Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion

Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Using the attached article, answer the following 6 questions in a word document with a minimum of 150 words for EACH question and a maximum of t wo direct quotes. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion 1. According to the article, please identify how can conflict be beneficial to an organization? 2. In a substantive post, explain the meaning of conflict? 3. Identify the six essential skills for managing conflict and expound upon each area? 4. Identify the causes of conflict? 5. Explain the law of reciprocity? 6. If you were in leadership position, according to the article how would you build positive relationships? This will be turned in on turnitin.com. NO PLAGIARISM! perspectives_for_manager_six_____essential_skills_for_managers___3.pdf w w w.imd.ch N o .149 J u n e 2 0 0 7 SIX ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR MANAGING CONFLICT Are you afraid of con?ict? This is perfectly Organizations that encourage people normal! Instinctively, our brains tell us to raise dif?cult issues ?nd that doing that con?ict is dangerous, so our natural so leads to innovation, new goals and inclination is to do battle or run away. the changes needed to achieve them. However, fear of con?ict can turn leaders, This approach has been adopted by managers and employees into ‘psycho- many of the world’s largest multi- logical hostages’ who are paralyzed and nationals, as well as law enforcement unable to challenge others. agencies, humanitarian agencies and governments. The truth is that we can use well- George Kohlrieser managed con?ict to bring enormous Confronting con?ict does have risks, IMD Professor bene?ts to people and companies. In fact, con?ict management is often however. If not properly managed, and Organizational Behavior if the result is win-lose, the process one of the biggest drivers of change. can undermine teams and can damage Properly handled, it can help people mutual respect, alignment, engagement to be more innovative and can create and trust. However, there is every stronger bonds, build effective teams reason to believe that all con?icts can and improve performance. The key is result in win-win outcomes. of Leadership and to openly face an issue and negotiate a win-win outcome. One of the most extreme and violent manifestations of con?ict occurs when How can con?ict bene?t companies an individual or group is being physically and individuals? held hostage. In fact more than 95 percent of hostage incidents are resolved Typically, managers spend at least peacefully, with the hostages freed, 24% of their time managing con?ict, and the hostage-taker surrendering, according to a survey by the American accepting the consequences to come. Management Association. Does that We can all use the tactics that produce sound like a shocking waste? In fact, this extraordinary success rate to it is an opportunity – if con?ict is dealt defuse con?icts in our business and with constructively. personal lives. Con?icts are the lifeblood of high- What is con?ict? performing organizations. Disputes, points Con?ict manifests itself as a difference of view about strategy and imple- between two or more persons or groups mentation create energy, bring about characterized by tension, disagree- change, stimulate creativity and help ment, emotion or polarization, where form strongly bonded teams in full bonding is broken or lacking. The most alignment. important con?icts – the ones that, disagreements and diverse when managed well, lead to positive results situation and determines how we will act or react. in teams – are the ones in which people feel Most of us have heard about how successful personally invested in their positions or are athletes improve performance by visualizing win- bringing something of themselves as human ning and never losing sight of their goal.Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Another beings into the interaction. example is the way some executives improve their public speaking skills by imagining themselves Companies are increasingly diverse with a large captivating their audience. All high performers use number of interdependencies – and thus the their mind’s eye to focus on the bene?ts beyond the potential for many disagreements. As a manager, fear, the danger or potential pain. you are one voice among many. Your responsibility “Many leaders in con?ict situations are ‘hostages’ to their inner fears and other negative emotions and fail to see the opportunities in resolving them.” is likely to exceed your authority. You will inevitably The mind’s eye is a fundamental tool to create a be faced with con?ict: Dealing openly with it positive or negative result in managing con?ict. Our will usually improve your chances of achieving mind’s eye is shaped by experiences and choice, your goals. which determine the way we view the world and, ultimately, determine success or failure in dealing People create con?ict as a direct result of the with con?ict. Many leaders in con?ict situations are human bonding cycle, in which bonds are broken, ‘hostages’ to their inner fears and other negative resulting in loss, disappointment, frustration, pain emotions and fail to see the opportunities in and even grief – real or anticipated. However, if you resolving them. can understand how people deal with loss, you will have a better insight into the con?ict and how Research by the authors and Professors Chris to resolve it. It is very important to recognize how Neck and Charles Manz suggests that we can loss, disappointment, and even change can create change the way we perceive a situation by creating feelings of separation and pain, which can break an inner dialogue – telling ourselves to see some- the bond in working relationships. thing as an