Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary

Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Nature By: Ralph Waldo Emerson Chapter I from Nature, published as part of Nature; Addresses and Lectures To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men’s farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, — he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight.Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, — no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, — my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, — all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, — master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. http://www.emersoncentral.com/nature1.htm Henry David Thoreau (1817 – 1862) Nature O Nature! I do not aspire To be the highest in thy choir, To be a meteor in thy sky, Or comet that may range on high; Only a zephyr that may blow Among the reeds by the river low; Give me thy most privy place Where to run my airy race. Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary In some withdrawn, unpublic mead Let me sigh upon a reed, Or in the woods, with leafy din, Whisper the still evening in: Some still work give me to do, Only – be it near to you! For I’d rather be thy child And pupil, in the forest wild, Than be the king of men elsewhere, And most sovereign slave of care; To have one moment of thy dawn, Than share the city’s year forlorn. From “Life without Principle,” 1863 If a man walks in the woods for love of them half of each day, he is in danger of being regarded as a loafer. But if he spends his days as a speculator, shearing off those woods and making the earth bald before her time, he is deemed an industrious and enterprising citizen. whole valleys, for thirty miles, suddenly honeycombed by the pits of the miners, so that even hundreds are drowned in them, — standing in water, and covered with mud and clay, they work night and day, dying of exposure and disease. Having read this, and partly forgotten it, I was thinking, accidentally, of my own unsatisfactory life, doing as others do; and with that vision of the diggings still before me, I asked myself why I might not be washing some gold daily, though it were only the finest particles, — why I might not sink a shaft down to the gold within me, and work that mine. The rush to California, for instance, and the attitude, not merely of merchants, but of philosophers and prophets, so called, in relation to it, reflect the greatest disgrace on mankind. That so many are ready to live by luck, and so get the means of commanding the labor of others less lucky, without contributing any value to society! And that is called enterprise! I know of no more startling development of the immorality of trade, and all the common modes of getting a living. The philosophy and poetry and religion of such a mankind are not worth the dust of a puffball. The hog that gets his living by rooting, stirring up the soil so, would be ashamed of such company. If I could command the wealth of all the worlds by lifting my finger, I would not pay such a price for it. Even Mahomet knew that God did not make this world in jest. It makes God to be a moneyed gentleman who scatters a handful of pennies in order to see mankind scramble for them. The world’s raffle! A subsistence in the domains of Nature a thing to be raffled for! What a comment, what a satire, on our institutions! The conclusion will be, that mankind will hang itself upon a tree. And have all the precepts in all the Bibles taught men only this? and is the last and most admirable invention of the human race only an improved muck-rake? Is this the ground on which Orientals and Occidentals meet? Did God direct us so to get our living, digging where we never planted, — and He would, perchance, reward us with lumps of gold? Ethics and the Environment David Barzilai, Ph.D. Fair Use: This presentation is only a learning device It uses many sources and resources to help the learning process The Swallows of San Juan Capistrano The Swallows of San Juan Capistrano Back from winter vacation in Argentina by Gerry Brown They’re on their way.Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary The famous cliff swallows of San Juan Capistrano that leave town every year in a swirling mass near the Day of San Juan (October 23), are returning from their winter vacation spot 6,000 miles south in Goya, Corrientes, Argentina. They land at the mission in San Juan, California, on or around St. Joseph’s Day, March 19, to the ringing bells of the old church and a crowd of visitors from all over the world who are in town awaiting their arrival and celebrating with a huge fiesta as well as a parade. Wikipedia: “In recent years, the swallows have failed to return in large flocks to the Mission. Few birds were counted in the 1990s and 2000s. The reduction has been connected to increased development of the area…” Less places to nest and less insects to eat. “The mission has tried to lure them there using food and bird calls. Nothing has worked. Now, researchers hope a new approach might bring back these oncefamous residents: fake swallow nests. As far back as the beginning of the 1900s, these birds would fly up from Argentina and supposedly arrive at San Juan Capistrano in droves on March 19th, St Joseph’s Day”. See also: http://archive.