Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion

Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion You see an advertisement for a special drink that is supposed to eliminate excess body fat while you sleep. According to the ad, this product helps you lose weight “fast” by increasing your metabolic rate; there is no need to eat less food or exercise more often. Explain why you think this ad is a source of reliable or unreliable health-related information. Towson HEED203 Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion attachment_1 Chapter 10 Body Weight and Its Management Overweight and Obesity • Conditions characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts of body fat • Result from a complex combination of biological, psychological, environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors • Obesity—a chronic metabolic disease that is extremely difficult to treat Overweight and Obesity • The majority of adult Americans have too much body fat. • Overweight and obesity are the most common nutritional disorders in the United States. • Often result from a combination of poor diet and lack of physical activity Overweight and Obesity • A healthy body is not fat-free. • Adipose cells store extra energy from food as triglyceride (fat). • As more excess energy is consumed, fat cells continue to store it as fat and increase in size. • Under certain conditions, more fat cells can develop. Defining Overweight and Obese • Height and weight tables are no longer used to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. • The body mass index (BMI) is used to determine if a person weighs too much. • BMI is a ratio of height to weight. – To calculate BMI, multiply weight (lbs) by 705; then divide the number by height in inches squared. Body Mass Index • BMIs less than 18.5 are in the underweight range. • BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 are considered healthy. • BMIs between 25.0 to 29.9 are within the overweight range. • BMIs over 30.0 are in the obese range. • BMIs of 40 or more are referred to as morbid, extreme, or super obese. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity • In the United States, the prevalence of excess body fat has reached epidemic proportions. – In 1980, almost 50% of adults were overweight or obese. – By 2012, 2 in 3 adults were too fat and more than 1 in 3 were obese. • American children are growing fatter, too. • The WHO recognizes obesity as a worldwide health problem (globesity). Health Risks • Overweight and obese people have higher than average risks of: – Osteoarthritis – Sleep apnea – Gallbladder disease – Carpal tunnel syndrome – Gout – Hypertension – Diabetes – Metabolic syndrome – Heart disease Health Risks • Certain cancers: – Colon – Breast (menopausal women) – Uterus – Kidney – Esophagus • Surgery is riskier • Breathing problems Health Risks • Fertility problems • Gestational diabetes, hypertension during pregnancy, and giving birth to babies with birth defects • Interference with daily activities like walking, carrying, kneeling, and stooping • Psychological depression, particularly among obese women The Caloric Cost of Living • The body expends 50% to 70% of calories to fuel vital metabolic activities, including: – Building and repairing tissues – Breathing – Circulating and filtering blood – Producing and transporting substances – Maintaining body temperature The Caloric Cost of Living • Factors that influence metabolic rate include: – Genetics – Hormones • Thyroid hormone – Proportion of muscle to fat – Gender – Age – Exercise The Caloric Cost of Living • Physical activity – Calories are needed to move skeletal muscles. • Number of calories used is influenced by: – Type of activity – Duration – Intensity – Size of person Energy for Physical Activities • The amount of energy needed for physical activity depends on the activity, its duration, and intensity. • Physical activities include: – Sport types of exercise – Movement for daily living – Spontaneous muscular movement Energy for Physical Activities Towson HEED203 Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion • Health experts recommend that adults perform at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily. • Each day, the typical American expends more energy for physical activities associated with daily living than for sport types of activities. Caloric Cost of Living: TEF • Energy expended for physical activity and vital energy needs require about 90% of body’s energy use. • After eating a meal, the body needs a small amount of energy to digest, absorb, and process nutrients from food. • Thermic effect of food (TEF) accounts for less than 10% of total energy needs. Energy Balance • When: – Caloric intake equals caloric output, weight is maintained. – Caloric intake is more than caloric output, weight gain occurs. – Caloric intake is less than caloric output, weight loss occurs. • One pound of fat represents about 3,500 calories. Body Composition • Healthy adults consist of: – About 60% water – 6% to 22% protein – 3% minerals – Remaining weight is mostly fat • Body fat for healthy adults – About one-half of an average person’s fat is subcutaneous. – “Cellulite” does not exist; it is the same as other fat. Estimating Body Fat • Hydrostatic weighing (underwater) – Very reliable but not practical