opportunity, not as an obstacle. It is a 1 case of changing the half-empty glass to one that Companies can cause people to suffer pain and is half full – seeing the ‘adversary’ as a potential other negative emotions every day – a missed ally and moving towards the threatening person to promotion, a poor performance review, the ending build a bond by focusing on common goals. of a successful project. When we suffer loss, we experience deep needs that may not be met, which Six essential skills for managing con?ict results in more con?ict. It is important to remem- effectively ber that con?icts starts when bonding ends. 1. Create and maintain a bond, even with your How to Manage Con?ict for High Performance ‘adversary’ The key to defusing con?ict is to form a bond, or Before we can manage con?ict, we must manage to re-bond, with the other party. We do not have to ourselves. In the face of con?ict, our natural reaction like someone to form a bond with him or her. We is either ?ght, ?ight or freeze. We can overcome only need a common goal. Treat the person as a this fear by mastering our emotions and our focus. friend, not an enemy, and base the relationship on Human beings exist in one of many ‘states’. A state is mutual respect, positive regard and co-operation. a combination of feelings, thoughts, physiology, and Leaders must learn to separate the person from behavior, and it largely determines how we act. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion We the problem, genuinely want to help the other party can change a ‘state’ from negative to positive, from and avoid negative responses to attacks or intense fear to courage, and do what is counterintuitive: go emotions. towards the person with whom we are in con?ict. 2. Establish a dialogue and negotiate A key tactic for doing this is to manage our focus At all times it’s important to keep the conversation in the mind’s eye, one of the brain’s most powerful relevant, stay focused on a positive outcome and mechanisms. It forms the way we view a particular remain aware of the common goal. It is imperative SIX ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR MANAGING CONFLICT to avoid being hostile or aggressive. The next transitory and super?cial, such as land, money, or stage is negotiation, in which we add bargaining a job; needs are more basic and not for bargaining, to the dialogue. Talking, dialogue and negotiation such as identity, security and respect. Many create genuine, engaging and productive two- con?icts appear to be about interests, when way transactions. We need to use energy from they are really about needs. The most con?ict- the body, emotions, intellect and the spirit. provoking losses have to do with needs, and those needs may connect to the deeper wounds people 3. “Put the ?sh on the table” have suffered in their life. Someone passed over This expression means, simply, raising a dif?cult for promotion, for example, may seem to be upset issue without being aggressive or hostile. The about the loss of extra money, when the real pain analogy comes from Sicily where the ?shermen, is caused by a loss of respect or loss of identity. who are strongly bonded, put their bloody catch on a large table to clean it together. They work through 5. Use the law of reciprocity the messy job and are rewarded by a great ?sh The law of reciprocity is the foundation of dinner at the end of the day. cooperation and collaboration. What you give out is likely to be what you get back. Humans If you leave a ?sh under the table it starts to rot and have a deeply hardwired pattern of reciprocity. smell. On the other hand, once an issue is raised, Researchers have recently discovered mirror we can work through the mess of sorting it out and neurons in the brain, suggesting that our limbic ?nd a mutually bene?cial outcome. The important system thing to remember is that we should not slap the empathy, re-creates the experience of others’ other party in the face with the ?sh! We should be intentions and feelings within ourselves. Mutual direct, engaging and respectful, always helping the exchange and internal adaptation allows two other person to ‘save face.’ individuals to become attuned and empathetic (emotional brain) that establishes to each other’s inner states. Hence a powerful In addition, timing is important. It would not be technique to master in any kind of dispute is to bene?cial to raise a dif?cult topic just as a senior empathize with the feelings and views of the other colleague is leaving to the airport. We can decide individual by managing what we express – both not to put the ?sh on the table as a tactic, but not verbally and non-verbally. This social awareness because we wish to avoid the con?ict. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Choosing the allows you to make the right concessions at the right time and the right circumstances are part of right time. Once you have made a concession, it an effective con?ict management strategy. is likely that the other party will respond in kind. Moreover, when you recognize a concession has 4. Understand what causes con?ict been made, reciprocate with one of your own. To be able to create a dialogue aimed at resolving the con?ict, we need to understand the root of 6. Build a positive relationship the disagreement. Among the common causes of Once a bond has been established, we must disagreement are differences over goals, interests nurture the relationship as well as pursue or values. There could be different perceptions of our goals. We need to balance reason and the problem, such as ‘It’s a quality control problem’ emotion, because emotions such as fear, anger, or ‘It’s a production problem’, and there may also frustration and even love may disrupt otherwise be different communication styles. Power, status, thoughtful actions. rivalry, insecurity, resistance