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2009/03/25/another_year_with out_swallows/ A Question of Rights The story of the swallows is important also we consider the various form of new ethics concerning the environment, we consider the ways they confront the question of rights – who has them, on what basis, what kind, and so forth, as we consider the various definitions to the concept of “moral agent,” or “moral status” or “moral significance.” The swallows are a unique species with the unique capacity to travel 6,000 miles from Argentina and back. They have this unique capacity much like the dolphins and the human being has others, and thus the question rises if this uniqueness and these capacities provide moral status and protective rights. If so, what is the nature of these rights and how should they be given and secured and by whom??? What lesson it is for Us ? Human activates are affecting critically the life of other creatures on earth. And this is the case also with bees and many other wild animals. (CNN)Maybe you could stand to live in a world without honey. But what about almonds, pears, avocados, grapes and — dare we say — wine? Most plants rely on bees and other natural pollinators to produce some of nature’s most nutritious and beloved foods. Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary But pollinators, a diverse group that includes insects and animals such as birds and bats, are under threat because of widespread pesticide use, climate change, the emergence of foreign pests, diseases and habitat loss. Between April 2015 and April 2016, beekeepers in the United States lost 44 percent of their colonies and in the UK, beekeepers reported losses of almost 17 percent, according to the British Beekeepers Association. The Environment Planet earth is the home of humanity and as such it encompasses a complex of physical and biotic elements of the world, including earth, water, the air and the sky, as well as all the biological and vegetative organisms that reside in it. The focal point of Environmental Ethics is to address and exam the reciprocal interactions between humanity and the environment and the impact of one on the other, especially of humanity on the world in which we live. Consequently, using the ethical prism or yard stick, this approach aims to provide a normative evaluation of the actions and attitudes that were taken so far. Culminating with pointing towards the righter and more just course that should be taken. Many factors shape our worldviews • Religious and spiritual beliefs shape our worldview and perception of the environment • Political ideology: government’s role in protecting the environment • Shared cultural experiences if members of the community have lived through similar experiences Nature • The field of the environment is relatively new and was formed in the last century. Before that the reference was to NATURE. • Human beings related to the world and its elements since they were able to reflect and reason. • We can distinguish roughly several historical stages: • Nature in religious terms of the gods, God creation and the mystery of exitance • Nature in scientific terms of God creation and the discovering the Laws of Nature • Nature in social and economic terms of the “common” as the source of Property • Nature in political terms as the challenge of distributive justice • And today — Nature as our environment in terms of global responsibility Genesis I — The Anthropocentric View Nature as a mean to the Human End • 1:26God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 1:27God created man in his own image. In God’s image he created him; male and female he created them. 1:28God blessed them. God said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth, and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 1:29God said, “Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree, which bears fruit yielding seed. It will be your food. 1:30To every animal of the earth, and to every bird of the sky, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food.” And it was so. Genesis II – The Stewardship relationship View • 2:8Yahweh God planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed. 2:9Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 2:10A river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it was parted, and became four heads. 2:11The name of the first is Pishon: this is the one which flows through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 2:12and the gold of that land is good. There is aromatic resin and the onyx stone. 2:13The name of the second river is Gihon: the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush. 2:14The name of the third river is Hiddekel: this is the one which flows in front of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. 2:15Yahweh God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 2:16Yahweh God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: 2:17but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it: for in the day that you eat of it you will surely die.” • 2:18Yahweh God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him.” 2:19Out of the ground Yahweh God formed every animal of the field, and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. 