NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT

NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT Read the entire Capstone Project uploaded below and summarize it in a PowerPoint presentation at least 30 slides, APA Format. the PowerPoint should contain the same ideas as the capstone project. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT capstone_project.docx NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 1 Capstone Project Nurses’ gap between Knowledge and Practice in Pain Management with Patients in Physical Rehabilitation NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 2 Abstract Encompass Health Rehabilitation hospital provide care to patients that need intensive inpatient rehabilitation therapy. Such patients include those recovering from serious illnesses, injuries or surgeries, needing a high level of specialized care. Examples of varies conditions that may require care in a rehabilitation hospital include brain injury, spinal cord injury and stroke. Patients who are recovering from hip or knee replacement may also qualify for rehabilitation services. Most patients in rehabilitation therapy suffer from acute or chronic pain. Effective pain management is a way to assure a better quality of life and to prevent unnecessary hospital stay and complications. Nurses play a vital role in relieving patient pain through adequate assessment and proper treatment. The practicum course that I just completed, identified a gap between nurse’s knowledge and practice in pain management. Some nurses showed lack of knowledge in the pharmacological interventions as well as in non-pharmacological interventions to treat patients ‘pain. Furthermore, other barriers have been identified as contributors to ineffective pain management. This capstone project will explore in depth these factors and make recommendations on the best ways to provide effective pain management. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 3 Introduction Background One of the vital components of quality patient care is effective pain management, nurses play a key role in implementation of pain management. When nurses are equipped with the latest innovative skills, knowledge, and information, they are better placed to provide compassionate and safe care for patients after surgeries (Madenski, 2014). In modern day surgical practice, postoperative pain (POP) remains a global concern despite the fact that several preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative management strategies and interventions have been put in place to manage and reduce pain. Most patients still go through acute pain after surgery, less than half of these patients report adequate pain relief (Menlah, Garti, Amoo, Atakro, Amponsah, & Agyare, 2018). Nursing education today is evolving so as to meet the demands of technological advancement and healthcare that keep changing, when nurses have adequate knowledge on pain management, effective pain control for patients can be achieved. Nurses continually experience challenges when it comes to treating pain, this may be caused by their lack of knowledge regarding appropriate measures for pain management (Madenski, 2014). Nurses require effective attitudes, skills, and knowledge so as to address issues to do with pain and thus ensure the best quality of care for patients. An increased knowledge regarding the pain mechanism, assessment of pain effectively, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological management would lead to positive outcomes for patients. Some of the research conducted in the past has attributed lack of knowledge on pain management, communication gaps, organizational change issues, and NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 4 increased nursing workloads as the main barriers to effective pain management (Glowacki, 2015; Meissner, Coluzzi, Fletcher, Huygen, Morlion, Neugebauer, … & Pergolizzi, 2015).NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT It is important that patients’ pain is relieved within reasonable time frames due to the negative effects it has on clinical outcomes. When pain is not adequately controlled, it brings about negative effects on the patient’s function, functional recovery, and quality of life. Furthermore, it may also result in persistent pain and other postsurgical complications (Menlah et al, 2018). For instance, patients are likely to develop chronic pain syndromes, pneumonia, delayed healing, infections, or deep vein thrombosis from acute pain (Meissner et al, 2015). It is extremely important to decrease pain in order to ensure patient comfort and satisfaction. Patients continue to experience moderate or even severe pain after undergoing surgery (Aziato, & Adejumo, 2014). Nurses tend to underestimate the level of pain among patients, or may not believe that their patients are in pain, and are reluctant to administer prescribed narcotics dose because they fear patients may be addicted to the medication (Aziato & Adejumo, 2014). However it is important to note that ineffective management of postoperative pain has very negative impact on patients recovery. As a result, patients may remain admitted for longer periods of time, causing an inability of hospitals to admit more patients due to inadequate bed availability. The World Health Organization (2016) advocates for successful strategies of pain management to be developed and utilized by nurses in surgical units. Pain management should involve activities such as commitment, caring, appropriate assessment, therapeutic communication, adequate knowledge, the use of evidence-based approaches, and properly evaluating interventions together with other variable factors present such as cultural factors NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 5 (Menlah et al, 2018). The key priorities for improvement of pain management after surgery are: increasing patient involvement in making decisions regarding treatment options, this requires good communication between nurses and their patients; better professional training and education of nurses in charge of surgical patients so as to enhance their knowledge and skills and thus improve patient care; optimization of treatment; and employing organizational changes that are likely to provide benefits in pain management (Meissner et al, 2015). Improving postoperative pain management requires crucial changes involving nurses, patients and the organization in general. Patients need to be fully involved in their treatment procedure by being given all the information available regarding their treatment options, this makes up an important element of the patient-centered approach of treatment and pain management (Meissner et al, 2015). Nurses knowledge gap in pain management can be bridged by increasing awareness on pain medications among nurses involved in pain managing and by also having their skills regularly enhanced in the same area. A greater