to change and confusion about roles can also create con?icts. We need to understand each other’s point of Egotistical people, for example, leaders who view, regardless of whether we agree with it or manipulate others to build their own identities and not. The more effectively we communicate our self-importance often generate con?icts. differences and our areas of agreement, the better we will understand each other’s concerns It is crucial to determine whether a con?ict and improve our chances of reaching a mutually relates to interests or needs. Interests are more acceptable agreement. The deepest bonds “The more effectively we communicate our differences and our areas of agreement, the better we will understand each other’s concerns and improve our chances of reaching a mutually acceptable agreement.” are founded on what the eminent psychologist Carl Rogers called ‘unconditional positive regard’. We can all learn to communicate acceptance of the other person while saying no or disagreeing with a speci?c point or behavior. Feeling accepted, worthy and valued are basic psychological needs. And, as hostage negotiation demonstrates, it is more productive to persuade than to coerce. Conclusion Con?ict is everywhere. The good news is that con?ict can be extremely productive for companies and individuals and con?icting management skills can be learned. High performing leaders are effective at dealing with con?ict because they use the six essential skills. I have been negotiating with hostage-takers, many of them violent, for 30 years, and I have been taken hostage four times. I am convinced that even the most extreme con?icts can be resolved through bonding, dialogue and negotiation. This Perspective explains how leaders can encourage constructive con?ict to improve performance. It is based on «The Art of Con?ict Management», a chapter of the recently published and highly acclaimed book 2 «Hostage at the Table» , which applies hostage negotiation tactics to daily business challenges. 1 Chris P. Neck, Charles C. Manz, Journal of Organizational Behavior (1986-1998). Chichester: Dec 1992. Vol. 13, Iss 7, p. 681 2 George Kohlrieser, Hostage at the Table: How Leaders can Overcome Con?ict, In?uence Others, and Raise Performance (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006), p. 99-122. The Financial Times (2007) ranked IMD’s executive education programs 1st outside the USA and 3rd worldwide. IMD’s MBA was ranked 1st worldwide in the 2007 FT «Ranking of Rankings,» the combined global annual MBA rankings from Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Forbes and the Wall Street Journal. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written authorization © IMD, June 2007 Chemin de Bellerive 23 PO Box 915, CH-1001 Lausanne Switzerland central tel: +41 21 618 01 11 central fax: +41 21 618 07 07 [email protected] www.imd.ch … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion

Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Using the attached article, answer the following 6 questions in a word document with a minimum of 150 words for EACH question and a maximum of t wo direct quotes. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion 1. According to the article, please identify how can conflict be beneficial to an organization? 2. In a substantive post, explain the meaning of conflict? 3. Identify the six essential skills for managing conflict and expound upon each area? 4. Identify the causes of conflict? 5. Explain the law of reciprocity? 6. If you were in leadership position, according to the article how would you build positive relationships? This will be turned in on turnitin.com. NO PLAGIARISM! perspectives_for_manager_six_____essential_skills_for_managers___3.pdf w w w.imd.ch N o .149 J u n e 2 0 0 7 SIX ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR MANAGING CONFLICT Are you afraid of con?ict? This is perfectly Organizations that encourage people normal! Instinctively, our brains tell us to raise dif?cult issues ?nd that doing that con?ict is dangerous, so our natural so leads to innovation, new goals and inclination is to do battle or run away. the changes needed to achieve them. However, fear of con?ict can turn leaders, This approach has been adopted by managers and employees into ‘psycho- many of the world’s largest multi- logical hostages’ who are paralyzed and nationals, as well as law enforcement unable to challenge others. agencies, humanitarian agencies and governments. The truth is that we can use well- George Kohlrieser managed con?ict to bring enormous Confronting con?ict does have risks, IMD Professor bene?ts to people and companies. In fact, con?ict management is often however. If not properly managed, and Organizational Behavior if the result is win-lose, the process one of the biggest drivers of change. can undermine teams and can damage Properly handled, it can help people mutual respect, alignment, engagement to be more innovative and can create and trust. However, there is every stronger bonds, build effective teams reason to believe that all con?icts can and improve performance. The key is result in win-win outcomes. of Leadership and to openly face an issue and negotiate a win-win outcome. One of the most extreme and violent manifestations of con?ict occurs when How can con?ict bene?t companies an individual or group is being physically and individuals? held hostage. In fact more than 95 percent of hostage incidents are resolved Typically, managers spend at least peacefully, with the hostages freed, 24% of their time managing con?ict, and the hostage-taker surrendering, according to a survey by the American accepting the consequences to come. Management Association. Does that We can all use the tactics that produce sound like a shocking waste? In fact, this extraordinary success rate to it is an opportunity – if con?ict