2:20The man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every animal of the field; but for man there was not found a helper suitable for him.2:21 Traditional Chinese Concept of Nature • At the Metropolitan Museum of Art page it is written: • The natural world has long been conceived in Chinese thought as a self-generating, complex arrangement of elements that are continuously changing and interacting. Uniting these disparate elements is the Dao, or the Way. Dao is the dominant principle by which all things exist, but it is not understood as a causal or governing force. Chinese philosophy tends to focus on the relationships between the various elements in nature rather than on what makes or controls them. According to Daoist beliefs, man is a crucial component of the natural world and is advised to follow the flow of nature’s rhythms. Daoism also teaches that people should maintain a close relationship with nature for optimal moral and physical health. • Within this structure, each part of the universe is made up of complementary aspects known as yin and yang. Yin, which can be described as passive, dark, secretive, negative, weak, feminine, and cool, and yang, which is active, bright, revealed, positive, masculine, and hot, constantly interact and shift from one extreme to the other, giving rise to the rhythm of nature and unending change. Chief Seattle 1786 –1866 • All things share the same breath – the beast, the tree, the man… the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports. • Will you teach your children what we have taught our children? That the earth is our mother? What befalls the earth befalls all the sons of the earth. This we know: the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. All things are connected like the blood that unites us all. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. One thing we know: our god is also your god. The earth is precious to him and to harm the earth is to heap contempt on its creator. We and the Animal World • Farms have become factories and the animals raised in these factories are mere commodities. • As of 2000, only 30% of the 640,000 farms in the U.S. provided pasture for their animals. • All the rest are confined in CAFOs (Confined Animal Feeding Operations). Deliberate Indifference to Life • 9 billion animals killed each year for food in the U.S. alone. • Animals confined in spaces so small they often cannot turn around. • Stacked in cages by the hundreds of thousands. • In the last 15 minutes, 2.5 million animals have been slaughtered in the U.S., many of them in grotesquely painful ways. Der wienerschnitzel Confined for all their short life 16 weeks Dog as Food Cats as Food Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic • “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for Life Wrote in 1919 that life is good — destroying and obstructing life is bad. In 1963, he expanded on this, saying: “There we have given us that basic principle of the morality which is a necessity of thought. It is good to maintain and to encourage life; it is bad to destroy life or obstruct it.” The concept of “Ehrfurcht” — Awe to life Reverence for life is more an attitude that determines who we are than a rule for determining what we should do Ethics of character as virtue theory Peter Singer: Animal Liberation • Singer picks up on a comment by Bentham • Because animals are sentient, they should count in the utilitarian calculus ? … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary

Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Nature By: Ralph Waldo Emerson Chapter I from Nature, published as part of Nature; Addresses and Lectures To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men’s farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, — he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight.Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, — no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, — my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, — all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, — master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. http://www.emersoncentral.com/nature1.htm Henry David Thoreau (1817 – 1862) Nature O Nature! I do not aspire To be the highest in thy choir, To be a meteor in thy sky, Or comet that may range on high; Only a zephyr that may blow Among the reeds by the river low; Give me thy most privy place Where to run my airy race. Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary In some withdrawn, unpublic mead Let me sigh upon a reed, Or in the woods, with leafy din, Whisper the still evening in: Some still work give me to do, Only – be it near to you! For I’d rather be thy child And pupil, in the forest wild, Than be the king of men elsewhere, And most sovereign slave of care; To have one moment of thy dawn, Than share the city’s year forlorn. From “Life without Principle,” 1863 If a man walks in the woods for love of them half of each day, he is in danger of being regarded as a loafer. But if he spends his days as a speculator, shearing off those woods and making the earth bald before her time, he is deemed an industrious and enterprising citizen. whole valleys, for thirty miles, suddenly honeycombed by the pits of the miners, so that even hundreds are drowned in them, — standing in water, and covered with mud and clay, they work night and day, dying of exposure and disease. Having read this, and partly forgotten it, I was thinking, accidentally, of my own unsatisfactory life, doing as others do; and with that vision of the diggings still before me, I asked myself why I might not be washing some gold daily, though it were only the finest particles, — why I might not sink a shaft down to the gold within me, and work that mine. The rush to California, for instance, and the attitude, not merely of merchants, but of philosophers and prophets, so called, in relation to it, reflect the greatest disgrace on mankind. That so many are ready to live by luck, and so get the means of commanding the labor of others less lucky, without contributing any value to society! And that is called enterprise! I know of no more startling development of the immorality of trade, and all the common modes of getting a living. The philosophy and poetry and religion of such a mankind are not worth the dust of a