Meningitis Writing Prompt

Meningitis Writing Prompt ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Meningitis Writing Prompt 1. What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis? What diagnostic test is use to diagnosis the cause of meningitis and how many types of meningitis are there? What is the recommended treatment for each type? What is the new recommendation for meningitis vaccinations (how many total and what age)? Meningitis Writing Prompt Assignment Guidelines: • This assignment must be in APA format: Times Roman 12 font, double spaced, and include title and reference page. Meningitis Writing Prompt • Textbook and outside sources need to be referenced and cited in the paper – must be peer reviewed articles no more than 5 years old. Meningitis Writing Prompt • Essays at least 300 words attachment_1 Human Diseases A Systemic Approach eighth edition Mark Zelman, PhD Associate Professor Aurora University Aurora, Illinois Jill Raymond, PhD Professor Mesa Community College Mesa, Arizona Paul Holdaway, MA Professor William Rainey Harper College Palatine, Illinois Elaine Dafnis, PharmD, MS Consultant Medical and Scientific Affairs Chicago, Illinois Mary Lou Mulvihill, PhD Professor Emeritus William Rainey Harper College Palatine, Illinois Boston Amsterdam Delhi Columbus Cape Town Mexico City Indianapolis Dubai New York London São Paulo Sydney Madrid San Francisco Milan Hong Kong Munich Seoul Upper Saddle River Paris Montreal Toronto Singapore Taipei Tokyo Publisher: Julie Levin Alexander Publisher’s Assistant: Regina Bruno Product Manager: Marlene Pratt Program Manager: Jonathan Cheung Editorial Assistant: Natalya Praschak Director of Marketing: David Gessel Marketing Manager: Brittany Hammond Development Editor: Sandra Breuer Project Management Team Lead: Cindy Zonneveld Project Manager: Yagnesh Jani Art Director: Andrea Nix Text Designer: Maria Guglielmo-Walsh Cover/Interior Designer: Ilze Lemesis Cover Image: Sebastian Tomus/Shutterstock Digital Program Manager: Amy Peltier Lead Media Project Manager: Lorena Cerisano Full-Service Project Management: Rebecca Lazure Composition: Laserwords, Inc Printer/Binder: Courier/Kendallville Cover Printer: Lehigh Phoenix Text Font: ITC Bookman Std Light 10/12 Copyright © 2015, 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permission Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Notice: The author and the publisher of this book have taken care to make certain that the information given is correct and compatible with the standards generally accepted at the time of publication. Nevertheless, as new information becomes available, changes in treatment and in the use of equipment and procedures become necessary. The reader is advised to carefully consult the instruction and information material included in each piece of equipment or device before administration. Students are warned that the use of any techniques must be authorized by their medical advisor, where appropriate, in accordance with local laws and regulations. The publisher disclaims any liability, loss, injury, or damage incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of this book. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Zelman, Mark, author. Human diseases : a systemic approach. — Eighth edition / Mark Zelman, Jill Raymond, Elaine Tompary, Paul Holdaway, Mary Lou Mulvihill. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-13-342474-4 — ISBN 0-13-342474-X I. Raymond, Jill, author. II. Tompary, Elaine, author. III. Holdaway, Paul, author. IV. Mulvihill, Mary L.Meningitis Writing Prompt , author. V. Title. [DNLM: 1. Disease. 2. Clinical Medicine. QZ 140] RB111 616—dc23 2014011113 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-342474-X ISBN 13: 978-0-13-342474-4 Brief Contents Part I 1 2 3 4 5 Mechanisms of Disease Introduction to Disease 2 Immunity and Disease 14 Infectious Diseases Cancer 1 34 56 Heredity and Disease 70 Part II Diseases and Disorders of the Systems 6 Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System 88 7 8 9 Diseases and Disorders of the Blood 122 87 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory System 138 Diseases and Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System 166 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Diseases and Disorders of the Urinary System 198 17 Diseases and ?Disorders of the Integumentary System 380 Diseases and Disorders of the Reproductive System 220 Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System 262 Diseases and Disorders of the Nervous System 292 Diseases and Disorders of the Eye and Ear 320 Mental Disorders 338 Diseases and Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System 358 Appendices A. Glossary A-1 B. Diagnostic Procedures and Laboratory Tests C. Interactive Exercises A-29 D. Prevention Plus Suggested Answers A-41 Index A-21 I-1 iii Contents Transmission of Infectious Diseases Preface ix Reviewers x About the Authors Nosocomial Infections xi 37 37 Control of Infectious Diseases 38 Survey of Pathogenic Microorganisms