is dealt defuse con?icts in our business and with constructively. personal lives. Con?icts are the lifeblood of high- What is con?ict? performing organizations. Disputes, points Con?ict manifests itself as a difference of view about strategy and imple- between two or more persons or groups mentation create energy, bring about characterized by tension, disagree- change, stimulate creativity and help ment, emotion or polarization, where form strongly bonded teams in full bonding is broken or lacking. The most alignment. important con?icts – the ones that, disagreements and diverse when managed well, lead to positive results situation and determines how we will act or react. in teams – are the ones in which people feel Most of us have heard about how successful personally invested in their positions or are athletes improve performance by visualizing win- bringing something of themselves as human ning and never losing sight of their goal.Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Another beings into the interaction. example is the way some executives improve their public speaking skills by imagining themselves Companies are increasingly diverse with a large captivating their audience. All high performers use number of interdependencies – and thus the their mind’s eye to focus on the bene?ts beyond the potential for many disagreements. As a manager, fear, the danger or potential pain. you are one voice among many. Your responsibility “Many leaders in con?ict situations are ‘hostages’ to their inner fears and other negative emotions and fail to see the opportunities in resolving them.” is likely to exceed your authority. You will inevitably The mind’s eye is a fundamental tool to create a be faced with con?ict: Dealing openly with it positive or negative result in managing con?ict. Our will usually improve your chances of achieving mind’s eye is shaped by experiences and choice, your goals. which determine the way we view the world and, ultimately, determine success or failure in dealing People create con?ict as a direct result of the with con?ict. Many leaders in con?ict situations are human bonding cycle, in which bonds are broken, ‘hostages’ to their inner fears and other negative resulting in loss, disappointment, frustration, pain emotions and fail to see the opportunities in and even grief – real or anticipated. However, if you resolving them. can understand how people deal with loss, you will have a better insight into the con?ict and how Research by the authors and Professors Chris to resolve it. It is very important to recognize how Neck and Charles Manz suggests that we can loss, disappointment, and even change can create change the way we perceive a situation by creating feelings of separation and pain, which can break an inner dialogue – telling ourselves to see some- the bond in working relationships. thing as an opportunity, not as an obstacle. It is a 1 case of changing the half-empty glass to one that Companies can cause people to suffer pain and is half full – seeing the ‘adversary’ as a potential other negative emotions every day – a missed ally and moving towards the threatening person to promotion, a poor performance review, the ending build a bond by focusing on common goals. of a successful project. When we suffer loss, we experience deep needs that may not be met, which Six essential skills for managing con?ict results in more con?ict. It is important to remem- effectively ber that con?icts starts when bonding ends. 1. Create and maintain a bond, even with your How to Manage Con?ict for High Performance ‘adversary’ The key to defusing con?ict is to form a bond, or Before we can manage con?ict, we must manage to re-bond, with the other party. We do not have to ourselves. In the face of con?ict, our natural reaction like someone to form a bond with him or her. We is either ?ght, ?ight or freeze. We can overcome only need a common goal. Treat the person as a this fear by mastering our emotions and our focus. friend, not an enemy, and base the relationship on Human beings exist in one of many ‘states’. A state is mutual respect, positive regard and co-operation. a combination of feelings, thoughts, physiology, and Leaders must learn to separate the person from behavior, and it largely determines how we act. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion We the problem, genuinely want to help the other party can change a ‘state’ from negative to positive, from and avoid negative responses to attacks or intense fear to courage, and do what is counterintuitive: go emotions. towards the person with whom we are in con?ict. 2. Establish a dialogue and negotiate A key tactic for doing this is to manage our focus At all times it’s important to keep the conversation in the mind’s eye, one of the brain’s most powerful relevant, stay focused on a positive outcome and mechanisms. It forms the way we view a particular remain aware of the common goal. It is imperative SIX ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR MANAGING CONFLICT to avoid being hostile or aggressive. The next transitory and super?cial, such as land, money, or stage is negotiation, in which we add bargaining a job; needs are more basic and not for bargaining, to the dialogue. Talking, dialogue and negotiation such as identity, security and respect. Many create genuine, engaging and productive two- con?icts appear to be about interests, when way transactions. We need to use energy from they are really about needs. The most con?ict- the body, emotions, intellect and the spirit. provoking losses have to do with needs, and those needs may connect to the deeper wounds people 3. “Put the ?sh on the table” have suffered in their life. Someone passed over This expression means, simply, raising a dif?cult for promotion, for example, may seem to be upset issue without being aggressive or