Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article

Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article List five (5) different Extrinsic (external) and Intrinsic (internal) motivation factors for each of the the four (4) categories (Job Content, Work environment, Leadership, and benefits) Use the table below to help organize your answers. Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article Categories Extrinsic (external) Intrinsic (internal) Job Content Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Work Environment 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Leadership 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Benefits 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Answer the following questions: The research in motivation in nurses suggest that excellent quality patient outcomes are possible when which condition exists? What types of employee characteristics can demotivators lead to? What is the term “organizational citizenship” related to and why is it so important in the employee’s role in motivation? Give a description of each of the three leadership styles? Why has the transformational leadership style of such importance when considering motivation in the workplace? How does empowerment fit into this aspect of ledadership? What is the difference between job satisfaction and motivation? Your paper should be: One – Two (1-2) pages Typed according to APA style for margins, formatting and spacing standards attachment_1 Motivation What makes you tick? By Debra Dunn, MSN, MBA, RN, CNOR M Motivation is a state of mind, an attitude, or a way of thinking that inspires individuals to go above and beyond rather than simply performing a job or task well.1 Being motivated also results in better work performance.2 Individuals are motivated by both extrinsic or intrinsic rewards. However, extrinsic rewards can only go so far. Without the internal component, a person’s level of motivation is not likely to last. Motivation is derived from internal urges—needs, desires, wishes, drives, ideas, and emotions—that prompt a person to action and result in specific behaviors.3 Although external stimuli can increase the level of motivation, it is the inner urge that actually motivates a person.4 Motivation is the driving force behind a person’s intensity, direction, and persistence toward attaining a goal.5 From a manager’s perspective, motivation results in the employee acting in a manner that helps achieve departmental and organizational aims. It is to the manager’s advantage to understand employees’ personal desires and needs and help them meet those needs while working better and more effectively. Motivation is very complex and can be difficult to understand when predicting behavior. First, 38 OR Nurse 2015 March Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. www.ORNurseJournal.com www.ORNurseJournal.com March OR Nurse 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Motivation: What makes you tick? motivation is highly situational: what motivates one person in one situation may not necessarily motivate that person in a different situation. Second, people react differently to the same motivational factors. Third, people may not even be aware of what motivates them, which happens when motivation occurs at the subconscious level. Finally, motivation can be positive with a strong level of commitment or negative such as when the person is motivated to do “just enough” to be adherent but is not very engaged.3,6 Although some individuals may be more motivated than others, everyone is motivated to some extent.6 Nurses focus on the delivery of effective and efficient patient care with excellent quality outcomes; however, these outcomes are directly related to a nurse’s willingness to apply knowledge and skills in his or her work. Research shows enhanced patient outcomes when employees are motivated to perform at their highest levels.5,7 Incentives: Extrinsic and intrinsic factors Understanding motivational factors is important to design systems with the correct incentives in place to encourage motivation.8 It is important to recognize that motivation is not the same as incentive. With incentives, the same input is expected to yield greater outputs. With motivation, more inputs are needed to change the outputs of work performance, an employee’s attitude, and behavior. Incentives are external in nature, while motivation is the expression of an individual’s inner, personal needs.3 Intrinsic motivation is an internal sense of satisfaction due to some sort of achievement, such as performing a job well. This internal desire or drive is expressed as behavior designed to accomplish a goal. Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article Extrinsic motivation is the same as intrinsic motivation except that the motivator is external to the individual. An example of a combined effect is when someone is recognized for a job well done (extrinsic), resulting in an increased sense of self-worth, selfesteem, and self-confidence (intrinsic). This symbiotic reaction increases the likelihood the employee will be willing to take on new challenges and contribute new ideas in the future. Extrinsic rewards can only go so far when they do not match an employee’s internal needs. For example, compensation is rarely the number one motivating factor that gets an individual out of bed in the morning to go to work.2 Creating a type of environment where employees can grow and contribute is more of a motivator than financial gain because most employees want to feel they are part of something bigger than themselves. They want to learn, evolve, and create new and exciting things in their workplace.1-3,9,10 The desire to excel on the job comes from within when an employee is internally incentivized to reach for a goal.2 Although external motivational forces have their benefits and should not be discounted, they are subject to each employee’s individual, intrinsic concerns, and the individual needs to “buy into” them for them to have a positive impact.2 Many employees rate motivating factors such as good working relationships with colleagues, training opportunities, and environmental factors (such as, good physical conditions) as more important than income.8 A review of 12 empirical studies of motivation found that seven major job characteristics were important determinants of motivation. These are the work itself, healthy relationships with others, workplace conditions, opportunities for personal development, pay/rewards, management practices, and organizational policies.8 Two other important factors include being given choices and being involved in decision making.9 Managers need to identify each employee’s intrinsic motivators and align these needs with the needs of the department. Managers are key people who can help their employees behave in ways that positively meet their personal, internal needs as well as perform at higher levels and work more effectively with others.2 (See Extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors.) Demotivators Demotivators decrease employees’ desires to contribute positively to the organization. Managers must find demotivators within their departments and work to eliminate them. If a demotivator is an employee who thrives on complaining, for example, the manager should allow that employee 5 minutes to air a grievance and then ask that person to suggest a solution. This moves the conversation away from the drama and toward the harmony of moving forward. Managers also can cause demotivation when they micromanage, play favorites, pass their work off to their staff, display coercive types of control, and are manipulative.2,3,6 Demotivation can lead to frustration, hostility, laziness, defensiveness, selfdoubt, judgment of others, inflexibility, misplaced 40 OR Nurse 2015 March Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. www.ORNurseJournal.com Extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors Job content characteristics External factors Internal factors • Challenging nature of the work • Skill variety–degree to which a job utilizes a mix of employee knowledge, skills, and abilities • Task identity–degree to which job involves completing a complete project versus a piece of work • Task significance–degree to which job makes a recognizable impact or contribution • Ability to provide quality care • Job enlargement–makes job structurally bigger; improves job horizontally • Opportunity to advance • Career development opportunities that cultivate skills (professional growth) • Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article Authority level • Level of job control–influence in planning work and reviewing results and setting standards for performance targets • Clearly defined nursing roles and responsibilities • Explicit in departmental or organizational goals • Constructive and objective system of performance appraisal and merit rating • Meaningful work (skill variety, task identity, and task significance) • Job enrichment (challenging job) • A sense that one’s expectations can be filled • Creativity opportunities • Decision making • Sense of control over work • Setting own goals • Job pride • Delegated authority • Sense of competence • Perceived increased work effectiveness Work environment • Well-defined and humanistic personnel policy where the workforce is valued and their needs and aspirations can be satisfied • Good working relationships • Teamwork • Adequate staffing • Culture that supports professional growth, leadership development, and mentorship • Enthusiastic and warm work environment where ideas and goals can be shared • Staff included on councils • Increased power and authority • Autonomy • Empowerment • Trusting • Positive reinforcement • Resources (tools, information, support) to perform the job • Pleasant physical conditions of environment • Safe and respectful work environment • Distributive justice • Job security • Sound and fair promotion and transfer policies • Well-planned, need-based training, and development programs • Strong interpersonal work relationships • Social acceptance • Positive interactions with physicians • Minimal perceived environmental turbulence • Set own work schedule and breaks • Feelings of accomplishment and making a difference; taking pride in work performed • Feel like valued member of team • Professionalism • Work-life balance with manageable and suitable workloads • Hardiness (resilience) — able to deal with turbulent work environment because see uncertainty in the environment as challenging, not threatening; ability to improvise and adapt to significant change (Continued) www.ORNurseJournal.com