Part I 1 Mechanisms of Disease 1 Introduction to Disease Learning Objectives Treatment of Infectious Disease Common Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Infectious Diseases 47 2 Resources Disease Concepts and Terminology 4 7 Risk Factors 8 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 8 4 50 Interactive Exercises 54 Cancer 56 Resources Introduction 11 58 Epidemiology Immunity and Disease Immunity 58 Tumor Formation 14 Naming Tumors 14 16 59 59 Known Risk Factors for Cancer 60 Signs and Symptoms of Cancer 61 Nonspecific Immunity 16 Etiology of Cancer 61 Specific Immunity Diagnosis of Cancer 62 17 Age and the Immune System 19 Grading and Staging Cancer 63 Diagnostic Testing Cancer Treatment Autoimmunity Allergy 19 20 Resources 29 Learning Objectives Introduction Heredity and Disease DNA and Chromosomes 32 Infectious Diseases 68 70 Learning Objectives 70 Diseases at a Glance 30 Interactive Exercises 5 65 67 Interactive Exercises Cancers of the Immune System 27 Resources 64 Cancer Prevention 23 Immune Deficiency 25 72 Transmission of Hereditary Diseases 34 34 36 Principles of Infectious Disease 36 iv Diseases at a Glance Learning Objectives 56 Learning Objectives 3 49 Treatment of Disease 11 Interactive Exercises 12 2 44 Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases 45 2 Causes of Disease 40 Abnormal Chromosome Diseases 74 76 Sex Anomalies 77 Genetic Counseling and Diagnosis 78 Congenital Disorders 79 Contents??L??v Resources 79 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Diseases at a Glance 80 Upper Respiratory Diseases 144 Interactive Exercises 84 Lower Respiratory Diseases 142 147 Age-Related Diseases 157 Resources Part II Diseases and Disorders of the Systems 87 6 Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System 88 9 Learning Objectives 88 111 Diseases at a Glance 112 177 Resources 124 125 125 Disorders of Hemostasis 130 Disorders of White Blood Cells 132 133 133 Diseases at a Glance 134 Interactive Exercises 136 8 Diseases of the Intestines 184 188 Age-Related Diseases 189 Anatomy and Physiology Review 124 Resources 174 Diseases of the Pancreas Learning Objectives 122 Age-Related Diseases 172 Diseases of the Gallbladder 187 Diseases and Disorders of the Blood 122 Anemia 171 Diseases of the Stomach Meningitis Writing Prompt Diseases of the Liver Interactive Exercises 120 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 170 Diseases Indicated by Stool Characteristics 183 111 Introduction Diseases and Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System 166 Diseases of the Esophagus Heart Disease in Infants and Children 107 7 164 Diseases of the Mouth 107 Resources Interactive Exercises Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Congestive Heart Failure 107 Age-Related Disease 158 Anatomy and Physiology Review 168 95 Cardiovascular Disease 95 Shock Diseases at a Glance Learning Objectives 166 Anatomy and Physiology Review 90 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 157 10 189 Diseases at a Glance 190 Interactive Exercises 196 Diseases and Disorders of the Urinary System 198 Learning Objectives 198 Anatomy and Physiology Review 200 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Acute Diseases and Disorders 200 202 Chronic Diseases and Disorders 207 Congenital Disorders 213 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory System 138 Age-Related Diseases 213 Learning Objectives 138 Diseases at a Glance 214 Anatomy and Physiology Review 140 Interactive Exercises 218 Resource 213 vi??L??Contents 11 Abnormalities in Secretion of Sex Hormones 282 Diseases and Disorders of the Reproductive System 220 Age-Related Diseases 282 Learning Objectives 220 Resources Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System 222 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 224 Diseases of the Female Reproductive System 224 13 Benign Conditions of the Breast 228 284 Interactive Exercises 290 Diseases and Disorders of the Nervous System 292 Anatomy and Physiology Review 294 Disorders of Pregnancy 234 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Female Age-Related Diseases 235 Brain and Spinal Cord Trauma Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System 236 Epilepsy Stroke Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 238 300 300 Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System 307 Sexually Transmitted Infections 241 248 Diseases at a Glance 250 Developmental and Congenital Disorders 310 Interactive Exercises??260 Brain Tumors Resources Learning Objectives 262 Thyroid Gland 267 313 Age-Related Diseases 313 Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System 262 Pituitary Gland 266 14 313 Diseases at a Glance 314 Interactive Exercises 318 Diseases and Disorders of the Eye and Ear 320 Parathyroid Glands 269 Learning Objectives 320 Adrenal Glands Anatomy and Physiology Review: the Eye 322 270 Endocrine Pancreas 271 Ovaries and Testes 271 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 271 Diseases of the Pituitary 272 Diseases of the