hostile. The about the loss of extra money, when the real pain analogy comes from Sicily where the ?shermen, is caused by a loss of respect or loss of identity. who are strongly bonded, put their bloody catch on a large table to clean it together. They work through 5. Use the law of reciprocity the messy job and are rewarded by a great ?sh The law of reciprocity is the foundation of dinner at the end of the day. cooperation and collaboration. What you give out is likely to be what you get back. Humans If you leave a ?sh under the table it starts to rot and have a deeply hardwired pattern of reciprocity. smell. On the other hand, once an issue is raised, Researchers have recently discovered mirror we can work through the mess of sorting it out and neurons in the brain, suggesting that our limbic ?nd a mutually bene?cial outcome. The important system thing to remember is that we should not slap the empathy, re-creates the experience of others’ other party in the face with the ?sh! We should be intentions and feelings within ourselves. Mutual direct, engaging and respectful, always helping the exchange and internal adaptation allows two other person to ‘save face.’ individuals to become attuned and empathetic (emotional brain) that establishes to each other’s inner states. Hence a powerful In addition, timing is important. It would not be technique to master in any kind of dispute is to bene?cial to raise a dif?cult topic just as a senior empathize with the feelings and views of the other colleague is leaving to the airport. We can decide individual by managing what we express – both not to put the ?sh on the table as a tactic, but not verbally and non-verbally. This social awareness because we wish to avoid the con?ict. Harvard University NUR 4827 Conflicts in Organizations Discussion Choosing the allows you to make the right concessions at the right time and the right circumstances are part of right time. Once you have made a concession, it an effective con?ict management strategy. is likely that the other party will respond in kind. Moreover, when you recognize a concession has 4. Understand what causes con?ict been made, reciprocate with one of your own. To be able to create a dialogue aimed at resolving the con?ict, we need to understand the root of 6. Build a positive relationship the disagreement. Among the common causes of Once a bond has been established, we must disagreement are differences over goals, interests nurture the relationship as well as pursue or values. There could be different perceptions of our goals. We need to balance reason and the problem, such as ‘It’s a quality control problem’ emotion, because emotions such as fear, anger, or ‘It’s a production problem’, and there may also frustration and even love may disrupt otherwise be different communication styles. Power, status, thoughtful actions. rivalry, insecurity, resistance to change and confusion about roles can also create con?icts. We need to understand each other’s point of Egotistical people, for example, leaders who view, regardless of whether we agree with it or manipulate others to build their own identities and not. The more effectively we communicate our self-importance often generate con?icts. differences and our areas of agreement, the better we will understand each other’s concerns It is crucial to determine whether a con?ict and improve our chances of reaching a mutually relates to interests or needs. Interests are more acceptable agreement. The deepest bonds “The more effectively we communicate our differences and our areas of agreement, the better we will understand each other’s concerns and improve our chances of reaching a mutually acceptable agreement.” are founded on what the eminent psychologist Carl Rogers called ‘unconditional positive regard’. We can all learn to communicate acceptance of the other person while saying no or disagreeing with a speci?c point or behavior. Feeling accepted, worthy and valued are basic psychological needs. And, as hostage negotiation demonstrates, it is more productive to persuade than to coerce. Conclusion Con?ict is everywhere. The good news is that con?ict can be extremely productive for companies and individuals and con?icting management skills can be learned. High performing leaders are effective at dealing with con?ict because they use the six essential skills. I have been negotiating with hostage-takers, many of them violent, for 30 years, and I have been taken hostage four times. I am convinced that even the most extreme con?icts can be resolved through bonding, dialogue and negotiation. This Perspective explains how leaders can encourage constructive con?ict to improve performance. It is based on «The Art of Con?ict Management», a chapter of the recently published and highly acclaimed book 2 «Hostage at the Table» , which applies hostage negotiation tactics to daily business challenges. 1 Chris P. Neck, Charles C. Manz, Journal of Organizational Behavior (1986-1998). Chichester: Dec 1992. Vol. 13, Iss 7, p. 681 2 George Kohlrieser, Hostage at the Table: How Leaders can Overcome Con?ict, In?uence Others, and Raise Performance (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006), p. 99-122. The Financial Times (2007) ranked IMD’s executive education programs 1st outside the USA and 3rd worldwide. IMD’s MBA was ranked 1st worldwide in the 2007 FT «Ranking of Rankings,» the combined global annual MBA rankings from Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Forbes and the Wall Street Journal. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written authorization © IMD, June 2007 Chemin de Bellerive 23 PO Box 915, CH-1001 Lausanne Switzerland central tel: +41 21 618 01 11 central fax: +41 21 618 07 07 [email protected] www.imd.ch … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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