recording. ? If necessary, click Redo. ? If all required recordings have been completed, click Done. If necessary, click Redo and repeat Steps 12 – 15. Note that once Redo is clicked, the most recent recording will be erased. Fixed interval – nondominant hand 16. Prepare for the recording. ? Subject is seated with eyes closed. ? Subject holds switch in nondominant hand, with thumb ready to press the button. 17. Click Record. Recording continues… ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. L11 – Reaction Time I Page P-5 18. Press hand switch button immediately every time click is heard. 19. Wait for recording to stop. 20. Verify a response follows each event marker. See details in Step 5. ? If similar to Fig. 11.6, click Continue and proceed to the optional recording section or click Done to end the lesson. ? If necessary, click Redo. If necessary, click Redo and repeat Steps 17 – 20. Note that once Redo is clicked, the most recent recording will be erased. OPTIONAL ACTIVE LEARNING PORTION With this lesson you may record additional data by clicking Continue following the last recording. Design an experiment to test or verify a scientific principle(s) related to topics covered in this lesson. Prior to recording additional data, choose the desired audio stimulus interval (random or fixed,) as shown on left. Design Your Experiment Use a separate sheet to detail your experiment design, and be sure to address these main points: A. Hypothesis Describe the scientific principle to be tested or verified. B. Materials List the materials you will use to complete your investigation. C. Method Describe the experimental procedure—be sure to number each step to make it easy to follow during recording. Run Your Experiment D. Set Up Set up the equipment and prepare the subject for your experiment. E. Record Use the Continue, Record and Suspend buttons to record as much data as necessary for your experiment. Click Done when you have completed all of the recordings required for your experiment. Analyze Your Experiment Set measurements relevant to your experiment and record the results in a Data Report. 21. Click Done. When Done is clicked, a dialog with options will be generated. Make a selection and click OK. If choosing the Record from another Subject option: ? Repeat Calibration Steps 1 – 3, and then proceed to Recording. END OF RECORDING Page P-6 V. L11 – Reaction Time I Biopac Student Lab 4 DATA ANALYSIS FAST TRACK Data Analysis 1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode. ? Note channel designation: Channel Displays CH 1 Hand Switch Detailed Explanation of Data Analysis Steps If entering Review Saved Data mode from the Startup dialog or Lessons menu, make sure to choose the correct file. Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time ? Note measurement box settings: Channel Measurement CH 1 Delta T Fig. 11.7 Example Data and journal The measurement boxes are above the marker region in the data window. Each measurement has three sections: channel number, measurement type, and result. The first two sections are pull-down menus that are activated when you click them. Brief definition of measurements: Delta T: Displays the amount of time in the selected area (the difference in time between the endpoints of the selected area). The “selected area” is the area selected by the I-Beam tool (including the endpoints). Note The Journal contains the reaction time summary. Use this to fill in your data report. 2. Set up your display window for optimal viewing of the first event marker and pulse of the first data recording (Fig. 11.8). Fig. 11.8 Zoomed in on First event marker and switch pulse Data Analysis continues… Note: The append event markers mark the beginning of each recording. Click on (activate) the event marker to display its label. Useful tools for changing view: Display menu: Autoscale Horizontal, Autoscale Waveforms, Zoom Back, Zoom Forward Scroll Bars: Time (Horizontal); Amplitude (Vertical) Cursor Tools: Zoom Tool Buttons: Show Grid, Hide Grid, -,+ ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. L11 – Reaction Time I 3. Select an area from the first event marker to the leading edge of the first pulse (Fig. 11.9) and note the Delta T measurement. ?A Page P-7 The first event marker indicates the start of the stimulus click. The leading edge of the pulse indicates when the button was first pressed. The threshold that the program uses to calculate reaction time is 1.5 mV. Fig. 11.9 Example reaction time measurement. 4. Look at the first reaction time result in the Journal and compare this to the Delta T measurement found above. The two measurements should be approximately the same. 5. Repeat the steps above on other pulses until you are convinced that the Journal readings are accurate. 6. Transfer your data from the Journal to the Data Report. ?B 7. Collect data from at least five other students in your class as needed to complete the Data Report. This step may not be necessary if your Instructor allows you to print out your Journal and staple it to the Data Report. Hint: Measurements and formulas can be pasted directly into the Journal Data Report table cells by right-clicking into the desired table cell and selecting the measurement from the contextual menu. (See below) ? C, D, E Fig. 11.10 Pasting measurements to Data Report Note that the Variance and Standard Deviation calculations in table E are optional and depend on the requirements of your instructor. 