puffball. The hog that gets his living by rooting, stirring up the soil so, would be ashamed of such company. If I could command the wealth of all the worlds by lifting my finger, I would not pay such a price for it. Even Mahomet knew that God did not make this world in jest. It makes God to be a moneyed gentleman who scatters a handful of pennies in order to see mankind scramble for them. The world’s raffle! A subsistence in the domains of Nature a thing to be raffled for! What a comment, what a satire, on our institutions! The conclusion will be, that mankind will hang itself upon a tree. And have all the precepts in all the Bibles taught men only this? and is the last and most admirable invention of the human race only an improved muck-rake? Is this the ground on which Orientals and Occidentals meet? Did God direct us so to get our living, digging where we never planted, — and He would, perchance, reward us with lumps of gold? Ethics and the Environment David Barzilai, Ph.D. Fair Use: This presentation is only a learning device It uses many sources and resources to help the learning process The Swallows of San Juan Capistrano The Swallows of San Juan Capistrano Back from winter vacation in Argentina by Gerry Brown They’re on their way.Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary The famous cliff swallows of San Juan Capistrano that leave town every year in a swirling mass near the Day of San Juan (October 23), are returning from their winter vacation spot 6,000 miles south in Goya, Corrientes, Argentina. They land at the mission in San Juan, California, on or around St. Joseph’s Day, March 19, to the ringing bells of the old church and a crowd of visitors from all over the world who are in town awaiting their arrival and celebrating with a huge fiesta as well as a parade. Wikipedia: “In recent years, the swallows have failed to return in large flocks to the Mission. Few birds were counted in the 1990s and 2000s. The reduction has been connected to increased development of the area…” Less places to nest and less insects to eat. “The mission has tried to lure them there using food and bird calls. Nothing has worked. Now, researchers hope a new approach might bring back these oncefamous residents: fake swallow nests. As far back as the beginning of the 1900s, these birds would fly up from Argentina and supposedly arrive at San Juan Capistrano in droves on March 19th, St Joseph’s Day”. See also: http://archive.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2009/03/25/another_year_with out_swallows/ A Question of Rights The story of the swallows is important also we consider the various form of new ethics concerning the environment, we consider the ways they confront the question of rights – who has them, on what basis, what kind, and so forth, as we consider the various definitions to the concept of “moral agent,” or “moral status” or “moral significance.” The swallows are a unique species with the unique capacity to travel 6,000 miles from Argentina and back. They have this unique capacity much like the dolphins and the human being has others, and thus the question rises if this uniqueness and these capacities provide moral status and protective rights. If so, what is the nature of these rights and how should they be given and secured and by whom??? What lesson it is for Us ? Human activates are affecting critically the life of other creatures on earth. And this is the case also with bees and many other wild animals. (CNN)Maybe you could stand to live in a world without honey. But what about almonds, pears, avocados, grapes and — dare we say — wine? Most plants rely on bees and other natural pollinators to produce some of nature’s most nutritious and beloved foods. Grossmont College The Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber Summary But pollinators, a diverse group that includes insects and animals such as birds and bats, are under threat because of widespread pesticide use, climate change, the emergence of foreign pests, diseases and habitat loss. Between April 2015 and April 2016, beekeepers in the United States lost 44 percent of their colonies and in the UK, beekeepers reported losses of almost 17 percent, according to the British Beekeepers Association. The Environment Planet earth is the home of humanity and as such it encompasses a complex of physical and biotic elements of the world, including earth, water, the air and the sky, as well as all the biological and vegetative organisms that reside in it. The focal point of Environmental Ethics is to address and exam the reciprocal interactions between humanity and the environment and the impact of one on the other, especially of humanity on the world in which we live. Consequently, using the ethical prism or yard stick, this approach aims to provide a normative evaluation of the actions and attitudes that were taken so far. Culminating with pointing towards the righter and more just course that should be taken. Many factors shape our worldviews • Religious and spiritual beliefs shape our worldview and perception of the environment • Political ideology: government’s role in protecting the environment • Shared cultural experiences if members of the community have lived through similar experiences Nature • The field of the environment is relatively new and was formed in the last century. Before that the reference was to NATURE. • Human beings related to the world and its elements since they were able to reflect and reason. • We can distinguish roughly several historical stages: • Nature in religious terms of the gods, God creation and the mystery of exitance • Nature in scientific terms of God