Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435)

Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Journal Article Critique Paper. Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) This is a group assignment and only my part needs to be completed in at least 235 words. My part is under Team member Kera Evaluation on the Methodology: TEAM MEMBER _ Kera________ Comment on the sample size, sampling method, measures/data collection instrument and method used The article needed to complete the assignment is attached below attachment_1 attachment_2 Journal Article Critique Paper BSHS/435 Version 1 This assignment is due SUNDAY April 15 @ 11:59 pm Everyone needs to have their part in my FRIDAY noon. This submission deadline will allow enough time for compiling, proofing and any editing that is required before running through the plagiarism checker. Each person response must be a MINIMUM of 175 words Journal Article Critique Paper Read the following articles, available on your student website: • • “A Nurse’s Guide to the Critical Reading of Research “ “Step-by-Step Guide to Critiquing Research, Part 1: Quantitative Research” Select a peer-reviewed journal article about a quantitative research study related to human services management that is also related to the Research Proposal topic selected by your Learning Team. Make sure the article includes information on statistics. Article Suggestions 1. Protocol investigating the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of cognitivebehavioural therapy delivered remotely for unscheduled care users with health anxiety: randomised controlled trial. (Jennifer, Kera_________________) 2. The People with Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) trial: a pilot multicentre, single-blind randomised trial of group cognitive–behavioural therapy (Jackie, Michael, _____________________) Please submit your article selection and link to the article by Tuesday at 11:59 pm (pst) in the discussion post titled Article Suggestions, the article with the most support by team members will be used for this assignment. 3. Susan Suggested : Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder a case series – The article was attached to a post titled ARTICLES. Suggestions for the article Write a 1,050- to 1,400- word paper critiquing your chosen journal article. Include the following information in your summary and critique of the journal article: • A brief summary of what the research is about TEAM MEMBER _SUSAN E OLSON 1 Journal Article Critique Paper BSHS/435 Version 1 • Evaluate the Introduction/Literature Review. TEAM MEMBER JACQUELINE VASQUEZ__ o • Evaluation on the Methodology: TEAM MEMBER _ KERA________ o • Is the design appropriate to address the research question? Were the independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s) clearly identified? Identify the independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s). Evaluation of Descriptive Statistics: TEAM MEMBER MICHAEL________ o o • Comment on the sample size, sampling method, measures/data collection instrument and method used Evaluation of the Research Design: TEAM MEMBER JENNIFER________________ o o o • Comment on the statement of the research problem, question or hypothesis; organization, flow and content of the literature review; and rationale or importance of the study Identify and discuss the descriptive statistics used to describe the data. Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) Do you think the methods used to describe the data are appropriate and sufficient? Provide reasons for your response? Evaluation of Discussion/Conclusion: TEAM MEMBER_SUSAN E OLSON_ I will do this extra section, but I am requesting that each team member make some side notes regarding the answers to these questions when they are writing there section PLEASE o o Are there any limitations identified in the article? If so, discuss how they were addressed. Are the any ethical issues identified in the article? If so, discuss how they were addressed. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines; including a title page and a reference page (No abstract is necessary). 2 Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 17, 438–446 (2010) Published online 25 May 2010 in Wiley Online Library ( DOI: 10.1002/cpp.694 Practitioner Group Cognitive Report Behaviour Therapy for Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Anxiety or Mood Disorder: A Case Series Jonathan A. Weiss1* and Yona Lunsky2 1 Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Dual Diagnosis Program Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2 Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • As a group, adults with Asperger syndrome are at high risk for anxiety disorders and depression. • Cognitive behaviour therapy can be adapted to help adults with Asperger syndrome cope with anxiety or depression. • Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome may hold a number of advantages to individual therapy. Keywords: Group Psychotherapy, Asperger Syndrome, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Anxiety Disorders, Mood Disorders, Autism * Correspondence to: Jonathan A. Weiss, Department of Psychology, York University, Behavioural Science Building, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adults INTRODUCTION The rate of mood and anxiety problems is significantly higher in children (Kim, Szatmari, Bryson, Streiner, & Wilson, 2000; Meyer, Mundy, Vaughan Van Hecke, & Durocher, 2006), adolescents (Barnhill, 2001; Farrugia & Hudson, 2006; Shtayermman, 2007) and adults (Ghaziuddin, Weidmer-Mikhail & Ghaziuddin, 1998) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) compared with the general population or with matched comparison groups. Depression may be the most common psychiatric disorder found in people with autism (Ghaziuddin, Tsai, & Ghaziuddin, 1992; Tantam, 1988), and there has been some suggestion that higher functioning individuals may be particularly affected (Ghaziuddin, 2005; Wing, 1981). Few psychotherapy treatment studies for mood and anxiety disorders in people with AS and HFA have been published.Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) Most studies that have looked at non-medical treatments for people with AS or HFA have been designed to address associated symptoms of autism, such as impaired social skills, theory of mind or understanding of emotions (e.g., Solomon, Goodlin-Jones, & Anders, 2004), but have not focused on comorbid affective disorders. To date, two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of anxiety in individuals with AS exist, which have shown some effectiveness for children with AS or HFA and anxiety, compared with a wait-list control (Sofronoff, Attwood, & Hinton, 2005; Wood et al., 2009). Although case studies suggest that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can also benefit adults with AS (Cardaciotto & Herbert, 2004; Hare, 1997), no controlled investigations exist. As well, no RCT studies exist examining the effect of CBT for depression, which arguably is most needed given the high rate of mood problems in this population. Authors have called for more research on how to adapt CBT models to best meet the needs of individuals with AS (Anderson Table 1. & Morris, 2006). The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of a published and empirically supported manualized CBT treatment for mood and anxiety disorders, Mind Over Mood (Greenberger & Padesky, 1995), with adults with AS. METHOD Participants Participants were referred by community service agencies for individuals with autism spectrum disorders or through self-referral upon viewing online postings about the group on AS Websites. After a brief telephone screening, participants met with a researcher, and the study was explained in detail. All questions were answered prior to obtaining signed informed consent. Three adults with AS participated in the intervention and are presented here as a case series, out of six who were screened. One individual who was screened chose not to participate as a result of a scheduling conflict, and two others were deemed inappropriate due to either substance dependence or psychotic symptoms, both exclusionary criteria for the project. Participant information from the screening session is displayed in Table 1. All participants had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (as well as Anxiety Disorders), had a diagnosis of AS by a psychologist or physician, and had clinically significant AS symptoms as reflected in the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), described below (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Robinson, & Woodbury-Smith, 2005). The inclusion criteria included: 1. A diagnosis of AS by a physician or psychologist, as well as meeting the criteria for Asperger syndrome using the AAA (Baron-Cohen et al., Participant information at screening (pre-intervention) Participant Frank Shelli Jake 439 BDI-II BAI 19 18 37 15 24 35 SCID diagnoses Major Depression PTSD, Major Depression Panic with Agoraphobia, Major Depression Autism quotient Empathy quotient AAA score WASI IQ score 32 40 39 34 6 36 13 15 13 130 110 112 BDI-II = Beck Depression Inventory-II. BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory. SCID = Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV Text Revision. AAA = Adult Asperger Syndrome. WASI = Weschler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence. PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 17, 438–446 (2010) DOI: 10.1002/cpp 440 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. J. A. Weiss and Y. Lunsky 2005). The AAA is designed to identify HFA and AS in adults based on self-report and has good specificity and sensitivity. Aged 18–60 years. Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) IQ greater than 85, as assessed by the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Weschler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (The Psychological Corporation, 1999), designed for individuals 6–89 years of age. It takes approximately 30 minutes to administer and yields verbal IQ, performance IQ and fullscale IQ estimates. A DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of at least one anxiety disorder or of major depressive disorder, using the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IVTR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Patient Edition (SCID-I/P; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002). The SCID-I/P is a published semi-structured clinical interview designed to assess the presence of major DSM-IV-TR disorders. Psychometric studies consistently yield good reliability and validity statistics (First et al., 2002). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck & Steer, 1990) or of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). The BAI is a 21-item self-report questionnaire that lists symptoms of anxiety. The respondent is asked to rate how much each symptom has bothered him/her in the past week. The symptoms are rated on a four-point scale, ranging from 0 (not at all) to 3 (severely). The instrument has excellent internal consistency and high test–retest reliability (Beck & Steer, 1990). The BDI-II is a 21-item self-report instrument that assesses whether an individual is exhibiting symptoms of major depression according to the criteria outlined in the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). It has been shown to have very high internal consistency scores and has been well validated (Beck et al., 1996). The BAI and BDI-II were given to participants pre-intervention, prior to each session, and at 8-week follow-up. Desire to participate in group therapy as reflected in the Suitability for Short-Term Cognitive Therapy interview (SSTC; Safran, Segal, Shaw, & Vallis, 1990; Safran, Segal, Vallis, Shaw, & Samstag, 1993). The SSTC has been shown to have good reliability, and construct and predictive validity (Safran et al., 1993). Although the three participants demonstrated Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. difficulties with differentiation of emotions, acceptance of personal responsibility for change and alliance potential, they were all open to group treatment and showed a willingness to abide by group rules. CBT Intervention The CBT intervention was provided over 12 weekly 1-hour sessions, based on the structure and information provided in the Mind Over Mood workbook (Greenberger & Padesky, 1995) and Mind Over Mood Clinician’s Guide (Padesky & Greenberger, 1995). Each participant purchased a copy of the book and was assigned homework that included reading and completing a specific chapter after each session. Each session consisted of the same structure: Setting the Agenda, Checkin, Homework Review, New Content, Assigning Homework and Feedback. Table 2 outlines the general topics covered in each session, as well as some relevant notes for each participant. Case Studies Frank Frank, a single man in his mid-50s, was unemployed and lived alone. He excelled in