or convenient • Bioelectrical impedance – Uses electrical currents to estimate percentage of fat – Small device needed but can provide accurate estimate • Air-displacement plethysmography – Uses a special chamber (BOD POD) to measure a person’s body volume Estimating Body Fat • Near-infrared interactance (“infrared”) – Infrared light is used to estimate percentage of fat (through biceps muscle of upper arm) – Often underestimates • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) – Measures fat and bone density – Accurate, but expensive – Requires X-ray technician to perform measurement Estimating Body Fat • Skinfold thicknesses – “Pinch an inch” method – Practical and less costly than above methods – Reliability of measurements can be questionable • Waist circumference – Determines distribution of fat in abdominal area – Need flexible measuring tape Estimating Body Fat • Distribution of fat is a more important risk factor than percentage of fat. – “Apple-shapes” • More fat in the central part of body than below waist • Greater risk of serious health problems – “Pear-shapes” • Have excess body fat below waist • Lower risk of serious health problems than when fat is centrally located Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences • Genetics – Genes code for: • Body frame • Fat distribution • Hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism – Some people have “thrifty metabolisms” that tend to conserve energy as fat. Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences • According to the set point theory, the level of body fat is genetically preset. • Hunger is the physiological drive to seek and eat food. • Appetite is the psychological desire to eat specific foods. • Satiety is the feeling that enough food has been eaten to relieve hunger and turn off appetite. Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences • The digestive system, brain, and fat cells play important roles in controlling hunger and satiety. • The composition of the diet can affect body weight. – Excess calories from carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol can result in weight gain. • A high-fat diet is associated with overeating and gaining body fat. Causes of Obesity: Other Influences • A variety of environmental, social, and psychological factors promote overeating. – Portion sizes have increased. Towson HEED203 Nutrition and Weight Management Discussion – Certain types of restaurants encourage overeating. • Fast food and family-style restaurants often promote “super-sized” portions as bargains. – Advertising makes food look more appealing. Causes of Obesity: Other Influences – Food availability and convenience, e.g., pizza delivery 24 hours a day – Tendency to overeat during holidays and family gatherings – Sedentary lifestyles – Moods Weight Management • Balance food intake with energy expenditure. • Avoid fad diets. – Usually result in temporary weight loss – Promote gimmicks – Often are nutritionally inadequate – Fasting may be dangerous • Increase physical activity. • Change eating and physical activity habits for life. Role of Physical Activity • Daily exercise helps people lose or maintain weight. • Exercise for at least 30 minutes per day. • Physical activities such as walking, jogging, biking, swimming are recommended; choose enjoyable ones. • People over age 40 should obtain approval of personal physician before beginning a vigorous exercise program. Other Methods of Weight Control • Surgical methods – Gastric bypass – Liposuction • Medications – Appetite suppressants – Fat absorption reduction (small intestine) Successful Weight Loss Strategies • Sensible and safe weight loss plans – Medically and nutritionally sound – Include practical ways to engage in physical activity – Adaptable to psychological and social needs – Can be followed for a lifetime Successful Weight Loss Strategies • Set realistic weight loss goals. • Emphasize behavior modification. – Eat nutritiously as well as develop physical activity habits. • Follow the MyPlate guidelines. • Engage in at least 30 minutes of physical activity daily. • Seek family or other forms of social support. • Include long-term plan for maintaining new weight. Weight Gain • To gain weight by increasing lean tissue – Need at least 700–1,000 additional calories per day – Eat three meals per day plus snacks. – No more than 30% calories from fat • Perform muscle-building exercise. • Maintain effort over long term. Across the Life Span • Average weight gain during pregnancy is 25 to 35 pounds. – Underweight women can gain more weight; overweight women can gain a few pounds less than average, but they should gain at least 20 pounds. • Food restriction and weight loss may be hazardous to developing fetus. • Lose weight before or after pregnancy. Across the Life Span • Low-calorie or fat-restricted diets are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. • Overweight children need more physical activity. – Limit time spent engaging in sedentary activities. • Contrary to conventional wisdom, elderly persons may enjoy good health and live longer by being overweight and even obese. – Serve as energy source – Can protect from serious internal injuries in the event of a fall … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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