creation and the discovering the Laws of Nature • Nature in social and economic terms of the “common” as the source of Property • Nature in political terms as the challenge of distributive justice • And today — Nature as our environment in terms of global responsibility Genesis I — The Anthropocentric View Nature as a mean to the Human End • 1:26God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 1:27God created man in his own image. In God’s image he created him; male and female he created them. 1:28God blessed them. God said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth, and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 1:29God said, “Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree, which bears fruit yielding seed. It will be your food. 1:30To every animal of the earth, and to every bird of the sky, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food.” And it was so. Genesis II – The Stewardship relationship View • 2:8Yahweh God planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed. 2:9Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 2:10A river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it was parted, and became four heads. 2:11The name of the first is Pishon: this is the one which flows through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 2:12and the gold of that land is good. There is aromatic resin and the onyx stone. 2:13The name of the second river is Gihon: the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush. 2:14The name of the third river is Hiddekel: this is the one which flows in front of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. 2:15Yahweh God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 2:16Yahweh God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat: 2:17but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it: for in the day that you eat of it you will surely die.” • 2:18Yahweh God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him.” 2:19Out of the ground Yahweh God formed every animal of the field, and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. 2:20The man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every animal of the field; but for man there was not found a helper suitable for him.2:21 Traditional Chinese Concept of Nature • At the Metropolitan Museum of Art page it is written: • The natural world has long been conceived in Chinese thought as a self-generating, complex arrangement of elements that are continuously changing and interacting. Uniting these disparate elements is the Dao, or the Way. Dao is the dominant principle by which all things exist, but it is not understood as a causal or governing force. Chinese philosophy tends to focus on the relationships between the various elements in nature rather than on what makes or controls them. According to Daoist beliefs, man is a crucial component of the natural world and is advised to follow the flow of nature’s rhythms. Daoism also teaches that people should maintain a close relationship with nature for optimal moral and physical health. • Within this structure, each part of the universe is made up of complementary aspects known as yin and yang. Yin, which can be described as passive, dark, secretive, negative, weak, feminine, and cool, and yang, which is active, bright, revealed, positive, masculine, and hot, constantly interact and shift from one extreme to the other, giving rise to the rhythm of nature and unending change. Chief Seattle 1786 –1866 • All things share the same breath – the beast, the tree, the man… the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports. • Will you teach your children what we have taught our children? That the earth is our mother? What befalls the earth befalls all the sons of the earth. This we know: the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. All things are connected like the blood that unites us all. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. One thing we know: our god is also your god. The earth is precious to him and to harm the earth is to heap contempt on its creator. We and the Animal World • Farms have become factories and the animals raised in these factories are mere commodities. • As of 2000, only 30% of the 640,000 farms in the U.S. provided pasture for their animals. • All the rest are confined in CAFOs (Confined Animal Feeding Operations). Deliberate Indifference to Life • 9 billion animals killed each year for food in the U.S. alone. • Animals confined in spaces so small they often cannot turn around. • Stacked in cages by the hundreds of thousands. • In the last 15 minutes, 2.5 million animals have been slaughtered in the U.S., many of them in grotesquely painful ways. Der wienerschnitzel Confined for all their short life 16 weeks Dog as Food Cats as Food Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic • “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for Life Wrote in 1919 that life is good — destroying and obstructing life is bad. In 1963, he expanded on this, saying: “There we have given us that basic principle of the morality which is a necessity of thought. It is good to maintain and to encourage life; it is bad to destroy life or obstruct it.” The concept of “Ehrfurcht” — Awe to life Reverence for life is more an attitude that determines who we are than a rule for determining what we should do Ethics of character as virtue theory Peter Singer: Animal Liberation • Singer picks up on a comment by Bentham • Because animals are sentient, they should count in the utilitarian calculus ? … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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