academics, obtained a doctoral degree and had worked in academia prior to being unemployed. He had two brief psychiatric hospitalizations as a result of anger and disruptive behaviours. Frank had received a diagnosis of AS in his mid-40s. Frank met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder based on the SCID-I/P and described his mood at screening as ‘totally numb’ during his periods of depression. He felt like crying would help, but was not capable of crying easily. He felt like an ‘unperson, radically marginalized’ and ‘blue’. He showed chronic poor self-image and feelings of worthlessness. Frank successfully participated in the group treatment, attending all of the sessions and completing the assigned homework every week. As shown in Figure 1, Frank’s scores on the BDI-II did not show a linear reduction from the screening session, as we had originally hoped. In contrast, there was an increase from the first to the fifth session, which we attribute to Frank’s increased awareness and ability to consistently rate his mood and, specifically, his symptoms of depression. Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) At first, Frank’s ‘hot thoughts’ would elicit only feelings of anger towards himself (not measured on the BDI), even though the content was typically associated with Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 17, 438–446 (2010) DOI: 10.1002/cpp Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 17, 438–446 (2010) DOI: 10.1002/cpp CBT = cognitive behaviour therapy. Week 12: Termination and feedback Developed balanced throughts with help from others. Liked discussing the ‘five aspects of life experience’ (i.e., cognitive, behavioural, affective, physiological, situational). Became more comfortable with group but not enough to disclose own difficulities. Related situations to her emotional experience. Enjoyed the discussion and talking with others about emotion. Appreciated the concrete nature of the thought record and decided to develop a computerized version for herself. Learned ‘how to go deeper’ into thought records. Enjoyed learning that she was not the only one with specific problems. Was able to find alternative evidence. Shelli Enjoyed linking hot thoughts to evidence. Realized that the way he believes others may see him is subjective and ‘has to do with the way I think of myself’. Developing balanced thoughts were difficult: ‘The next panic attack I have will not be as bad as they have been and will not lead to a heart attack.’ Enjoyed getting help from others to find evidence against his hot thought and eliciting strengths. Struggled sharing thought record to group (emotionally draining) but enjoyed and hated it at the same time. Learned how to plan an experiment to increase his heart rate while at physiotherapy to test whether it will lead to a heart attack. Rated anxiety that was linked to being in public. Learned that he can have more than one feeling for a situation. Linked specific thoughts (of having a heart attack and that the group will never help) to his feelings of anxiety. Linked feelings of anxiety to specific situations. Learned that others also feel ‘alien’ and do not ‘belong on earth’. Liked hearing others talk about their experiences and learned that others have similar feelings as he does. Not comfortable in speaking. Jake Was in a ‘deep depression’ because of the Thought action plans were anniversary of his mother’s death. Liked useful and wanted more listening to others speak about their action help with them. One major plans. action plan was to obtain additional psychiatric help. Very positive group experience. Appreciated supportive relationships that developed in the group. Planning for future individual treatment; ‘next steps’. Handing out personalized cards. Tested belief that he was paralysed by depression. Positive results. Had a ‘breakthrough in interpersonal dynamics’ by working with other clients. Discussed goal of finding individual counselling with CBT component. Difficult task without therapist structure.Journal Article Critique Paper (BSHS/435) Liked that it had to be concrete, not abstract. Week 9: Behavioural experiments Weeks 10–11: Action plans Very difficult exercise, easier finding strengths in others. Realized that he does not need to make ‘enormous’ changes in his thinking to show progress. Examined the hot thought: ‘I am a failure.’ Realized that his thoughts can sometimes be inaccurate and misleading, and that he can examine the evidence to test them out. Enjoyed helping others explore evidence. Difference between anger and sadness, and that ‘insecure’ can be used to describe a feeling. Eliciting support from other group members, going back to library. Felt he had made progress in reaching the ‘core’ of his depression—problematic hot thoughts. Quickly understood the model and agreed with its logic. Enjoyed hearing others speak about their problems. Needed to talk of feelings to be more concrete. Very quiet at first, tentative to answer questions. Week 8: Explored strengths Week 3: Delineation of moods and rating Week 4: Situation/ activity mood monitoring/ introduced hot thoughts Weeks 5–7: Thoughts records, hot thoughts, examining the evidence and balanced thoughts Week 1: Group rules, orientation, therapy socialization, explanation of CBT group structure Week 2: Explanation of cognitive model Frank Therapy organization and participant content or experience General topics Table 2. Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adults 441 442 J. A. Weiss and Y. Lunsky developed a template for himself that would allow him to match his interests with therapist skill. As we elaborate in the discussion section, there are no specialized mental health-care services for adults with AS in Ontario. Shelli Figure 1. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores for each client Figure 2. client Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores for each feelings of sadness or shame (e.g., I am worthless). Through therapy, Frank began to uncover the feelings of depression that lay underneath his initial angry reactions. This recognition and shift in his affect may have contributed to a decrease in emotional reactivity and comorbid anxiety. As shown in Figure 2, Frank’s BAI scores showed an expected decrease across sessions, from a pre-intervention score of 15 to a final session score of 5 and an 8-week post-intervention score of 8. At follow-up, … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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