8. Save or Print the data file. 9. Quit the program. An electronically editable Data Report can be found in the journal (following the lesson summary,) or immediately following this Data Analysis section. Your instructor will recommend the preferred format for your lab. END OF DATA ANALYSIS ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time END OF LESSON 11 Complete the Lesson 11 Data Report that follows ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page P-8 L11 – Reaction Time I Biopac Student Lab 4 REACTION TIME DATA REPORT Student’s Name: Lab Section: Date: I. Data and Calculations Subject Profile Name: Height: Age: Gender: Male / Female Weight: A. Manual calculation of reaction time Calculate the reaction time for the first click in initial recording: Delta T = B. Summary of Subject’s Results (copy from the software Journal) Table 11.1 STIMULUS NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean REACTION TIMES (ms) Dominant Hand Nondominant Hand (Random) (Fixed interval) (Random) (Fixed interval) ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. L11 – Reaction Time I Page P-9 C. Comparison of reaction time to number of presentations Complete Table 11.2 with data from the first dominant hand fixed-interval trial and calculate the mean for each presentation to determine if reaction times vary as each Subject progresses through the series of stimulus events. Table 11.2 Comparison of Reaction Times Random Data (Dominant Hand) Student’s Name Stimulus 1 Stimulus 5 Stimulus 10 Fixed Interval Data (Dominant Hand) Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus 1 5 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculate the Means: D. Group Summary Complete Table 11.3 with the mean for 5 students and calculate the group mean. Table 11.3 Class Data Student Means Random trials Dominant Nondominant Hand Hand Fixed-interval trials Dominant Nondominant Hand Hand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculate the Group Means: E. Variance and Standard Deviation (Optional) Where n ? number of students Xj ? mean reaction time for each student X ? Group mean (constant for all students) n ? ? Sum of all student data j?1 Calculate the variance and standard deviation for 5 students with data from Random Trial 2 (Table 11.4) and from Fixed Interval Trial 2 (Table 11.5) Page P-10 L11 – Reaction Time I Biopac Student Lab 4 Table 11.4: Random Trial 2 Data (Nondominant hand) ENTER Mean Reaction time for Student ENTER CALCULATE CALCULATE Group Mean Deviation Deviation2 (X j ) (X) (X j – X) (X j – X) Student 2 1 2 3 4 5 Sum the data for all students = = Variance (?2) = Multiply by 0.25 = = Standard Deviation = Take the square root of the variance = = Table 11.5: Fixed Interval Trial 2 Data (Nondominant hand) ENTER Mean Reaction time for Student ENTER CALCULATE CALCULATE Group Mean Deviation Deviation2 (X j ) (X) (X j – X) (X j – X) Student 2 1 2 3 4 5 Sum the data for all students = = Variance (?2) = Multiply by 0.25 = = Standard Deviation = Take the square root of the variance = = Fund bimolecular end lab report over Reflexes and Reaction Time II. Questions F. What are the essential elements of a stimulus-response pathway? List them in correct sequence. G. Explain the difference between a voluntary reaction to a stimulus and a reflex response to a stimulus. H. Reaction time using a dominant, voluntary motor pathway is usually shorter than when using an equivalent nondominant pathway. Explain. ©BIOPAC Systems, Inc. I. L11 – Reaction Time I Reaction times associated with repetitive fixed interval stimuli in a given stimulus-response situation usually decrease over a short time period to some minimal value and then remain stable. Explain. III. OPTIONAL Active Learning Portion A. Hypothesis B. Materials C. Method D. Set Up E. Experimental Results End of Lesson 11 Data Report Page P-11 Reflexes & Reaction Time Ashwin Nair Reflex ? ? ? Involuntary action in response to a stimulus. Maintains homeostasis For example: touching a hot object ? hand withdrawal ? pain Reflexive actions occur over specific neural pathways called reflex arcs ? ? ? ? Neural pathways that control action reflexes Allow quick reflexes by activation of spinal motor neurons Brain receives input as reflex occurs Components ? ? ? ? ? Receptors Sensory neurons a.k.a. afferent neurons Integrating center (interneurons) Motor neurons a.k.a. efferent neurons Effectors Two types of reflex arcs • Autonomic (inner organs) • Somatic (muscles) http://gcuonline.georgian.edu/field_ps432_40/s pinal_reflex_arc.htm Types of Reflexes ? Monosynaptic (single synapse – junction between 2 nerve cells) ? ? ? Only one synapse (1 sensory & 1 motor) in the neural circuit is needed to complete the reflex. The tap below the knee causes the thigh muscle to stretch. Information is sent to the spinal cord, where it’s sent back to the muscle and we get a reflex. Types of Reflexes continued ? Polysynaptic (multiple synapses) ? ? ? More than one interneurons connect sensory & motor signals to complete the reflex. Almost all reflexes, except simple reflexes, are polysynaptic. For example, touch a hot object with your hand ? ? ? Interneuron synapses with motor neuron that sends a signal to biceps brachii muscle to withdraw Interneuron also synapses with inhibitory neuron that prevents triceps from contracting Interneuron also synapses with neurons to brain to enable formation of memory Reaction Time ? ? ? Time taken to react to a sensory stimulus Varies from person to person Some factors Mechanism of receptor function & sensory neuron stimulation ? Nerve fiber conduction velocities ? Mechanisms of synaptic transmission ? Reaction Time Experiment Types Luce, R. D. 1986. Response Times: Their Role in Inferring Elementary Mental Organization. Oxford University Press, New York. Welford, A. T. 1980. Choice reaction time: Basic concepts. In A. T. Welford (Ed.), Reaction Times. Academic Press, New York, pp. 73-128. ? ? ? Simple – 1 stimulus & 1 response – spot the dot, reaction to sound Recognition – some stimuli that sho … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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