emphasis should be put on pain management during undergraduate and postgraduate training programs. Nurses should also be encouraged to take part in relevant Continuing Medical Education (CME); there should also be improved access to these courses to ensure that nurses are well equipped with knowledge and skills on pain management (Meissner et al, 2015). To achieve optimal pain management, there is a need to change nurses’ knowledge regarding pain management, beliefs, and attitudes. Nurses’ levels of knowledge together with their attitudes have an impact on the quality of care received by patients. The foundational knowledge of nurses concerning pain correlates with better patient satisfaction levels and outcomes, on the contrary, any deficiencies in pain management are linked directly to nurses passively participating in the assessment and NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 6 management of pain in patients (Kahsay, & Pitkäjärvi, 2019). By believing that patients exaggerate their reports on pain, nurses mistakenly underestimate the degree of suffering among patients (Kahsay, & Pitkäjärvi, 2019). In order to adequately manage patient suffering, it is important that nurses have a proper attitude and adequate knowledge concerning pain management.NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT Effective pain management is a universal and compelling requirement in provision of health care, despite the advancements that have been made in this field, adverse psychological and physiological effects of pain that is left unmanaged are substantially unresolved (Glowacki, 2015). Advanced treatments and research in improved protocols of practice have indicated improvements in managing postoperative pain, however, there is still little awareness on how effective best practices are. Making use of improved interventions is likely to enhance the perceptions and attitudes of patients regarding pain. A patient’s beliefs and understanding about pain is essential in influencing their reaction to pain therapies provided by nurses (Glowacki, 2015). Patients’ satisfaction, pain management, outcomes, and pain education can be greatly improved through the use of interdisciplinary teams for pain management (Leegaard et al, 2011). Significance Nurses have some knowledge on pain assessment and management in surgical units, however, their knowledge, in addition to being inadequate, is not used largely to effectively manage postoperative pain. This is partly due to resource constraints. This study intend to identify areas where there is inadequate knowledge on pain management and thus where there is need for additional training and resource provision in hospitals. The study identifies pain assessment tools that could be utilized by nurses in determining patient pain levels before NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 7 administering medication, these are essential in proper and effective management of postoperative pain (Mahama, & Ninnoni, 2019). Nurses who care for surgical patients need to be equipped with expertise in the use of advanced pain management techniques such as epidural analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, ad other pharmacological or non-pharmacological measures that can be used for pain management after surgical procedures (Aziato & Adejumo, 2014). It is evident from research that pain management strategies employed by surgical nurses are a clear indication that they are not always adequately knowledgeable in postoperative pain management (Aziato & Adejumo, 2014). It is therefore important that the knowledge gap is filled to ensure that quality care is provided to post-surgical patients. Optimal pain relief is largely dependent on the understanding and knowledge of pain among nurses, this includes consistent and systematic pain assessment and regular documentation and observation of pain among the patients. Justification In modern times, healthcare has become a business, patient satisfaction is therefore key to sustaining the business. Ineffective pain management is likely to negatively affect the health system. Accurate pain assessment is usually dependent on the ability of a patient to verbalize or describe their pain, for this reason, it is often challenging for nurses to assess and manage pain effectively (Menlah et al, 2018). In the process of their recovery, patients may also not be unable to describe their pain and it may be challenging for nurses to observe any other internal discomforts which may be experienced as a result of pain. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT Nurses should be trained on how to utilize effective therapeutic approaches and assessment tools for managing pain (Menlah et al, 2018). Some of the therapeutic approaches that can be used will be explored in this study. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 8 Purpose The purpose of this study is to recognize nurses’ gab in pain management and the learning needs for nurses to bridge that gap and identify the best way to provide effective pain management for patients after surgery. The goals of this capstone project are: 1) Assesses the nurses’ knowledge of pain management in physical rehabilitation. 2) Explore barriers that prevent nurses from providing effective pain management to patients in rehabilitation. 3) Make recommendation through an educational intervention on the best ways to provide adequate assessment and treatment of patients ‘pain. 4) Collect nurses’ evaluation of the educational intervention through a post-survey. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 9 Literature Review Pain management in patients remains a significant challenge for nurses. The main challenge which the past studies outlined as far as pain management revolves around the existence of a gap between the level of knowledge of nurses and practice which makes it hard to achieve maximum benefits in the long run. This section outlines the past findings and conclusions made by other experts. The literature analysis will help to outline some of the main factors responsible for the increased gap between knowledge and practice of nurses when it comes to pain management. Also, the literature will document the findings of the barriers responsible for achieving maximum pain management for patients. Finally, the literature analysis will document findings on the best approaches or tools that nurses may need to use to foster pain assessment and treatment for patients following surgery. Hence, to collect this information, this section will search various databases and online journals. The primary sources toe use include NCBI, and online, sagepub, PubMed Central, Imedpub and but not limited to BMC Nursing. These databases will offer a chance to retrieve the right articles which speak about the issues highlighted in the topic above and pain management. The role of these databases is that they form a