Thyroid Gland 273 Diseases of the Parathyroid Gland 275 301 Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System 303 Male Age-Related Diseases 240 Anatomy and Physiology Review 264 297 297 Disorders of the Cranial Nerves Diseases of the Male Reproductive System 238 12 Diseases at a Glance Learning Objectives 292 Menstrual Disorders 231 Resources 283 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures: the Eye 322 Diseases and Disorders of the Eye 323 Anatomy and Physiology Review: the Ear 328 Diseases of the Adrenal Glands 276 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures: the Ear 328 Hyposecretion of the Pancreas 278 Diseases and Disorders of the Ear 328 Contents??L??vii Age-Related Diseases and Disorders 331 Diseases at a Glance 374 Diseases at a Glance 332 Interactive Exercises 378 Interactive Exercises 336 15 16 Mental Disorders 17 338 Diseases and Disorders of the Integumentary System 380 Learning Objectives 338 Learning Objectives 380 Introduction Anatomy and Physiology Review 382 340 Risk Factors 341 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 383 Meningitis Writing Prompt Early Warning Signs and Symptoms of Mental Disorders 341 Skin Lesions 384 Causes of Mental Disorders 341 Infectious Skin Diseases 384 Diagnosing Mental Disorders 342 Treating Mental Disorders 342 Hypersensitivity or Immune Disorders of the Skin 393 Specific Mental Disorders 342 Benign Tumors of Skin Age-Related Disorders 349 Skin Cancer 398 Resources Sebaceous Gland Disorders 401 Epidermoid Cysts 384 349 397 Diseases at a Glance 350 Pigment Disorders 401 Interactive Exercises 354 Skin Trauma and Injury 403 Age-Related Diseases 407 Diseases and Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System 358 Resources Diseases at a Glance 410 Learning Objectives 358 Interactive Exercises 418 Anatomy and Physiology Review 360 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures 361 Diseases of Bone 362 Diseases and Disorders of the Joints 366 Diseases of the Muscles 372 Age-Related Diseases Resources 373 372 409 Appendices A. Glossary A-1 B. Diagnostic Procedures and Laboratory Tests A-21 C. Interactive Exercises A-29 D. Prevention Plus Suggested Answers A-41 Index I-1 This page intentionally left blank Preface Welcome to the Eighth Edition The eighth edition of Human Diseases: A Systemic Approach has been thoroughly updated and revised for accuracy, organization, and currency. A complete set of multimedia ancillaries accompanies the text and provides a multimedia learning experience. Students and instructors will enjoy the text’s accessible and engaging approach to human diseases. Every chapter has been entirely rewritten for this edition. Organization The text remains organized in two parts. Part I, Mechanisms of Disease, introduces students to terminology, immunity and inflammation, inheri­ tance, cancer, and infectious diseases. Part II, Diseases of the Systems, discusses the major diseases of the body systems. Also returning is the popular Side by Side feature; Prevention Plus!; Diseases at a Glance charts; and Interactive Activities, including case studies and multiple-choice, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank exercises. New to the Eighth Edition • “Healthy Aging” feature.??Throughout the text, highlights practical information about aging and disease prevention. • “Promote Your Health” feature.??­Throughout the text, highlights useful information, tools, and behaviors that reduce the risk for selec­ ted diseases and disorders. • Consistent coverage of disease topics.??Through­ out the text, the authors attempted to include, for each disease, information on incidence, prevalence, risk factors, symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. • New chapter on Diseases and Disorders of the Special Senses.??This chapter expands and brings together in one place diseases and disorders of the eye and ear. • Resources/references.??Updated professional and credible resources have been included at the end of each chapter. Instructor’s Resource Manual This manual contains a wealth of material to help faculty plan and manage the human disease course. It includes lecture suggestions and content abstracts, learning objectives, a 693-­question test bank, and more for each chapter.Meningitis Writing Prompt Image Library A collection of 198 images is available for instructors to download for presentation purposes. This library encompasses each of the high-quality images contained in the text and may be used in any way that instructors wish. ix Reviewers James Allen, RN, BSN, MBA/HCM, JD Lansing Community College, Lansing, MI Dolly Horton, CMA, BS, MEd Asheville Buncombe Technical Community College, Asheville, NC Alice Macomber, RN, RMA, AHI, RPT, Florida BXMO, Continuing Education Provider for Florida Board of Nursing Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale, FL Michelle Mantooth, MSc, MLS(ASCP)CM, CG(ASCP)CM Trident Technical College, North Charleston, SC x Mary Prorok, RN MSN South Hills School of Business & Technology, State