March OR Nurse 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Motivation: What makes you tick? Extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors (continued) Leadership • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Two-way communication that is respectful and open Be a good listener–appreciate what others have to say Maintain visibility Demonstrate trust and respect Show others that you value their perspectives– seek their opinions and ideas and implement them Show confidence in employee’s ability to perform at a high level Encourage participation in decision making Delegation of responsibility Help staff set ambitious goals and help them work toward these goals–extend people beyond their comfort zone Coaching, role modeling, mentorship Eliminate obstacles for employees to succeed Accurate, honest, and constructive feedback on work effectiveness; should be corrective but not punitive; also point out the positive and provide encouragement Honest praise; sincere compliments Good performance rewarded adequately Treat people consistently and fairly Shows concern for employee as an individual Provides rewards (bonuses, gift certificates, certificates of appreciation, thank-you notes, day off with pay, parking spot closest to facility for a month, articles in local paper or internal newsletter) • Sense of self-efficacy • Recognition of efforts when successful, or when attempted to improve effectiveness or productivity, or overcame an obstacle • Earned respect • Input is sought for decision making • Feel empowered • Autonomy–independence and freedom • Knowing what is expected to do the job (preparedness) •Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article Knowledge of results (feedback) Benefits • • • • • • Fair wages and salary administration Financial incentives Paid time off Medical and life insurance benefits Retirement pension Location of facility • Feel appreciated and rewarded financially Sources: http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/38773/1/unit-15.pdf; Bruce A. Manager’s Guide to Motivating Employees. 2nd ed. Madison, WI: McGraw-Hill; 2011; Callicutt D, Norman K, Smith L, Nichols A, Kring D. Building an engaged and certified nursing workforce. Nurs Clin North Am. 2011;46(1):81-87; Gambino KM. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding registered nurse retention. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66(11):2532-2541; Brady Germain P, Cummings GG. The influence of nursing leadership on nurse performance: a systematic literature review. J Nurs Manag. 2010;18(4):425-439; Hahn JJ, Butz KP, Gavin JG, Mills RS, Welter CJ. Recognizing professional and volunteer activities. AORN J. 2004;79(5):1006-1010; Lambrou P, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Hum Resour Health. 2010;8:26. http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/8/1/26; Llanos EB. Motivating co-workers. Advance for Nurses, Northeast. 2013;28-30; Mone E, Eisinger C, Guggenheim K, et al. Performance management at the wheel: driving employee engagement in organizations. J Bus Psychol. 2011;26:205-212; Newcomb P, Smith A, Webb P. Relationship of nurse job satisfaction to implementation of a nursing professional practice model. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research. http://www.resourcenter.net/images/SNRS/Files/SOJNR_articles2/Vol09Num03Art11.pdf; Peters DH, Chakraborty S, Mahapatra P, Steinhardt L. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states. Hum Resour Health. 2010;8(27):1-11; Shermont H, Krepcio D, Murphy JM. Career mapping: developing nurse leaders, reinvigorating careers. J Nurs Adm. 2009;39(10):432-437; Sledge S, Miles AK, van Sambeek MF. A comparison of employee job satisfaction in the service industry: do cultural and spirituality influences matter? Journal of Management Policy and Practice. 2011;12(4):126-145; Utriainen K, Kyngäs H. Hospital nurses’ job satisfaction: a literature review. J Nurs Manag. 2009;17(8):1002-1010. 42 OR Nurse 2015 March Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. www.ORNurseJournal.com priorities, absenteeism, poor staff retention, low productivity, and apathy.3 Managers can combat demotivation by holding regular staff meetings, soliciting feedback from employees, offering incentives, praising successful employees, celebrating victories, and showing concern about employees beyond the workplace. Multigenerational influences Multigenerational differences among employees need to be considered when discerning which extrinsic and intrinsic factors might be more likely to motivate certain people. Nurses raised in different generations may respond differently to extrinsic forces cultivated in the work area. Understanding these additional differences will help managers choose more appropriate actions to motivate employees. It is important to always take a closer look at where the individual “is coming from” based on their age-group, which can offer new ways to change attitudes and increase motivational levels.7 The employee’s role Thoughts and behaviors, which are derived from internal urges, result in actions to fulfill current or future personal goals or desires.Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article A sense of purpose results when an employee’s activities align with his or her values and beliefs. Employees should understand and attend to their internal forces in order to build on their motivation levels. The higher the need satisfied by an activity in the workplace, the greater the motivation will be to perform that activity.2,11 Nurses have their own internal working styles that drive them to achieve and satisfy personal desires. These motivational forces can be positive, neutral, or negative, which directly impact the level of success nurses will have within the healthcare facility. Positive internal motivational forces result in “organizational citizenship” where the nurse is results-oriented, believes the organization and the nurse are part of an integrated unit, and views his or her assigned tasks as a fundamental duty. Nurses who feel neutral may function at a subsistence level where they perform their required duties but only at a minimal level. These nurses survive in the organization but do not have any concern for longterm results. Finally, nurses who harbor negative beliefs about themselves, their capabilities, the people around them, or how things are viewed in the www.ORNurseJournal.com world will find their abilities to be successful to be stunted and limited.4,11 Nurses should participate in the creation of their workplace cultures by engaging in activities that enhance the work experience. Nurses are responsible to communicate professionally with their nurse leaders about what they need to complete their tasks efficiently and expertly.12 In other words, everyone has an inherent responsibility to make their work experiences better for themselves and for their patients. The manager’s role Managers should seek to understand what motivates each of their employees and then help them make the connection between those inner drives and the needs of the department.2 Nurses with greater internal needs for professional growth, for example, might demonstrate a more positive response to job enrichment than other nurses might.13 Nurses who view their work as a 9-to-5 job might be more enticed by financial rewards. One of the characteristics of a leader is the ability to influence the actions of others toward accomplishing specific goals. Before a manager can do this, however, he or she needs to be motivated. This internal desire within the manager ultimately will ignite the passion in the employees. Leadership Styles And Employees Motivation Article A manager’s attitudes, behaviors, and practices directly influence those of the employees. If a leader is not motivated, how can the staff be?2,3,14 Only when a leader understands his or her own internal motivation can he or she more readily understand the employees’ motivational forces and the best way to guide and motivate them.11 Employee motivation is of great concern to leaders, as it directly impacts human behavior and attitudes toward work. Just as employees have certain desires the organization is expected to satisfy, the organization also expects certain types of behaviors from employees. The task for the leader is to make the work more interesting, purposeful, and acceptable to employees so they perform it more enthusiastically and with a greater sense of responsibility. Leaders need to search for opportunities to create, develop, and improve processes and to enable others to act to feel competent and dedicated. Employees are motivated to do a job well when it helps them meet one or more of their personal needs, aims, objectives, and values. The challenge for managers is that different people have different March OR Nurse 2015 Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Motivation: What makes you tick? needs, and these needs change over time and according to the context of the situation.2,12 “There is no single magic wand to motivate employees, as their needs and priorities of satisfaction differ. What may motivate one may not motivate the other.”3 Managers can assist their nurses uncover their motivational forces to reach their highest level of performance and productivity. A first step is to ask the nurse what motivates him or her. If the answer lies buried, then the manager needs to get to know the nurse on a more personal level to learn these inner desires. This also can be accomplished by observing individual actions and behaviors and interpreting them in terms of some underlying motivation.3 Motivated managers see their role as facilitators, trainers, and coaches; they provide inspirational motivation through enthusiasm and challenge. These managers clearly articulate a vision, encourage the evolution of the individual and team spirit, and support goal achievement. Effective leaders develop and maintain a trusting and positive motivational climate so that nurses feel satisfied and motivated to consistently perform at their highest level of productivity. This is accomplished by understanding nurses’ desires, appealing to their sense of self-improvement and selfworth as human beings, and working to elevate their level of effectiveness to accomplish departmental goals. It is up to the manager to assist their nursing staff to connect their intrinsic motives to the organization’s goals.2 Employees will surprise their managers with their levels of motivation to perform high-quality p … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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