foundation for documenting peer-reviewed and scholarly articles. On the same note, the study will use avenues such as ResearchGate and the internet to locate professional journals which will supplement the collected evidence about the topic in the context. Collecting the right articles will require the creation of a pillar and framework using keywords. The following keywords act as the ultimate guide to the collection of the right evidence e.g. pain management after surgery, tools for patient pain management, nurse gaps in pain management and challenges to pain management. The keywords were typed on the search engines of the respective databases and avenues to obtain the relevant literature articles. The NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 10 acceptance criteria of the articles followed the ability to provide data and findings which matched the three main areas of study which form the topic above. Searching the databases and sources yielded 20 valid and credible articles which the following explores outlining not only their content but also their role in supporting the project. Nurses’ Gaps between Knowledge and Practice in Pain Management According to a study completed by Aziato & Adejumo (2014), the healthcare sector offers a chance for the improvement and promotion of the wellbeing of the various populations. Nurses who exhibit the right knowledge and skills help in improving their abilities to deliver high-quality practices and services to patients. However, the industry reported a growing concern on the role of sufficient knowledge as well as skills on pain management aspects on the outcomes of patients. The witnessed gap creates a platform for reduced recovery trends, especially after surgery. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT he role that this article plays reflects on the idea that it forms a foundation for understanding the problem of the growing gap of knowledge and practice on pain management. Samara, Toba & Sa’ed (2018) supplement the findings of the previous study. This study claims that the lack of accurate knowledge of pain assessment and documentation may undermine the recovery and treatment of the affected patients. The study focuses on the collection of data about the knowledge and practices of practitioners using cancer pain management incidents in Palestine. This study offers an insight into the main challenges which failure of nurses to exhibit the right knowledge and skills may bring to patients requiring pain management. Similar, a study completed by Kahsay & Pitkäjärvi (2019) claims that pain management acts as a vital part of the healthcare sector. The importance of pain management reflects on the NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 11 idea that it helps in the improvement of recovery time for the affected patients. For instance, this study gathered research on the effectiveness of emergency nurses in managing pain based on the assessment of their level of knowledge and skills. The study concludes that emergency nurses in the selected setting exhibited reduced knowledge and skills about pain management at a mean score of 49.5%. The nurses who attained a bachelor’s degree exhibited a higher level of knowledge on pain management, exposing a gap that could be rectified through the use of sufficient training practices. Subsequently, the findings of this study rhyme with the conclusions made by Manwere, Chipfuwa, Mukwamba & Chironda (2015). According to this study, most registered nurses reported poor knowledge about pain management. This study shows that with the current trends, patients suffering from various sensitive conditions like cancer may not receive the required level of treatment and interventions due to poor knowledge and skills by the practitioners. Menlah et al. (2018) carried out a study that focused on the evaluation of the level of knowledge and skills which nurses in a selected Ghanian district exhibited. The motivation for the study came from the challenges witnessed in the country`s hospitals as well as the global industry on postoperative pain management. The study explored the perceptions of nurses through a cross-sectional survey on the issue of postoperative pain management. The study concluded that at least 48% of the respondents did not exhibit the required level of pain management knowledge. In addition, 97.6% of the respondents relied on the previous necessary skills of nursing in addressing pain problems. Similarly, Issa, Awajeh & Khraisat, (2017) carried out a study that sought to evaluate the abilities of nurses to exhibit the right knowledge and attitude about pain management in a critical NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT 12 care unit at a tertiary hospital. NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PAIN MANAGEMENT The study claims that the ICU nurses need to learn more about pain management, primarily based on the areas where they work. The study documented a reduced level of knowledge and skills in pain management of the nurses who worked in intensive care units, especially in the King Saud Medical City facility in Saudi Arabia. The findings documented in this context reflect the conclusions made by Ufashingabire, Nsereko, Njunwa & Brysiewicz (2016) carried out in Rwanda. The two studies showed that intensive care unit nurses in the associated facilities exhibited a reduced level of knowledge on pain management. Further, on the issue of pain management, Alkhatib, Al Qadire & Alshraideh (2019) evaluated the level of knowledge that nurses in seven medical facilities exhibited in the long run. The study obtained complementing results as the articles mentioned above. Out of the 56 physicians as well as 81 nurses included in the study, a mean of 45.26% and 50.6% reported poor knowledge about pain management when addressing various types of patients. This conclusion shows that there exists a gap in the level of knowledge and skills that the nurses and other practitioners exhibit on the issue of pain management. In this context, the studies above reflect on the determination of the gap which exists on the knowledge and practice abilities of practitioners in handling patients with various pain management challenges. Failing to consider the implications of this gap may undermine the abilities of the nurses to deliver the right and required level of assistance to the associated patients. A study completed by Advani et al. (2019) focused on the extension of the available knowledge about the gap witnessed among nurses in handling patient challenges. The aim of the study focused on the extension of the existing information to show that there exists a gap that requires immediate attention to reduce further suffering for patients. For instance, the study explored the level of NURSING CAPSTONE PROJECT PA … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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