College, PA Amy Semenchuk, RN, BSN Rockerford Career College, Rockford, IL Lynn Slack, BS, CMA Kaplan Career Institute, Nashville, TN Linda Reeves, MD, FAAP Virginia College Online About the Authors Mark Zelman, PhD, is a Professor of B ­ iology at Aurora University in Aurora, Illinois. A native of Chicago, he received his PhD from the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Loyola University Chicago, where he developed a mouse model for human autoimmune disease. Dr. ­Zelman was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Chicago, where he studied molecular cell physiology pertaining to cell division and cancer. He has been a biology professor, a college administrator, and a medical writer. Dr. ­Zelman enjoys bird-watching and camping with his family and wears out quite a few sneakers running roads and trails. Mark dedicates the eighth edition of this book to his children. Jill Raymond, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Life Science at Mesa Community College in Mesa, Arizona, where she teaches microbiology. She received her PhD in Microbiology from the University of California at Davis and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of California at San Diego, where she studied the parasite Giardia lamblia. Dr. Raymond is proud to dedicate the eighth edition to her husband, Andy. Without his continual support and encouragement, this edition would have been almost insurmountable. Paul Holdaway, MA, a native Hoosier, is a graduate of Indiana State University and was an instructor there for two years. He is retired from the Biology Department at Harper College in Palatine, Illinois, where Dr. Mary Lou ­Mulvihill was an admired fellow biologist and friend. Holdaway takes pleasure in a wide range of biological and clinical interests, as well as sports and family activities. Elaine D ­ afnis, PharmD, MS, received her degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago. She taught courses in pharmacology, pathophysio­ logy, pharmacy law, and pharmaceutical calculations at William Rainey Harper College and the College of Lake County in Illinois. She has served as a mentor and preceptor for pharmacy students at the University of Illinois and Drake University. xi This page intentionally left blank Part I Mechanisms of Disease How do we define and describe ­disease? What causes disease? In Part I, we ­discuss the manifestations, terminology, diagnosis, and mechanisms of disease. Chapters 1. Introduction to Disease 2. Immunity and Disease 3. Infectious Diseases 4. Cancer 5. Heredity and Disease Chapter 1 Introduction to Disease Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to L Define basic terminology used in the study of human disease L Identify the major causes of disease L Identify risk factors related to disease L Describe how health promotion and disease prevention reduce the burden of disease Fact or Fiction? Plague does not occur in the United States. Fiction: Plague first reached the western United States around 1900. Meningitis Writing Prompt In recent decades, an average of seven human plague cases are reported each year in the United States. Plague is most common in the southwestern states, particularly New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. 2 A heart infusion agar culture growing ­colonies of Yersinia pestis bacteria. (Courtesy of the CDC/Dr. Brodsky, 1966) Disease Chronicle The Black Death, also known as the plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. The Black Death arrived in Europe in October 1347 when 12 Genoese trading ships docked at the Sicilian port of Messina. Most of the sailors aboard the ships were dead. Those still alive were gravely ill and were covered in mysterious black boils that oozed blood and pus. Over the next 5 years the Black Death killed approximately 25 million people or a third of Europe’s population. That is equivalent to killing everyone who lives in the 10 largest cities in the United States in only 5 years. In the 14th century there was no rational explanation for what happened. No one knew what caused the Black Death, how it was transmitted, or how to prevent or treat it. Today we know that plague is caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria, is usually transmitted to humans through fleas, and can be successfully treated with antibiotics. 3 4??L??Part I Mechanisms of Disease Disease Concepts and Terminology “From the bitterness of disease man learns the sweetness of health.” —Catalan proverb In this chapter you embark on the exciting and challenging study of human disease. This chapter of your journey introduces you to key terms and concepts that you will use throughout the text. We first consider the nature of health and disease. Health and Disease We all can recognize a state of health. Health is the condition in which the human body performs its vital functions normally. In health the body’s various organ systems function optimally and a person can participate fully in his or her life. 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